Economic Freedom Fighters
The Economic Freedom Fighters is a South African far-left political party. It was started by expelled former African National Congress Youth League President Julius Malema, his allies, in 2013. Malema is President of the EFF, heading the Central Command Team which serves as the central structure of the party, it is the third-largest party in both houses of the South African Parliament, receiving 1,169,259 votes and a 6.35% share of the vote in the 2014 general election. At a 26 July 2013 press briefing in Soweto, Malema announced that the new party had over 1000 members, double the 500 required for registration with the Independent Electoral Commission; the EFF is now registered with the IEC, after an objection to its registration by the Freedom Front Plus was dismissed in September 2013. In 2015, the EFF suspended MP Lucky Twala and expelled three MPs, Mpho Ramakatsa, Andile Mngxitama and Khanyisile Litchfield-Tshabalala. Mngxitama formed his own party, named Black First Land First, while Litchfield-Tshabalala joined the United Democratic Movement.
The EFF "draws inspiration from the broad Marxist–Leninist tradition and Fanonian schools of thought in their analyses of the state, imperialism and class contradictions in every society", according to one of its declarations. It criticises the African National Congress and their primary opposition, the Democratic Alliance, for their pro-business stances, which it claims have sold out the black people of South Africa to capitalism as cheap labour, it promises to tackle corruption, provide quality social housing, provide free primary healthcare and education for all, as well as proposing to expropriate stolen land, nationalise the mining and banking sectors, double welfare grants and the minimum wage, end the proposed toll system for highways. The EFF takes significant inspiration from Thomas Sankara in terms of both ideology. In a May 2014 column, the prominent EFF member Jackie Shandu declared his party a "proudly Sankarist formation"; the EFF has been vocal in its criticism of black business owners and black owners of mining companies in South Africa.
In an address at the Oxford Union in November 2015, Malema spoke out against billionaire mining company owner Patrice Motsepe. Further protests in 2015, the EFF delivered demands that included the socialization of the mining sector and called for more explicit targets for the 26% BEE ownership required by law; the EFF is a vocal proponent of expanding the role of South African state owned enterprises in the country's economy. Malema addressed a crowd in Marikana, Rustenburg in the platinum mining area, blaming mining companies and calling out platinum mining company Lonmin in particular, for poverty in the region; the party supports the re-introduction of the death penalty. In 2016, after local elections in South Africa, the EFF has suggested that they will back the Democratic Alliance in hung-metro areas, but would not be entering into a coalition with any political party in South Africa; the EFF was the only parliamentary party. High-profile members of the Central Command Team include Floyd Shivambu, Fana Mokoena and Mbuyiseni Ndlozi.
Controversial businessman Kenny Kunene joined the Central Command Team in July 2013 before resigning from the Central Command Team on 20 August 2013 and from the organisation on 26 August 2013. On 4 November 2013, it was announced that Dali Mpofu had left the African National Congress after 33 years of membership and joined the EFF. Ringo Madlingozi appeared in the parliamentary candidate list for 2019 elections, thus ending the speculation of whether he was a member or not Musician and actress Ntando Duma publicly pledged alligiance to EFF in February 2019. According to a November 2013 Ipsos survey, the party's supporters are younger than average, with 49% being younger than 24, overwhelmingly black and male, with women representing only 33% of the support base. A disproportionate number of supporters live in Malema's home province of Limpopo, while only 1% live in KwaZulu-Natal, a more populous province; the party was expected to make an impact in the 2014 general election, taking between 4 per cent and 8 per cent of the national vote.
This was enough for the party to hold the balance of power in provinces where the governing African National Congress was in danger of losing its absolute majority. In fact, the ANC retained its absolute majority, but the EFF moved into third place, surging past the shrinking Inkatha Freedom Party, with a 6.35% share of the vote to the IFP's 2.40%. On 6 August 2015 the EFF announced that it has secured a Constitutional court case for its Jacob Zuma campaign of "#PayBackTheMoney"; the case was heard on the 9 February 2016. The Judgement was released by Chief Justice Mogoeng Mogoeng; the judgement stated that The President has violated the Constitution of South Africa, along with the Speaker of the National Assembly Baleka Mbete. The President was given 60 days to fulfill the requirements of the Public Protector Thuli Madonsela. On 27 February 2018 the EFF tabled a motion in The National Assembly to amend the Constitution so as to allow for the expropriation of land without compensation; the motion, brought by the EFF leader Julius Malema, was adopted with a vote of 241 in support, 83 against.
The only parties who did not support the motion were the Democratic Alliance, Freedom Front Plus and the ACDP. Land Expropriation is one of the EFF's Seven cardinal pillars. In 2018, the student wing of the EFF, the EFF Student Command won many universities across the country; the red berets defeated the ANC-aligned South African Students Congress at the Durban University of Technology, the University of Zululand and Mangosuthu Univers
Mdantsane is a South African urban township situated 15 km away from East London and 37 km away from King William's Town in the Eastern Cape province. The name Mdantsane was derived from a stream that ran from the Nahoon River down to the Buffalo River; some believe. Soon after the stream was named, a “white farm”, at the entrance of Mdantsane was named after the stream Dontsane or Umdanzani; the township is part of the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality in the Eastern Cape. The Mdantsane township is a second largest urban settlement in South Africa, by population, it is host to some of the best High Schools that produced some of the famous politicians today such Nosiviwe Mapisa Nqakula Dali Mpofu Mandla Makhuphula and Ntombazana Gertrude Botha. Mdantsane is known as home of boxing with boxing legends such as Happy-Boy Mgxaji Mzimasi MnguniWelcome Ncita and the late light weigh WBC champion Luxolo Galada and promoters such as Siphato Handi In the 1940s, living quarters for black East London workers were hard to find.
The implementation of the Group Areas Act of 1950 further entrenched racial segregation in East London. Unhygienic conditions and riots became matters of concern in Duncan Village, a township, created for the African population in the 1940s; the apartheid government recommended that Amalinde, a white suburb not far from Mdantsane, should be zoned as a black area in 1957. However, the white residents of Amalinde, who wanted the area to be retained as a white zone opposed this recommendation. In same year, the East London municipality received an instruction from the apartheid South African government to submit an application for a new township for its African residents. On February 20, the Minister of the Department of Bantu Administration and Development announced that the entire African population of East London was to be moved to a new site called Mdantsane, within the boundaries of the Xhosa native reserve under the administration of the Ciskei Territorial Authority, set up in 1961; the first houses were built in late 1963 with removals planned for 1964.
However and resettlement began in 1963. Mdantsane was formally established in 1963 on a farm called “ Umdanzani” and the first 300 residents occupied the new houses; the original inhabitants were people who were forcibly removed from what was known as East Bank in East London. In 1964 112 000 people from Duncan Village were forcibly moved to the outskirts of Mdantsane township. Mdantsane was recognised as a homeland town under the bantustan of Ciskei in 1966. Ciskei became self-governing in 1972 and granted nominal independence on 4 December 1981, with Mdantsane becoming one of the homeland's largest townships. To encourage black residents of Duncan Village and East London to relocate to Mdantsane, the apartheid government adopted a number of strategies; the first was to introduce the Regional Decentralisation Programme in the 1960s which saw the establishment of clothing, food and building accessory factories on the border of East London in Wilsonia and at Fort Jackson in Mdantsane. These industries provided employment opportunities to the Mdantsane residents.
To keep these industries operational, the government offered generous industrial subsidies and incentives. By the end of the 1980s, about 30,000 and 7,500 jobs were available in Wilsonia and Fort Jackson. However, low wages, the rise of trade unions and lack of funding in the early 1990s led to the collapse of these factories. To further create the illusion of Mdantsane as an ideal township for blacks, apartheid government added social services and facilities such as Rubusana Training College,and the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital, subsidised road and rail transport. On 13 July 1983, the Ciskei Transport Corporation introduced an 11% bus fare increase on the route between East London and Mdantsane. To discuss the issue of the bus fare increment, a meeting with 1000 people was held in a church hall in Duncan Village on 10 July 1983. A committee of ten workers known as the "Committee of Ten" was elected to represent the community's interests to the CTC; the Committee of Ten tried to meet CTC management on Monday 11 July.
The CTC refused on the grounds that they had talked to community leaders two months before the increases were announced. A second mass meeting was held on 12 July in Duncan Village. About 3000 people attended; the CTC responses were rejected and a decision was taken to boycott the CTC buses. On 18 July, the bus boycott began; the commuters walked to work in large groups, from Mdantsane across the Ciskei border to East London, a distance of about twenty kilometres. On its second day, the boycott attracted over 80% of the bus commuters; the number of police soon increased as reinforcements were brought in, they became more brutal. To avoid harassment from the police, the commuters began to use the trains; the railway, which formed Ciskei's border with the rest of South Africa, was run by the South African Transport Services and located on the outskirts of Mdantsane. The train fares were marginally lower than the bus fares and provided a space for commuters to discuss issues affecting the community.
The train fares increased on 1 August 1983 but the commuters continued to use trains.<Security forces from the Ciskei government set up roadblocks in Mdantsane, there were reports of commuters being hauled out of taxis and ordered onto buses. On 22 July 1983, five people were shot and wounded by Ciskei security forces at the Fort Jackson railway station. On 30 July, a man was killed by vigilantes while walking near the Mdantsane stadium. On 3 August, a state of emergency
Modak is an Indian sweet popular in many parts of India. The sweet filling on the inside of a modak consists of freshly grated coconut and jaggery while the outer soft shell is made from rice flour or wheat flour mixed with khava or maida flour; the modak can be steamed. The steamed version is eaten hot with ghee, it is called modak in Marathi, Konkani and in Gujarati languages, modhaka in Kannada, modhakam or kozhakkattai in Tamil and kudumu in Telugu. Modak is considered to be the favourite sweet of Ganesha, it begets him the moniker modakapriya in Sanskrit. During Ganesh Chaturthi, the puja concludes with an offering of 21 modaks to Ganesha as prasadam. Modaks made with rice flour shells are preferred for this purpose, although wheat shell versions are used. Local businesses outside Ganesh Temples across India sell pre-packed/readymade versions of Modaks. In Japan, a sweet similar to modak and known locally as Kangidan, is offered to god Kangiten, the Japanese version of Ganesha. Kangidans are made from curds and red bean paste.
They are wrapped in kneaded dough made from parched flour and shaped like a bun before they are deep fried. Ukadiche Modak: These modaks are made of Coconuts and Sugar/Jaggery; this variation is prepared during the time of Ganesh Festival. They are hand cooked in a steamer, they need to be consumed immediately. Fried Modak: This modak is deep fried in oil instead of steaming. Frying have different taste. Innovative recipes for modaks have been created; these include motichoor modak and chocolate modak. Mava Modak: Made with mava or milk solids. Kesari Modak: The dough used for the dumpling is flavored with Kesar. Moong Dal Modak: The stuffing is made from cooked moong daal, grated coconut and jaggery. Dark Chocolate Modak: These are made by adding Chocolate flavor Dry Fruit Modak: Dry fruits and nuts are mixed together and molded into the shape of a traditional modak. Coconut Rose Modak: The additional flavor of rose can be tasted in this modak. Paneer Modak: Paneer used as one of the main ingredients to give the modak a different taste Motichoor Modak: Made by mixing motichoor with flavoured sugar syrup and molding the mixture into the shape of the traditional modak Baklava Modak: Steamed rice flour modak, stuffed with a baklava filling mixture of nuts, sugar and orange zest.
Gulkand and Mawa Modak: The dumplings are stuffed with gulkand and mava and served with rabdi, turning the modak into a dessert Chocolate Modak: The rice flour used to make the dough for the dumpling is mixed with chocolate syrup to give the modak a chocolate flavour. The inner filling is same as the regular modaks. List of dumplings List of Indian sweets and desserts Maharashtrian cuisine Ganesh Ganesh Chaturthi Mantou Mandu Manti Kozhukattai in Tamil literature
Sunrise-On-Sea is a town in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa
King William's Town
King William's Town is a town in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa along the banks of the Buffalo River. The town is about 60 kilometres North West of the Indian Ocean port of East London; the town is part of the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality in the Eastern Cape. King, as the town is locally called, stands 389 m above the sea at the foot of the Amatola Mountains and in the midst of a densely populated agricultural district. King William's Town is the second most populous city in the Buffalo City Municipality, with a population near 100,000 inhabitants; the town has one of the oldest post offices in the country developed by missionaries led by Brownlee. Founded by Sir Benjamin d'Urban in May 1835 during the Xhosa War of that year, the town is named after William IV, it was abandoned in December 1836, but was reoccupied in 1846 and was the capital of British Kaffraria from its creation in 1847 to its incorporation in 1865 with the Cape Colony. Many of the colonists in the neighboring districts are descendants of members of the British German Legion disbanded after the Crimean War and provided with homes in Cape Colony.
King William's Town was declared the provincial capital of the surrounding Adelaide District in the 1830s. On 5 May 1877, the Cape Government of Prime Minister John Molteno opened the first railway, connecting the town to East London on the coast and to the Xhosa lands inland and further east. With its direct railway communication, the town became an important entrepot for trade with the Xhosa people throughout "Kaffraria"; the area's economy depended on cattle and sheep ranching, the town itself has a large industrial base producing textiles, candles, sweets and clothing. In recent years, its proximity to the new provincial capital city of Bhisho has brought much development to the area since the end of apartheid in 1994; the provincial government announced that they plan to rename the town with a traditional African name, as the current name bears colonial connotations. The town is home to "Huberta," one of the farthest-travelling hippopotami in South Africa, it is preserved in the Amathole Museum in the King Williams Town CBD.
Steve Biko, anti-apartheid Black Consciousness Movement leader was born here Charles Patrick John Coghlan, first premier of Rhodesia was born here Buster Farrer, former international cricket and hockey player Garry Pagel, former South African rugby union player was born here John Tengo Jabavu, founder of the first Xhosa-language newspaper in South Africa Griffiths Mxenge, anti-apartheid activist Victoria Mxenge, anti-apartheid activist Steve Tshwete, anti-apatheid activist Makhaya Ntini, former South African Test cricketer This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "King William's Town". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Cambridge University Press. P. 822. History of King William's Town
Duncan Village is a township in the Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The township is located about five kilometres away from the East London city business district. Duncan Village is divided into six wards, with each headed by a ward councillor. There are no clear divisions between the informal and formal parts of the township since most shacks are planted on the open spaces within formal houses; the township of Duncan Village was founded in 1941. It was named after the Governor of East London, Patrick Duncan, who oversaw the opening of what was called a "leasehold tenure area" in the East Bank location; the township was created to solve a housing crisis in East London during the late 1930s and early 1940s. The decision to establish Duncan Village was based on the recommendations of the Thornton Commission of 1937, put in place to solve overcrowding in East Bank, East London; the commission recommended the building of an new location on a new site, the utilisation of East Bank and that all the wood and iron dwellings in the East Bank be demolished and replaced with houses built "on town planning lines".
The response of the East London Municipality to the commission's recommendations was to build Duncan Village in 1941. By 1944, 628 houses had been completed in the new township. Contrary to the Thornton Commission's recommendations, the shacks were not demolished in East Bank; the first residents in Duncan Village were black African migrant workers from the rural areas surrounding East London and a small group of black Africans who regarded themselves as urbanised East London residents with no links to the rural areas. Hygiene proved to be a problem in Duncan Village because the government was struggling to maintain the streets and sanitation; the township was dealing with a serious case of tuberculosis in the 1940s. In 1949 every third child born in the location died from the disease. To deal with the issue of overcrowding and poor hygiene in the township and surrounding areas, the East London Municipality created Mdantsane in 1962. Between 1964 and 1983, 80 000 people were moved from Duncan Village to Mdantsane.
In 1985, the East London Municipality launched a plan to improve Duncan Village into a middle-class neighbourhood. This proved unsuccessful as the state could not move the 15,000 shacks which were in the area at the time. In describing the government's attempt to move residents from Duncan Village to Mdantsane, one of the councillors interviewed by Patricia Ndhlovu for her research paper titled Understanding the local state, service delivery and protests in post-Apartheid South Africa: The case of Duncan Village and Bcmm, East London said, "For us it was an'anti-removal struggle', we were supposed to be removed from this place in 1985. There was a call from the ANC abroad that we were following to render the country'ungovernable', apartheid'unworkable' and we started with anti-removals because we were supposed to be moved to Mdantsane. We resisted but at a cost, we lost over 30 people and had massive funerals in 1985." During the 1990s and early 2000s Duncan Village residents received houses in the Reeston area.
This failed to combat the increasing number of shackdwellers from the surrounding rural areas. On 9 November 1952, 1500 residents of East London's locations attended a mass meeting at Bantu Square in Duncan Village; the residents gathered in support of the African National Congress' 1952 Defiance Campaign. But the 9th November meeting followed in the wake of rioting in Kimberley and Port Elizabeth, a ban on gatherings and the restriction of 52 Eastern Cape leaders in terms of the Riotous Assemblies and Suppression of Communism Acts; the ANC Youth League President, Skei Gwentshe, himself restricted, obtained permission from the chief magistrate and the district commandant for a prayer meeting to protest the bannings. Police were monitoring the meeting; as soon as the meeting ended, the police dispersed the crowd, the crowd retaliated. A battle between the residents and the police ensued. An Afrikaner salesman and an Irish nun, named Doctor Quinlan, were killed in the unrest. Doctor Quinlan, who had set up the St Peter Claver mission hospital in East London, was stoned to death and burnt beyond recognition.
According to newspaper reports, there nine people died, including seven black Africans from Duncan Village, 27 reported injured. However, according to D. Card, an interviewee on Lungisile Ntsebeza's Masters research paper titled'YOUTH IN URBAN AFRICAN TOWNSHIPS, 1945· 1992 A CASE STUDY OF THE EAST LONDON TOWNSHIPS, about 200 people were shot by the police. In his words, Card said: "Newspapers carried out that only nine people were shot, but from the removal of bodies we established that there were round about 200 people shot." No police were injured during the riots. Within 10 days, 150 Africans were arrested for pass offences. Fifteen were charged with the murder of Dr Quinlan, five convicted of murder and two hanged. On 11 August 1985, Duncan Village was again the scene of violence, following the funeral of murdered UDF leader Victoria Mxenge in Rayi village. Returning mourners carried out arson attacks, violence continued on the following days. All six community councillors' homes were burnt down and homes of police officers and suspected collaborators were attacked.
19 people died and 138 were injured. On 28 March 2008, former South African President Thabo Mbeki unveiled the Duncan Village Massacre Memorial in honour of the victims of the 1985 massacre near the Duncan Village Cemetery. Official website of Buffalo City Youth in urban African townships,1945·1992:A Case Study of the East London Townships Village and Ikhayalethu – Our Home