The Buffalo nickel or Indian Head nickel is a copper-nickel five-cent piece, struck by the United States Mint from 1913 to 1938. It was designed by sculptor James Earle Fraser; as part of a drive to beautify the coinage, five denominations of US coins had received new designs between 1907 and 1909. In 1911, Taft administration officials decided to replace Charles E. Barber's Liberty Head design for the nickel, commissioned Fraser to do the work, they were impressed by Fraser's designs showing an American bison. The designs were approved in 1912, but were delayed several months because of objections from the Hobbs Manufacturing Company, which made mechanisms to detect slugs in nickel-operated machines; the company was not satisfied by changes made in the coin by Fraser, in February 1913, Treasury Secretary Franklin MacVeagh decided to issue the coins despite the objections. Despite attempts by the Mint to adjust the design, the coins proved to strike indistinctly, to be subject to wear—the dates were worn away in circulation.
In 1938, after the expiration of the minimum 25-year period during which the design could not be replaced without congressional authorization, it was replaced by the Jefferson nickel, designed by Felix Schlag. Fraser's design is admired today, has been used on commemorative coins and the gold American Buffalo series. In 1883, the Liberty Head nickel was issued. After the coin was released, it was modified to add the word "CENTS" to the reverse because the similarity in size with the half eagle allowed criminals to gild the new nickels and pass them as five dollar coins. An Act of Congress, passed into law on September 26, 1890 required that coinage designs not be changed until they had been in use 25 years, unless Congress authorized the change; the act made silver dollar exceptions to the twenty-five year rule. However, the Mint continued to strike the Liberty Head nickel in large numbers through the first decade of the 20th century. President Theodore Roosevelt in 1904 expressed his dissatisfaction with the artistic state of the American coinage, hoped to hire sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens to redesign all the coins.
Constrained by the 1890 act, the Mint only hired Saint-Gaudens to redesign the cent and the four gold pieces. Saint-Gaudens, before his 1907 death, designed the eagle and double eagle, which entered circulation that year. By that time, the Liberty Head nickel had been in circulation for more than 25 years, was eligible for redesign regardless of the special provision. In 1909, Mint Director Frank Leach instructed Barber to make pattern coins for new nickels. Most of these coins featured George Washington; the press found out about the pieces, speculated they would be released into circulation by the end of the year. The Mint received orders from banks in anticipation of the "Washington nickel". However, the project was discontinued when Leach left office on November 1, 1909, to be replaced by Abram Andrew. Andrew was dissatisfied with the just-issued Lincoln cent, considered seeking congressional authorization to replace the cent with a design by sculptor James Earle Fraser. While the change in the cent did not occur, according to numismatic historian Roger Burdette, "Fraser's enthusiasm led to adoption of the Buffalo nickel in December 1912".
On May 4, 1911, Eames MacVeagh, son of Treasury Secretary Franklin MacVeagh wrote to his father: A little matter that seems to have been overlooked by all of you is the opportunity to beautify the design of the nickel or five cent piece during your administration, it seems to me that it would be a permanent souvenir of a most attractive sort. As you are aware, it is the only coin the design of which you can change during your administration, as I believe there is a law to the effect that the designs must not be changed oftener than every twenty-five years. I should think it might be the coin of which the greatest numbers are in circulation. Soon after the MacVeagh letter, Andrew announced that the Mint would be soliciting new designs for the nickel. Fraser, an assistant to Saint-Gaudens, approached the Mint, produced concepts and designs; the new Mint director, George Roberts, who had replaced Andrew favored a design featuring assassinated President Abraham Lincoln, but Fraser soon developed a design featuring a Native American on one side and a bison on the other.
Andrew and Roberts recommended Fraser to MacVeagh, in July 1911, the Secretary approved hiring Fraser to design a new nickel. Official approval was slow in coming. MacVeagh wrote, "Tell him that of the three sketches which he submitted we would like to use the sketch of the head of the Indian and the sketch of the buffalo." Roberts transmitted the news followed up with a long list of instructions to the sculptor, in which he noted, "The motto,'In God We Trust', is not required upon this coin and I presume we are agreed that nothing should be upon it, not required." Fraser completed the models by June 1912, prepared coin-size electrotypes. He brought the models and electrotypes to Washington on July 10, where they met with the enthusiastic agreement of Secretary MacVeagh. In July 1912, word of the new design became publicly known, coin-operated machine manufacturers sought information. Replying to the inquiries, MacVeagh wrote that there would be no change in the diameter, thickness, or weight of the nickel.
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Italian Mediterranean buffalo
The Italian Mediterranean is an Italian breed of water buffalo. It is of the River sub-type of water buffalo and is similar to the buffalo breeds of Hungary and the Balkan countries, it is the only indigenous water buffalo breed in Italy. A herd-book was opened in 1980, the breed was recognised in 2000; the buffalo may have been introduced into Italy in Roman times, or during the Barbarian invasions of the Italian peninsula. In 1979 a national association of buffalo breeders, the Associazione Nazionale Allevatori Specie Bufalina, was formed, a genealogical herd-book for the buffalo was opened in the following year; the Mediterranea Italiana breed was recognised in 2000. In the past the buffalo was used as a draught animal. Buffalo kept waterways and drainage channels clear of weed, swimming in the deeper parts and wading in the shallows; the Mediterranea Italiana is raised and selectively bred principally for the production of the buffalo milk used to make buffalo mozzarella, notably the Mozzarella di Bufala Campana of Campania, which has Denominazione di origine protetta status.
Other dairy products including burrata, caciotta di bufala, ricotta di bufala, scamorza di bufala, stracchino di bufala, stracciatella di bufala and yoghurt are made from the milk. Lactation lasts on average 277 days, yields 1600–1800 kg of milk. In 2012 a total of 192,455,300 kg of buffalo milk was produced in Italy, about 1.7% of total milk production in that year. Buffalo are butchered both for fresh meat and for preserved meat products such as bresaola di bufalo. In 2012 a total of 118,653 buffalo were slaughtered in Italy, for a total live weight of 47,416,700 kg 2.7% of the total weight of bovines slaughtered that year. The average carcass yield was 50.6%. In 1953 the total number of buffalo in Italy was estimated at 40,000 head; the numbers of buffalo reported by the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica in 2012 and 2013 were, by region: List of Italian DOP cheeses
Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae. Two extant and six extinct species are recognised. Of the six extinct species, five became extinct in the Quaternary extinction event. Bison palaeosinensis evolved in the Early Pleistocene in South Asia, was the evolutionary ancestor of B. priscus, the ancestor of all other Bison species. From 2 MYA to 6,000 BC, steppe bison ranged across the mammoth steppe, inhabiting Europe and northern Asia with B. schoetensacki, North America with B. antiquus, B. latifrons, B. occidentalis. The last species to go extinct, B. occidentalis, was succeeded at 3,000 BC by B. bison. Of the two surviving species, the American bison, B. bison, found only in North America, is the more numerous. Although known as a buffalo in the United States and Canada, it is only distantly related to the true buffalo; the North American species is composed of two subspecies, the Plains bison, B. b. bison, the Wood bison, B. b. athabascae, the namesake of Wood Buffalo National Park in Canada.
A third subspecies, the Eastern Bison is no longer considered a valid taxon, being a junior synonym of B. b. bison. References to "Woods Bison" or "Wood Bison" from the eastern United States confusingly refer to this subspecies, not B. b. athabascae, not found in the region. The European bison, B. bonasus, or wisent, is found in Europe and the Caucasus, reintroduced after being extinct in the wild. While all bison species are classified in their own genus, they are sometimes bred with domestic cattle and produce fertile offspring called beefalo or zubron; the American bison and the European bison are the largest surviving terrestrial animals in North America and Europe. They are typical artiodactyl ungulates, are similar in appearance to other bovines such as cattle and true buffalo, they are muscular with shaggy coats of long hair. Adults grow up to 1.8 metres in length for American Bison and up to 2.8 metres in length for European bison. American bison can weigh from 400 kilograms to 900 kg and European bison can weight from 800 kilograms to 1,000 kilograms.
European bison tend to be heavier than American bison. Bison are nomadic grazers and travel in herds; the bulls leave the herds of females at two or three years of age, join a male herd, which are smaller than female herds. Mature bulls travel alone. Towards the end of the summer, for the reproductive season, the sexes commingle. American bison are known for living in the Great Plains, but had a much larger range including much of the eastern United States and parts of Mexico. Both species were hunted close to extinction during the 19th and 20th centuries, but have since rebounded; the American Plains bison is no longer listed as endangered, but this does not mean the species is secure. Genetically pure B. b. bison number only ~20,000, separated into fragmented herds—all of which require active conservation measures. The Wood bison is on the endangered species list in Canada and is listed as threatened in the United States, though there have been numerous attempts by beefalo ranchers to have it removed from the Endangered Species List.
Although superficially similar and behavioural differences exist between the American and European bison. The American species has 15 ribs, while the European bison has 14; the American bison has four lumbar vertebrae. Adult American bison are less slim in have shorter legs. American bison tend to graze more, browse less than their European relatives, their anatomies reflect this behavioural difference. The body of the American bison is hairier, though its tail has less hair than that of the European bison; the horns of the European bison point through the plane of their faces, making them more adept at fighting through the interlocking of horns in the same manner as domestic cattle, unlike the American bison, which favours butting. American bison are more tamed than their European cousins, breed with domestic cattle more readily; the bovine tribe split about 5 to 10 million years ago into the buffalos and a group leading to bison and taurine cattle. Thereafter, the family lineage of bison and taurine cattle does not appear to be a straightforward "tree" structure as is depicted in much evolution, because evidence of interbreeding and crossbreeding is seen between different species and members within this family many millions of years after their ancestors separated into different species.
This crossbreeding was not sufficient to conflate the different species back together, but it has resulted in unexpected relationships between many members of this group, such as yak being related to American bison, when such relationships would otherwise not be apparent. A 2003 study of mitochondrial DNA indicated four distinct maternal lineages in tribe Bovini: Taurine cattle and zebu Wisent American bison and yak and Banteng and gayalHowever, Y chromosome analysis associated wisent and American bison. An ear
The tamaraw or Mindoro dwarf buffalo is a small hoofed mammal belonging to the family Bovidae. It is endemic to the island of Mindoro in the Philippines, is the only endemic Philippine bovine, it is believed, however, to have once thrived on the larger island of Luzon. The tamaraw was found all over Mindoro, from sea level up to the mountains, but because of human habitation and logging, it is now restricted to only a few remote grassy plains and is now a critically endangered species. Contrary to common belief and past classification, the tamaraw is not a subspecies of the local carabao, only larger, or the common water buffalo. In contrast to the carabao, it has a number of distinguishing characteristics: it is hairier, has light markings on its face, is not gregarious, has shorter horns that are somewhat V-shaped, it is the second largest native terrestrial mammal in the country next only to the Carabao. Bubalus mindorensis has the appearance of a typical member of its family, it has a compact, bovine body, four legs that end in cloven hooves and a small, horned head at the end of a short neck.
It is stockier compared to the water buffalo. There is little sexual dimorphism in the species; the tamaraw has an average shoulder height of 100–105 cm. The length of the body is 2.2 m. Reported weights have ranged from 180 to 300 kg. Adults have a dark brown to grayish more hair than Bubalus bubalis; the limbs are stocky. White markings are seen in the inner lower forelegs; these markings are similar to that of the anoa. The face is the same color as that of the body. Most of the members of the species have a pair of gray-white strips that begins from the inner corner of the eye to the horns; the nose and lips have black skin. The ears are 13.5 centimetres long from notch to tip with white markings on the insides. Both sexes grows short black horns in a V-shaped manner compared to C-shaped horns of Bubalus bubalis; the horns are triangular at their base. Due to the regular rubbing, the tamaraw's horns have a worn outer surface but with rough inner sides; the horns are reported to be 35.5 to 51 centimetres long.
The tamaraw was first documented in 1888 on the island of Mindoro. Before 1900, most people avoided settling on Mindoro due to a virulent strain of malaria. However, as anti-malarial medicine was developed, more people settled on the island; the increase in human activity has drastically reduced tamaraw population. By 1966 the tamaraw's range was reduced to three areas: Mount Iglit, Mount Calavite and areas near the Sablayan Penal Settlement. By 2000, their range was further reduced to only two areas: the Mounts Iglit–Baco National Park and Aruyan. Initial estimates of the Bubalus mindorensis population on Mindoro was placed at around 10,000 individuals in the early 1900s. Less than fifty years in 1949, the population had dwindled to around a thousand individuals. By 1953, fewer than 250 animals were estimated to be alive; these population estimates continually grew smaller until the IUCN publication of their 1969 Red Data Book, where the tamaraw population was noted to be an alarmingly low 100 heads.
This head count rose to 120 animals in 1975. Current estimates place the wild tamaraw population from thirty to two hundred individuals; as a rare, endemic mammal on a secluded island, the ecology of the tamaraw is unknown. Individuals of the species are shy away from humans. In addition, the small sizes of the species' subpopulations spread thin throughout their fragmented range, make contact with any more than a solitary individual a rarity. Bubalus mindorensis prefers tropical highland forested areas, it is found in thick brush, near open-canopied glades where it may graze and feed on grasses. Since human habitation and subsequent forest fragmentation of their home island of Mindoro, the habitat preferences of the tamaraw have somewhat expanded to lower-altitude grassy plains. Within their mountainous environment, tamaraws will be found not far from sources of water, they have to live by water. They live in moist areas such as marshy grasslands; the tamaraw is a grazer that feeds on grasses and young bamboo shoots although it is known to prefer cogon grass and wild sugarcane.
They are diurnal, feeding during the daytime hours. The tamaraw is known to live for about 20 years, with an estimated lifespan of about 25; the adult female tamaraw gives birth to one offspring after a gestation period of about 300 days. There is an interbirth interval of two years, although one female has been sighted with three juveniles; the calf stays for 2–4 years with its mother before becoming independent. Unlike the related water buffalo, B. mindorensis is a solitary creature. Adults of the species do not occur in herds or smaller packs and are encountered alone. Only juveniles exhibit the typical bovine herding behavior and clan hierarchy seen in water buffalo. Males and females are known to associate all year round but this interaction lasts only a few hours, it has been suggested. Adult males are solitary and aggressive while adult females can be alone, accompanied by a bull, or three y
Buffalo (Frank Zappa album)
Buffalo is a live album by Frank Zappa, posthumously released in April 2007 as a two-CD set, consisting of the complete concert given on October 25, 1980 at the Buffalo Memorial Auditorium in Buffalo, New York with a band, heard on Tinsel Town Rebellion and Shut Up'n Play Yer Guitar. It is the second installment on the Vaulternative Records label, dedicated to the posthumous release of complete Zappa concerts, the first release being FZ:OZ, the concert on January 20, 1976 at the Hordern Pavilion in Sydney. All songs written and arranged by Frank Zappa. Frank Zappa – lead guitar & vocals Steve Vai – stunt guitar & background vocals Ray White – vocals & rhythm guitar Ike Willis – vocals & rhythm guitar Tommy Mars – keyboards & vocals Bob Harris – keyboards, trumpet & high vocals Arthur Barrow – bass & vocals Vinnie Colaiuta – drums, vocals Frank Zappa – music, band & recordings Gail Zappa & Joe Travers – CD production Frank Filipetti – mix John Polito – mastering George Douglas – original recording engineer Gail Zappa – art direction/concept & text Keith Lawler – design, layout & art execution Kaushal Parekh – cover photo
Buffalo is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in southern LaRue County, United States. Its population was 498 as of the 2010 census, it lies along Kentucky Route 61 south of the city of the county seat of LaRue County. Its elevation is 748 feet, it is located at 37°30′43″N 85°41′55″W. Although Buffalo is unincorporated, it has a post office, with the ZIP code of 42716
Anoa known as midget buffalo and sapiutan, are a subgenus of Bubalus comprising two species endemic to the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia: the mountain anoa and the lowland anoa. Both live in undisturbed rainforest and are similar in appearance to miniature water buffalo, weighing 150–300 kg. Both species of anoa have been classified as endangered since the 1960s and the populations continue to decrease. Fewer than 5,000 animals of each species remain. Reasons for their decline include hunting for hides and meat by the local peoples and loss of habitat due to the advancement of settlement. Hunting is the more serious factor in most areas. After a study of the skulls of many anoa, it was shown that there was hybridizing and interbreeding between the two, it was questioned as to whether the two species were different due to mixing of the two in many different areas, as well as some interbreeding. After analyzing the DNA of the two, it was proven; the lowland anoa is a small bovid, standing over 90 cm at the shoulder.
It is known as anoa de Ilanura or anoa des plaines. It is most allied to the larger Asian buffaloes, showing the same reversal of the direction of the hair on their backs; the horns are peculiar for their upright direction and comparative straightness, although they have the same triangular section as in other buffaloes. White spots are sometimes present below the eyes and there may be white markings on the legs and back; the horns of the cows are small. The nearest allies of the anoa appear to be certain extinct Asian buffaloes, the remains of which have been found in the Siwalik Hills of northern India. In habits, the animal appears to resemble the water buffalo, it is solitary, living in lowland forests and wetlands, browsing on plants and understory. The mountain anoa is known as Quarle's anoa, anoa de montana, anoa de Quarle, anoa des montagnes and anoa pegunungan. Standing at 70 cm at the shoulder, it is smaller than the lowland anoa and the smallest of all living wild cattle, they have longer, woolier hair that moults every February to April, showing faint spots on the head and limbs.
Both are found on the nearby island of Buton in Indonesia. They live singly or in pairs, rather than in herds like most cattle, except when the cows are about to give birth. Little is known about their life history as well. However, in captive individuals they have a life expectancy of 20–30 years; the anoa take two to three years before they reach sexual maturity and have one calf a year and have rarely been seen to have more. Both the lowland anoa and the mountain anoa are endemic to the islands of Sulawesi in Indonesia. Sulawesi is a unique area due to the fact that 61% of the species found there are endemic species, including the anoa; the key difference between the two species is the areas of habitat, utilized on the islands. The mountain anoa is found at higher elevations than its lowland counterpart and is found in the forested mountainous regions; the lowland anoa spends its time in the lower elevation areas and is found in core habitat of forested area. The habitat needs of both species can have some overlap and oftentimes the two species are found in the same area.
The key factor to where they are found is core forested habitat away from humans. The anoa have many physical characteristics of bovine relatives and are considered to be most related to the water buffalo, confirmed through DNA analysis. However, some scientists believe they may be more related to the Asian antelope. All anoa have the same standard characters; the two species diverged due to a difference in elevation and a slight change in habitat from the latter, but their physical characteristics remain similar. The anoa is the smallest of the wild cattle species; when anoa are born, they have a set of thick, woolly fur that comes in many color variations ranging from yellow to brown. In adults, the fur is brown or black and males tend to have darker variations. Hair thickness varies between the two species based on elevation and distribution. In both species of anoa, horns are present on both males and females and are straight protuberances. Another defining characteristic of the anoa is an thick hide underneath the thick fur.
The anoa are endemic to the island of Sulawesi and are experiencing large declines in their populations. Knowledge of their decline has only been documented and the villages and villagers lack the knowledge of how to help maintain or increase populations; the leading cause of their population decline is, in fact, hunting by the local villagers and not having restrictions or proper management strategies. The one benefit is that villagers are open to communication with researchers on their harvests and hunting practices; the second leading cause of population decline is habitat loss and in the region of Tangkoko the anoa are extirpated. Logging is a large issue due to the fact that both species prefer core forested habitat, far away from humans and the influences that come with them. By logging, humans create much more fragmented habitat and, therefore, a decrease in the area where the anoa can breed and live; this habitat fragmentation alters the natural mixing of populations of the anoa. This may lead to a loss in genetic diversity between the two species and, over time, could lead to their decline.