The Beaver Wars known as the Iroquois Wars' or the French and Iroquois Wars, encompass a series of conflicts fought intermittently during the 17th century in eastern North America. During the 17th century, the Beaver Wars were battles for economic welfare throughout the St. Lawrence River valley in Canada and the lower Great Lakes region; the wars were between the Iroquois trying to take control of the fur trade from the Hurons, the northern Algonquians, their French allies. From medieval times, Europeans had obtained furs from Scandinavia. American pelts began coming on the market during the 16th century—decades before the French and Dutch established permanent settlements and trading posts on the continent—after Basque fishermen chasing cod off Newfoundland's Grand Banks bartered with local Indians for beaver robes to help fend off the numbing Atlantic chill. By virtue of their location, these tribes wielded considerable influence in European-Indian relations from the early seventeenth century onwards.
The Iroquois sought to expand their territory and monopolize the fur trade and the trade between European markets and the tribes of the lower Great Lakes region. They were a confederacy of five nations—Mohawk, Onondaga and Seneca, inhabiting the lands in upstate New York along the shores of Lake Ontario east to Lake Champlain and Lake George on the Hudson river, the lower-estuary of the St Lawrence river; the Iroquois Confederation, led by the dominant Mohawk, mobilized against the Algonquian-speaking tribes and Iroquoian speaking Huron and related tribes of the Great Lakes region. The Iroquois were armed by their Dutch and much English trading partners; the wars were brutal and are considered one of the bloodiest series of conflicts in the history of North America. As the Iroquois destroyed several large tribal confederacies—including the Mahican, Neutral, Erie and northern Algonquins, they became dominant in the region and enlarged their territory, realigning the tribal geography of North America.
The Iroquois gained control of the New England frontier and Ohio River valley lands as hunting ground, from about 1670 onward. Both Algonquian and Iroquoian societies were disrupted by these wars; the conflict subsided with the loss by the Iroquois of their Dutch allies in the New Netherland colony after England took it over in 1664, with Fort Amsterdam and the town of New Amsterdam, renaming it New York, with French objective of gaining the Iroquois as an ally against English encroachment. After the Iroquois became trading partners with the English, their alliance was a crucial component of the English western and northern expansion leading to the French and Indian War; the English/British used the Iroquois conquests as a claim to the old Northwest Territory, of the United States, northwest of the Ohio River and around the Great Lakes. The expeditions of French explorer Jacques Cartier in the 1540s made the first written records of the Native Americans in North America. French explorers and fishermen had traded in the region near the mouth of the St. Lawrence River estuary a decade before for valuable furs.
Cartier wrote of encounters with a people classified as the St. Lawrence Iroquoians known as the Stadaconan or Laurentian people, who occupied several fortified villages, including Stadacona and Hochelaga. Cartier recorded an ongoing war between the Stadaconans and another tribe known as the Toudaman, who had destroyed one of their forts the previous year, resulting in 200 deaths. Wars and politics in Europe distracted French efforts at colonization in the St. Lawrence Valley until the beginning of the 17th century, when they founded Quebec in 1608; when the French returned to the area, they found the sites of both Stadacona and Hochelaga abandoned destroyed by an unknown enemy. Based on analysis of political and economic conditions at the time, some anthropologists and historians have suggested that the Mohawk Nation of the Iroquois Confederacy destroyed and drove out the St. Lawrence Iroquoians; when the French returned, they found no inhabitants in this part of the upper river valley. The Iroquois and the Iroquoian-speaking Huron used it as hunting ground.
The causes remain unclear.. This was in response to the formation of the League of the Iroquois; when the French returned in 1601, the St. Lawrence Valley had been the site of generations of blood feud-style warfare, as characterized the relations of the Iroquois with all neighboring peoples. In 1603, when Samuel de Champlain visited Tadoussac near the St. Lawrence, the Montagnais and Huron immediately recruited him and his small company of French adventurers to assist in attacking their Iroquois enemies upriver. Before 1603, Champlain had formed an offensive alliance against the Iroquois, he decided. He had a commercial rationale: the northern Natives provided the French with valuable furs and the Iroquois, based in present-day New York, interfered with that trade; the first deliberate battle with the Iroquois in 1609 was fought at Champlain's initiative. Narrative makes it plain Champlain deliberately went along with a war party down Lake Champlain, further, this battle created 150 years of mistrust that poisoned any chances that French-Iroquois alliances would be durable and long lived.
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Java, New York
Java is a town in Wyoming County, New York. The population was 2,057 at the 2010 census; the Town of Java is on the western border of Wyoming County. The Town of Java was founded in 1832 from part of the Town of Arcade, it was named after the island of Java. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 47.3 square miles, of which 47.1 square miles is land and 0.2 square miles is water. The largest body of water in Java is Java Lake, the headwaters of Cattaraugus Creek; the west town line is the border of Erie County. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,222 people, 807 households, 590 families residing in the town; the population density was 47.2 people per square mile. There were 1,035 housing units at an average density of 22.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 99.14% White, 0.14% African American, 0.18% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 0.45% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.41% of the population. There were 807 households out of which 35.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.8% were married couples living together, 5.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.8% were non-families.
20.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.21. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.1% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 30.9% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 11.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $43,708, the median income for a family was $47,120. Males had a median income of $35,703 versus $24,625 for females; the per capita income for the town was $18,398. About 3.9% of families and 6.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.1% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over. Cattaraugus Creek – A river, arising from Java Lake, that flows into Lake Erie. Curriers – A hamlet in the southwest corner of the town. Hick's Corners – A location east of Curriers.
Java Center – A hamlet at the intersection of Routes 77 and 78. Java Lake – A hamlet on Java Lake Road, west of a small lake. Java Lake – A small lake, the source of Cattaraugus Creek. Java – The hamlet of Java, in the northwest corner of the town; this community is on Route 78. The Java School No. 1 was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2001. North Java – A location in the northeast part of the town; the Arcade and Attica Railroad was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. Waldos Corners – A hamlet at the intersection of Routes 78 and 98. J. W. Eddy, builder of Angels Flight funicular railroad Ed Don George, professional wrestler, born in North Java in 1905
Moravians are a West Slavic ethnographic group from the Moravia region of the Czech Republic, who speak the Moravian dialects of the Czech language or Common Czech or a mixed form of both. Along with the Silesians of the Czech Republic, a part of the population to identify ethnically as Moravian has registered in Czech censa since 1991; the figure has fluctuated and in the 2011 census, 4.9% of the Czech population declared Moravian as their nationality. Smaller pockets of persons declaring Moravian ethnicity are native to neighboring Slovakia. A certain ambiguity in the Czech language derives from the fact that it only distinguishes between Čechy and Česká republika, but the corresponding adjective český and noun designating an inhabitant and/or a member of a nation Čech can be related to either of the two; the Moravians were a West Slavic tribe in the Early Middle Ages. Although it is not known when the Moravian tribe was founded, Czech historian Dušan Třeštík claimed the tribe was formed between the turn of the 6th century to the 7th century, around the same time as the other Slavic tribes.
In the 9th century Moravians settled around the historic Region of Moravia and Western Slovakia, but in parts of central-southern Poland, Lower Austria and Upper Hungary. The first known mention of the Moravians was in the Annales Regni Francorum in 822 AD; the tribe was located by the Bavarian Geographer between the tribe of the Bohemians and the tribe of the Bulgarians. In the 9th century Moravians gain control over neighbouring Nitra and founded the Realm of Great Moravia, ruled by the Mojmír dynasty until the 10th century. At times, the empire controlled other neighboring regions, including Bohemia and parts of present-day Hungary and Ukraine, it emerged into one of the most powerful states in Central Europe. After the breakup of the Moravian Realm the Moravian tribe was divided between the new states Duchy of Bohemia and Hungary; the western Moravians were assimilated by the Czechs and presently identify as Czechs. The modern nation of the Slovaks was formed out of the eastern part of the Moravian tribe within the Kingdom of Hungary.
Bretislaus I, Duke of Bohemia, solving the successor question, in his will decided to reorganize Moravia, it should govern the younger sons of the royal family. It was still considered one of the country, but from an objective standpoint it was weakened and Moravia could not lead to the formation of the medieval "nation" as as in Bohemia; the way leading to the differentiation of the Moravians from the Czechs was caused by political and economic changes of the late 12th and early 13th century. Czech historical tradition was grown in Moravia during the Middle Ages, for example Czech Chronicles was reread and distributed. Moravian ethnicity was declared for the first time in the population census of 1991. After the Velvet Revolution a strong political movement to reinstate the Moravian-Silesian land was active in Moravia. Accordingly, the so far united Czech ethnicity was split in line with the historical division of the Czech Republic into Bohemia and Czech Silesia. Part of the Czech speaking inhabitants of Moravia declared Moravian ethnicity and part of the Czech speaking inhabitants of Czech Silesia declared Silesian ethnicity.
1,363,000 citizens of the Czech Republic declared Moravian ethnicity in 1991. However, the number dropped to 380,474 in the 2001 census – many persons declaring themselves as Moravians declared themselves again as Czechs in this census. In 2011, the number increased again to 522,474; the strongest sense of patriotism towards Moravia is found in the environs of Brno, the former capital of Moravia. Only in the first years after the Velvet Revolution in 1989 did a few Moravian political parties seem to be able to gain some success in elections; however they lost much of their strength around the time of the Dissolution of Czechoslovakia in 1993 when Czechoslovakia peacefully split into the Czech Republic and Slovak Republic. According to the 2011 Census, the percentage of people without religion was lowest in the Moravian Zlín Region, followed by the Bohemian Moravian Vysočina Region, the South Moravian Region, the Moravian-Silesian Region, the predominantly Moravian Olomouc Region; the tiny Moravané Party advocates separatism.
List of Moravians Old Salem Inline citations SourcesGraus, František. Die Nationenbildung der Westslawen im Mittelalter. Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Sigmaringen. ISBN 3-7995-6103-X. Lubomír E. Havlík: Svatopluk Veliký, král Moravanů a Slovanů. Jota, Brno 1994, ISBN 80-85617-19-6. Havlík, Lubomír E.. Kronika o Velké Moravě. Jota, o. O. ISBN 978-80-8561-706-1. Třeštík, Dušan. Počátky Přemyslovců. Vstup Čechů do dějin. Nakladatelství Lidové noviny, o. O. ISBN 978-80-7106-138-0. Dušan Třeštík: Vznik Velké Moravy. Moravané, Čechové a střední Evropa v letech 791–871. Nakladatelství Lidové noviny, o. O. 2010, ISBN 978-80-7422-049-4 Tennent, Gilbert. Some Account of the Principles of the Moravians. Moravians at Google Books
An estuary is a enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone between river environments and maritime environments, they are subject both to marine influences—such as tides and the influx of saline water—and to riverine influences—such as flows of fresh water and sediment. The mixing of sea water and fresh water provide high levels of nutrients both in the water column and in sediment, making estuaries among the most productive natural habitats in the world. Most existing estuaries formed during the Holocene epoch with the flooding of river-eroded or glacially scoured valleys when the sea level began to rise about 10,000–12,000 years ago. Estuaries are classified according to their geomorphological features or to water-circulation patterns, they can have many different names, such as bays, lagoons, inlets, or sounds, although some of these water bodies do not meet the above definition of an estuary and may be saline.
The banks of many estuaries are amongst the most populated areas of the world, with about 60% of the world's population living along estuaries and the coast. As a result, many estuaries suffer degradation from a variety of factors including: sedimentation from soil erosion from deforestation and other poor farming practices; the word "estuary" is derived from the Latin word aestuarium meaning tidal inlet of the sea, which in itself is derived from the term aestus, meaning tide. There have been many definitions proposed to describe an estuary; the most accepted definition is: "a semi-enclosed coastal body of water, which has a free connection with the open sea, within which sea water is measurably diluted with freshwater derived from land drainage". However, this definition excludes a number of coastal water bodies such as coastal lagoons and brackish seas. A more comprehensive definition of an estuary is "a semi-enclosed body of water connected to the sea as far as the tidal limit or the salt intrusion limit and receiving freshwater runoff.
This broad definition includes fjords, river mouths, tidal creeks. An estuary is a dynamic ecosystem having a connection to the open sea through which the sea water enters with the rhythm of the tides; the sea water entering the estuary streams. The pattern of dilution varies between different estuaries and depends on the volume of fresh water, the tidal range, the extent of evaporation of the water in the estuary. Drowned river valleys are known as coastal plain estuaries. In places where the sea level is rising relative to the land, sea water progressively penetrates into river valleys and the topography of the estuary remains similar to that of a river valley; this is the most common type of estuary in temperate climates. Well-studied estuaries include the Severn Estuary in the United Kingdom and the Ems Dollard along the Dutch-German border; the width-to-depth ratio of these estuaries is large, appearing wedge-shaped in the inner part and broadening and deepening seaward. Water depths exceed 30 m.
Examples of this type of estuary in the U. S. are the Hudson River, Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay along the Mid-Atlantic coast, Galveston Bay and Tampa Bay along the Gulf Coast. Bar-built estuaries are found in place where the deposition of sediment has kept pace with rising sea level so that the estuaries are shallow and separated from the sea by sand spits or barrier islands, they are common in tropical and subtropical locations. These estuaries are semi-isolated from ocean waters by barrier beaches. Formation of barrier beaches encloses the estuary, with only narrow inlets allowing contact with the ocean waters. Bar-built estuaries develop on sloping plains located along tectonically stable edges of continents and marginal sea coasts, they are extensive along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the U. S. in areas with active coastal deposition of sediments and where tidal ranges are less than 4 m. The barrier beaches that enclose bar-built estuaries have been developed in several ways: building up of offshore bars by wave action, in which sand from the sea floor is deposited in elongated bars parallel to the shoreline, reworking of sediment discharge from rivers by wave and wind action into beaches, overwash flats, dunes, engulfment of mainland beach ridges due to sea level rise and resulting in the breaching of the ridges and flooding of the coastal lowlands, forming shallow lagoons, elongation of barrier spits from the erosion of headlands due to the action of longshore currents, with the spits growing in the direction of the littoral drift.
Barrier beaches form in shallow water and are parallel to the shoreline, resulting in long, narrow estuaries. The average water depth is less than 5 m, exceeds 10 m. Examples of bar-built estuaries are Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. Fjords were formed where pleistocene glaciers deepened and widened existing river valleys so that they become U-shaped in cross s
Holland, New York
Holland is a town in Erie County, New York, United States. The population was 3,401 at the 2010 census; the name is derived from the Holland Land Company, the original title-holder to most of the land of Western New York. Holland is one of the "Southtowns" of Erie County, located in the southeast part of the county, to the southeast of Buffalo; the town was first settled along its northern border called "Humphrey Valley", in 1807. The town of Holland was established in 1818 from part of the town of Willink, which once included all the southern part of Erie County; the name was derived from Willem Willink, one of the original investors of the Holland Land Company, which owned most of the land in western New York and sold it off to cities and townships that exist today. The name "Holland" is one of many surviving remnants of the Dutch investors who once owned this region; as with the town of Willink, the locations named. Many of the original town buildings met their fate due to fire. Today the Holland Historical Society resides in the original fire hall on Main Street.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 35.8 square miles, of which 35.8 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 0.10%, is water. The east town line is the border of the town of Java in Wyoming County. New York State Route 16 is a major north-south highway through the town; the East Branch of Cazenovia Creek flows northward through Holland. Established in 1933, the school was centralized and a new building was put up on 103 Canada Street. Students left the old school, located today where the town hall resides, after Christmas break of 1932, moved into the new establishment in January; the Harold O. Brumstead elementary building was added in 1960, a middle school was built in 1973 on the corner of Partridge and Route 16; the original building on Canada Street is the Holland Junior/Senior High School. In November 1982, Holland's boys varsity soccer team tied Mattituck, 1-1, in the state Class C soccer finals, earning the school's first state title in any sport.
As of 2010, only one other Section 6 boys soccer team since 1978 had won a NYSPHSAA crown. In 2008, for the 75th anniversary celebration, a group of sixth grade students created a video which documents the history of Holland Central Schools. Dave Hack, former CFL player James M. Humphrey, former US congressman Laura Ingalls, mother of Charles Ingalls and grandmother of Laura Ingalls Wilder, was born here on November 5, 1810 Frank E. Wheelock, a founder and first mayor of Lubbock, born in Holland in 1863 Gerry Helper, Senior Vice President of Communications & Public Relations of the Nashville Predators. Camp Seven Hills Girl Scout Camp Holland Farmers Market Holland Motorsports Complex Holland Tulip Festival As of the census of 2000, there were 3,603 people, 1,332 households, 981 families residing in the town; the population density was 100.7 people per square mile. There were 1,408 housing units at an average density of 39.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 98.17% White, 0.50% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.39% Asian, 0.14% from other races, 0.50% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.36% of the population. There were 1,332 households out of which 36.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.3% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.3% were non-families. 20.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.70 and the average family size was 3.16. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.7% under the age of 18, 6.9% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 9.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.8 males. The median income for a household in the town was $46,708, the median income for a family was $55,885. Males had a median income of $40,670 versus $25,886 for females; the per capita income for the town was $19,196. About 8.0% of families and 9.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.0% of those under age 18 and 9.9% of those age 65 or over.
Dutchtown – A hamlet in the southeastern part of the town. East Holland – A location in the northeast part of the town. Holland – This hamlet, sometimes called Holland Village, is the principal community and the location of the town government; the community is located on NY-16. Mountain Meadows Lake – A small lake by the east town line. Protection – A hamlet on the border of the town of Sardinia in the southeast part of the town. Vermont Hill – A small elevation in the northern part of Holland. Bank of Holland Holland, New York, a census district corresponding to Holland hamlet Town of Holland official website Holland Central Schools ePodunk - Holland NY Photos from Holland's past Town of Holland 175th Anniversary History book