Fort Erie, Ontario
Fort Erie is a town on the Niagara River in the Niagara Region, Canada. It is directly across the river from Buffalo, New York and is the site of Old Fort Erie which played a prominent role in the War of 1812. Fort Erie is one of Niagara's fastest growing communities, has experienced a high level of residential and commercial development in the past few years. Garrison Road is the town's commercial corridor, stretching east to west through Fort Erie. Fort Erie is home to other commercial core areas as a result of the 1970 amalgamation of Bertie Township and the village of Crystal Beach with Fort Erie. Crystal Beach Amusement Park occupied waterfront land at Crystal Beach, Ontario from 1888 until the park's closure in 1989; the beach is part of Fort Erie. Fort Erie is flat, but there are low sand hills, varying in height from 2 to 15 metres, along the shore of Lake Erie, a limestone ridge extends from Point Abino to near Miller's Creek, giving Ridgeway its name; the soil is shallow, with a clay subsoil.
The town's beaches on Lake Erie, most notably Erie Beach, Crystal Beach and Bay Beach, are considered the best in the area and draw many weekend visitors from the Toronto and Buffalo, New York areas. While summers are enjoyable, winters can be fierce, with many snowstorms and winds coming off Lake Erie. In addition to the primary urban core of Fort Erie, the town contains the neighbourhoods of Black Creek, Bridgeburg/NorthEnd/Victoria, Crescent Park, Crystal Beach, Point Abino, Ridgeway and Stevensville. Smaller and historical neighbourhoods include Amigari Downs, Bay Beach, Buffalo Heights, Edgewood Park, Erie Beach, Garrison Village, Oakhill Forest, Ridgewood, Rose Hill Estates, Thunder Bay, Walden and Waverly Beach. Fort Erie Secondary School and Ridgeway-Crystal Beach High School were two public high schools serving Fort Erie and area communities until September 2017 when Greater Fort Erie Secondary School opened on Garrison road the first new high school since 1971 in the region; the Fort Erie area contains deposits of flint, became important in the production of spearheads and other tools.
In the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, the Niagara Peninsula was inhabited by the Neutral Nation, so named by the French because they tried to remain neutral between the warring Huron and Iroquois peoples. In 1650, during the Beaver Wars, the Iroquois Confederacy declared war on the Neutral Nation, driving them from their traditional territory by 1651, annihilating them by 1653. After the Treaty of Paris, which ended the French and Indian War and transferred Canada from France to Britain, King George III issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763, establishing a "proclamation line", the territory beyond which would be an Indian Reserve; this was an attempt to avoid further conflict with the Indians, although it did not forestall Pontiac's War the following year. The British built a string of military forts to defend their new territory, including Fort Erie, the first version of, established in 1764. During the American Revolution Fort Erie was used as a supply depot for British troops.
After the war the territory of what is now the Town of Fort Erie was settled by soldiers demobilised from Butler's Rangers, the area was named Bertie Township in 1784. The original fort, built in 1764, was located on the Niagara River's edge below the present fort, it served as a supply depot and a port for ships transporting merchandise and passengers via Lake Erie to the Upper Great Lakes. The fort was damaged by winter storms and in 1803, plans were made for a new fort on the higher ground behind the original, it was larger and made of flintstone but was not quite finished at the start of the War of 1812. During the war, the Americans attacked Fort Erie twice in 1812, captured and abandoned it in 1813, recaptured it in 1814; the Americans held it for a time. They destroyed Fort Erie and returned to Buffalo in the winter of 1814; the Fort Erie area became a major terminus for slaves using the Underground Railroad. Bertie Hall may have been a stopping point on the Underground Railroad although some sources dispute this as a "legend".
In 1866, during the Fenian raids, between 1,000 and 1,500 Fenians crossed the Niagara River, occupied the town and demanded food and horses. The only payment they were able to offer was Fenian bonds; the Fenians cut the telegraph wires and tore up some railway tracks. Afterwards, they marched to Chippewa and the next day to Ridgeway where they fought the Battle of Ridgeway, a series of skirmishes with the Canadian militia; the Fenians returned to Fort Erie and fought the Battle of Fort Erie, defeating the Canadian militia. Fearing British reinforcements, they decided to retreat to the U. S. In 1869 the population was 1,000 and Fort Erie was served by the Grand Trunk and the Erie & Niagara railways; the Grand Trunk Railway built the International Railway Bridge in 1873, bringing about a new town named Victoria and subsequently renamed to Bridgeburg, north of the original settlement of Fort Erie. By 1876, Ridgeway had an estimated population of 800, the village of Fort Erie has an estimated population of 1,200, Victoria boasted three railway stations.
By 1887, Stevensville had an estimated population of "nearly 600", Victoria of "nearly 700", Ridgeway of "about 600", Fort Erie of "about 4,000". In 1888
Attorney General of New York
The Attorney General of New York is the chief legal officer of the U. S. state of New York and head of the Department of Law of the state government. The office has been in existence in some form since 1626, under the Dutch colonial government of New York. Democrat Letitia James serves as Attorney General, in office since January 1, 2019; the Attorney General advises the executive branch of state government and defends actions and proceedings on behalf of the state. The Attorney General acts independently of the Governor of New York; the department's regulations are compiled in title 13 of the New York Codes and Regulations. The legal functions of the Department of Law are divided into five major divisions: Appeals and Opinions, State Counsel, Criminal Justice, Economic Justice and Social Justice. Harlan Levy Shirley Adelson Siegel Robert Hermann 1983-1986 O. Peter Sherwood Jerry Boone Victoria A. Graffeo Barbara Gott Billet Preeta D. Bansal Caitlin Halligan Barbara D. Underwood From 1684 to 1777, when New York was under the British colonial government, the Attorney General was appointed by the British crown, or the colonial governor on its behalf.
In 1693, the Attorney General earned a salary of 50 pounds. From 1777 to 1822, the Attorney General was appointed by the Council of Appointment. From 1823 to 1846, the Attorney General was elected by the New York State Legislature for a three-year term.. Attorneys General have been elected by the voters since 1847. New York Attorney General elections Official website Department of Law in the New York Codes and Regulations New York Attorney General articles at Legal Newsline Legal Journal New York Attorney General articles at ABA Journal News and Commentary at FindLaw New York Consolidated Laws at Law. Justia.com U. S. Supreme Court Opinions - "Cases with title containing: State of New York" at FindLaw New York State Bar Association Press releases at New York Attorney General
Crown corporations of Canada
Canadian Crown corporations are state-owned enterprises owned by the Sovereign of Canada. They are established by an Act of Parliament or Act of a provincial legislature and report to that body via a minister of the Crown in the relevant cabinet, though they are "shielded from constant government intervention and legislative oversight" and thus "generally enjoy greater freedom from direct political control than government departments."Crown corporations have a long standing presence in the country and have been instrumental in the formation of the state. They can provide services required by the public that otherwise would not be economically viable as a private enterprise, or don't fit within the scope of any ministry, they are involved in everything from the distribution and price of certain goods and services to energy development, resource extraction, public transportation, cultural promotion, property management. In Canada, Crown corporations, within either the federal or provincial spheres, are owned by the monarch, as the institution's sole legal shareholder.
Crown corporations although owned in right of the Crown, are in fact operated at arm's length from the Queen-in-Council with direct control over operations only being exerted over the corporation's budget and the appointment of its chairperson and directors through Orders-in-Council. Some Crown corporations are expected to be profitable organisations, while others are non-commercial and rely on public funds to operate. Further, in the federal sphere, certain Crown corporations can be an agents or non-agent of the Queen in Right of Canada. One with agent status is entitled to the same constitutional prerogatives and immunities held by the Crown and can bind the Crown by its acts; the Crown is thus responsible for the actions of these organisations. The Crown is not liable for Crown corporations with non-agent status, except for actions of that corporation carried out on instruction from the government, though there may be "moral obligations" on the part of the Crown in other circumstances. Prior to the formation of Crown corporations as presently understood, much of what became Canada was settled and governed by a similar type of entity called a chartered company.
These companies were established by a royal charter by the Scottish, English, or French crown, but were owned by private investors. They fulfilled the dual roles of promoting government policy abroad and making a return for shareholders. Certain companies were trading businesses, by some were given a mandate to govern a specific territory called a charter colony, the head of this colony, called a proprietary governor, was both a business manager and the governing authority in the area; the first colonies on the island of Newfoundland were founded in this manner, between 1610 and 1728. Canada's most famous, influential chartered company, was the Hudson's Bay Company, founded on May 2, 1670, by royal charter of King Charles II; the HBC became the world's largest land owner, at one point overseeing 7,770,000 km2, territories that today incorporate the provinces of Manitoba and Alberta, as well as Nunavut, the Northwest Territories, Yukon. The HBC thus being the point of first contact between the colonial government and First Nations.
By the late 19th century, the HBC lost its monopoly over Rupert's Land and became a privatised company. The first major Canadian experience with directly state-owned enterprises came during the early growth of the railways. During the earlier part of the century, many British North American colonies that now comprise the Canadian federation had Crown corporations in the form of railways, such as the Nova Scotia Railway, since there was limited private capital available for such endeavours; when four British colonies joined to create the Canadian federation in 1867, these railways were transferred to the new central government. As well, the construction of the Intercolonial Railway between them was one of the terms of the new constitution; the first section of this government-owned railway was completed in 1872. Western Canada's early railways were all run by owned companies backed by government subsidies and loans. By the early twentieth century, many of these had become bankrupt; the federal government nationalized several failing Western railways and combined them with its existing Intercolonial and other line in the East to create Canadian National Railways in 1918 as a transcontinental system.
The CNR was unique in, a conglomerate, besides passenger and freight rail, it had inherited major business interests in shipping and telegraphy and was able create new lines of business in broadcasting and air travel. Many of the components of this business empire where spun off into new Crown corporations including some the most important businesses in the mid-twentieth century economy of Canada, such Air Canada, the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Via Rail, Marine Atlantic. Provincial Crown corporations re-emerged in the early twentieth century, most notably in the selling of alcohol. Government monopoly liquor stores were seen as a compromise between the ended era of Prohibition in Canada and the excesses of the previous open market which had led to calls for prohibition in the first place. All the provinces used this system at one point; the largest of these government liquor businesses, the Liquor Control Board of Ontario, was by 2008 one of the world's largest alcohol retailers. Resource
Sault Ste. Marie Bridge Company
Sault Ste. Marie Bridge Company is a subsidiary of the Wisconsin Central Ltd, it operates a railroad bridge over the St. Marys River between Sault Ste. Marie and Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. Buffalo and Fort Erie Public Bridge Authority - public, Peace Bridge Detroit International Bridge Company - private, Ambassador Bridge Niagara Falls Bridge Commission - public, Lewiston-Queenston Bridge, Whirlpool Rapids Bridge and Rainbow Bridge Thousand Islands Bridge Authority - public, Thousand Islands Bridge Windsor-Detroit Bridge Authority - public, Gordie Howe International Bridge Historic American Engineering Record No. MI-324, "Sault Ste. Marie International Railroad Bridge, Spanning Soo Locks at St. Marys Falls Canal, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI", 32 photos, 29 data pages, 5 photo caption pages Coordinates: 46.50742°N 84.36206°W / 46.50742.
Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority
The Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority is a New York State public-benefit corporation responsible for the public transportation oversight of Erie and Niagara counties in the state of New York. The NFTA, as an authority, oversees a number of subsidiaries, including the NFTA Metro bus and rail system, the Buffalo-Niagara International Airport, the Niagara Falls International Airport and NFTA Small Boat Harbor; the NFTA Metro bus and rail system is a multi-modal agency, utilizing various vehicle modes, using the brand names: NFTA Metro Bus, NFTA Metro Rail, NFTA Metrolink and NFTA PAL. In addition, the NFTA owns and manages a number of properties, including the Buffalo Metropolitan Transportation Center in Downtown Buffalo. Of note, many of the bus loops have been in continuous operation since the days of the International Railway Company, a predecessor to the NFTA. Agency-wide, the NFTA employs 1,500 part-time employees. There are three business centers that operate as the NFTA organization: Surface Transportation, which handles ground transportation throughout Erie and Niagara counties, which handles air related business at the Buffalo-Niagara International Airport and Niagara Falls International Airport and Property Risk/Management, which operates the NFTA-Boat Harbor and handles other properties that are owned and/or operated by the NFTA.
Before the creation of the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority, the first bus operations in Buffalo dates back to 1923 under the private operator International Bus Company. The International Railway Company operated the vast network of streetcar routes in Erie and Niagara counties. In 1947, the proposed Niagara Frontier Rapid Transit Commission received ownership of the International Railway Company, gave way to the creation of the Niagara Frontier Transit System, Incorporated in 1950; the Niagara Frontier Transit System was replaced by the Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority Corp. in 1967, as part of New York State's efforts in the late 1960s and early 1970s at creating public agencies that would oversee the development and continuation of public transportation in a number of key urban areas of the state. In 1974, the NFTA purchased the street transportation rights from a number of other agencies, starting with the Niagara Falls Municipal Transit System on September 8, 1974, D&F Transit on September 15, T-NT Transit on October 7, Lockport Bus Lines on March 15, 1975 and Grand Island Transit on April 20, 1975.
Administrative offices and buses were housed in the former Niagara Frontier Transit Buildings at 855 Main Street until 1977. The NFTA's operations are overseen by a 12-member Board of Commissioners that the Executive Director reports to; the members are nominated by the Governor of the State of New York, with two chosen by the Erie County Executive. Most appointments are for five year terms, but some commissioners have been appointed part-way into a term, replacing a previous commissioner; the current executive director is Kimberley A. Minkel, who served as the Director of Health and Environmental Quality. Minkel will carry the recognition as the NFTA's first female executive director. In 2017, the NFTA had operating expenses of $253.57 million, an outstanding debt of $133.57 million, a staffing level of 1,714 people. NFTA's Metro system serves the urbanized areas of Erie and Niagara counties with service throughout the day and selected suburban and rural areas of Erie and Niagara counties; the cities receiving service include Buffalo, Niagara Falls, Lackawanna and North Tonawanda.
Service to less populated areas during prime ridership hours extend to Alden, Boston, Grand Island, Lancaster, Evans, Orchard Park, East Aurora and West Seneca in Erie County. The NFTA inherited a large number of General Motors New Look buses from the private carriers that were absorbed into the agency. In addition, a small fleet of Highway Products' Twin Coaches and Mack buses that were nearing the end of their life span were added to the fleet; the first major purchase of new buses by the NFTA began in 1975 with AM General's "Metropolitan" series buses. These buses were withdrawn from service in 1987 due to severe structural issues. To address this immediate shortage of buses, the NFTA purchased a number of mothballed GMC buses from the Dallas Area Rapid Transit system, Flxible buses from Rochester's Regional Transit Service and General Motors New Looks from Broome County Transit of Binghamton; this temporary arrangement filled most of the gap left by the removal of the AM General buses. The next major purchase of new buses came in their RTS-II Series.
These buses were purchased between 1978 and 1983. As mentioned earlier, in 1987, due to the premature retirement of the AM General buses, the NFTA purchased a number of used, earlier series RTS series buses from Dallas' DART system; these buses provided comfortable padded seats not seen on standard NFTA transit coaches. These bus
Lieutenant Governor of New York
The Lieutenant Governor of New York is a constitutional office in the executive branch of the Government of the State of New York. It is the second highest-ranking official in state government; the lieutenant governor is elected on a ticket with the governor for a four-year term. Official duties dictated to the lieutenant governor under the present New York Constitution are to serve as president of the state senate, serve as acting governor in the absence of the governor from the state or the disability of the governor, or to become governor in the event of the governor's death, resignation or removal from office via impeachment. Additional statutory duties of the lieutenant governor are to serve on the New York Court for the Trial of Impeachments, the State Defense Council, on the board of trustees of the College of Environmental Science and Forestry; the office is held by Kathy Hochul. Most lieutenant governors take on other duties. For example, Mary Donohue took on duties in the areas of small business, school violence, land-use planning, along with serving as a surrogate speaker for the governor in upstate New York.
Donohue's predecessor, Betsy McCaughey Ross, worked on Medicare and education policy, prior to her falling out with Governor George Pataki. Democrat Stan Lundine, who served under Governor Mario Cuomo, was active on technology and housing issues during his two terms in office. While governor and lieutenant governor are elected by a single joint vote in the general election, they run separately in the primaries. In 1982, Mario Cuomo won the Democratic nomination for governor, but his running mate H. Carl McCall lost the lieutenant governor nomination to Alfred DelBello. DelBello was elected with Cuomo, but resigned in 1985, complaining that Cuomo did not give him anything to do. McCaughey Ross had been elected on a ticket with Pataki in 1994 but soon broke with him on state policy, he dropped her from his 1998 re-election ticket, she became a Democrat and ran for governor on the Liberal ticket. Prior to Paterson succeeding Eliot Spitzer on March 17, 2008, the last lieutenant governor to succeed to the governorship was Malcolm Wilson following the 1973 resignation of Nelson Rockefeller when he became Vice President of the United States.
Mario Cuomo was the last lieutenant governor to be elected governor. In the 1994 statewide election, Lt. Gov. Stan Lundine sought reelection on the Democratic ticket with Gov. Mario Cuomo. Lieutenant Governor Lundine was unopposed for renomination on the Democratic ticket. In the Republican primary, academic Betsy McCaughey was the only candidate, as nominated by the Republican State Convention. Ms. McCaughey was selected as a running mate by State Sen. George Pataki. Pataki also considered sofa bed heiress Bernadette Castro and Assembly Minority Leader Clarence Rappalya as possible running mates as well; the Pataki/McCaughey ticket defeated the Cuomo/Lundine ticket in the general election. In 1997, following a falling out for most of their term, Gov. George Pataki dropped Lieutenant Governor Betsy McCaughey Ross from the ticket. Pataki embarked on a year long process to select a new running mate for lieutenant governor. After considering State Parks Commissioner Bernadette Castro, State Sen. Mary Lou Rath and Erie County Comptroller Nancy Naples, Pataki nominated Judge Mary Donohue as his running mate.
Judge Donohue was unopposed for the Republican nomination. Several candidates entered the race for the Democratic lieutenant governor nomination. State Sen. Anthony Nanula of Buffalo considered the race and decided against running. Plattsburgh Mayor Clyde Rabideau, Brighton Town Supervisor Sandra Frankel, Buffalo Councilwoman Barbra Kavenugh, attorney Charlie King of Rockland County announced their candidacies for the nomination. Councilwoman Kavanaugh withdrew from the race at the Democratic State Convention. Mayor Rabideau was selected as a running mate by New York City Council Speaker Peter Vallone and Supervisor Frankel was selected as a running mate by Brooklyn District Attorney Charles Hynes during the state convention. Mr. King continued his race. Lieutenant Governor McCaughey Ross, running for governor considered Assemblyman Sam Hoyt as a running mate; as the Liberal Party nominee, Lieutenant Governor McCaughey Ross was paired with Jonathan Reiter as a running mate. Independence Party nominee Tom Golisano ran with Laureen Oliver.
The Green Party nominee actor Al Lewis ran with Alice Green. Supervisor Frankel won the Democratic lieutenant governor primary and was paired in the general election with Speaker Vallone; the Pataki/Donohue ticket defeated the Golisano/Oliver tickets. Reports in early 2002 said that Governor Pataki was considered dropping Lieutenant Governor Donohue from the ticket and asking her to run for New York State Attorney General instead; the reports said he had considered New York Secretary of State Randy Daniels and Erie County Executive Joel Giambra as replacement running mates, but Lieutenant Governor Donohue would join Governor Pataki again on the Republican ticket. The Democratic field started with 1998 nominee Sandra Frankel, 1998 candidate Charlie King, businessman Dennis Mehiel, Westchester County Legislature Chairman George Latimer and former New York City Consumer Affairs Commissioner Jane Steiner Hoffman. Commissioner Hoffman dropped out of the race for medical reasons, both Latimer and Frankel dropped out for party unity.
State Comptroller Carl McCall selected Mr. Mehiel as his running mate and former HUD Secretary Andrew Cuomo selected Mr. King as a running mate. A week before the September primary, Secretary Cuomo and Mr. King withdrew from their primaries and endorsed the M
The Ambassador Bridge is a tolled suspension bridge across the Detroit River that connects Detroit, United States, with Windsor, Canada. It is the busiest international border crossing in North America in terms of trade volume, carrying more than 25% of all merchandise trade between the United States and Canada. A 2004 Border Transportation Partnership study showed that 150,000 jobs in the region and US$13 billion in annual production depend on the Detroit–Windsor international border crossing; the bridge is owned by Grosse Pointe billionaire Manuel Moroun through the Detroit International Bridge Company in the United States and the Canadian Transit Company in Canada. In 1979, when the previous owners of the bridge put it on the New York Stock Exchange and shares were traded, Moroun was able to buy shares acquiring the bridge; the bridge carries 60 to 70 percent of commercial truck traffic in the region. Moroun owns the Ammex Detroit Duty Free Stores at both the bridge and the tunnel; the passage across the Detroit River became an important traffic route following the American Civil War.
The Michigan Central and the Great Western railroads in addition to others operated on either side of the border connecting Chicago with the Atlantic Seaboard. To cross the Detroit River, these railroads operated ferries between docks on either side; the ferries lacked the capacity to handle the shipping needs of the railroads, there were 700–1,000 freight cars waiting to cross the river, with numerous passengers delayed in transit. Warehouses in Chicago were forced to store grain that could not be shipped to eastern markets and foreign goods were stored in eastern warehouses waiting shipment to the western United States; the net effect of these delays increased commodity prices in the country, both merchants and farmers wanted a solution from the railroads. The Michigan Central proposed the construction of a tunnel under the river with the support of their counterparts at the Great Western Railway. Construction continued until ventilating equipment failed the next year. Attention turned in 1873 to the alternative of building a railroad bridge over the river.
The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers commissioned a study of a bridge over the Detroit River. Representatives of the shipping industry on the Great Lakes opposed any bridge with piers in the river as a hazard to navigation. Discussions continued for the remainder of the decade to no avail; the U. S. Congress requested a new study for a bridge in 1889; the Michigan Central built the Detroit River Tunnel in 1909–10 to carry trains under the river. This tunnel benefited the Michigan Central and Great Western railroads, but the Canada Southern Railway and other lines still preferred a bridge over the river. Plans for a bridge were revived in 1919 to commemorate the end of World War I and to honor the "youth of Canada and the United States who served in the Great War"; the Ambassador Bridge opened November 1929, at a total cost of $23.5 million. A Canadian immigration inspector jumped to his death in April 1930; the bridge has been used by other suicide jumpers. After it opened, high divers considered it as a venue for a record.
The bridge over the Detroit River had the longest suspended central span in the world when it was completed in 1929—1,850 feet. This record held until the George Washington Bridge between New York and New Jersey opened in 1931; the bridge's total length is 7,500 feet. Construction began in 1927 and was completed in 1929; the architect was the McClintic-Marshall Company of Pennsylvania. The bridge is made up of 21,000 short tons of steel, the roadway rises as high as 152 feet above the Detroit River. Only the main span over the river is supported by suspension cables; the bridge's only sidewalk is located on the southwest side of the structure. After the September 11 attacks pedestrians and bicycles were formally prohibited from traveling across the bridge due to increased security measures. For years prior to September 11, 2001, the sidewalk was closed due to on-going maintenance projects and repainting. Painted gloss black, the bridge underwent a five-year refurbishment between 1995 and 2000, which included stripping and repainting the bridge teal.
Granite blocks used on the U. S. side, were given to the Windsor Parks and Recreation Department, now grace many of the pathways in Windsor parks. The Ambassador Bridge is the busiest crossing on the Canada–United States border; the four-lane bridge carries more than 10,000 commercial vehicles on a typical weekday. The Gateway Project, a major redesign of the U. S. plaza completed in July 2009, provides direct access to Interstate 96 and I-75 on the American side and Highway 3 on the Canadian side. The Canadian end of the bridge connects to busy city streets in west Windsor; the owned bridge carries 25% of trade between Canada and the United States. A new bridge, the Gordie Howe International Bridge, proposed by the Detroit River International Crossing commission, has been approved for construction by the Canadian and United States governments; the new bridge further downriver between Detroit and Windsor will be owned and operated by the Windsor-Detroit Bridge Authority, a Crown corporation owned by the Canadian federal government.
Manuel "Matty" Moroun, private owner of the Ambassador Bridge, has spok