Worms are many different distantly related animals that have a long cylindrical tube-like body and no limbs. Worms vary in size from microscopic to over 1 metre in length for marine polychaete worms, 6.7 metres for the African giant earthworm, Microchaetus rappi, 58 metres for the marine nemertean worm, Lineus longissimus. Various types of worm occupy a small variety of parasitic niches, living inside the bodies of other animals. Free-living worm species do not live on land, but instead, live in marine or freshwater environments, or underground by burrowing. In biology, "worm" refers to an obsolete taxon, used by Carolus Linnaeus and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck for all non-arthropod invertebrate animals, now seen to be paraphyletic; the name stems from the Old English word wyrm. Most animals called "worms" are invertebrates, but the term is used for the amphibian caecilians and the slowworm Anguis, a legless burrowing lizard. Invertebrate animals called "worms" include annelids, platyhelminthes, marine nemertean worms, marine Chaetognatha, priapulid worms, insect larvae such as grubs and maggots.
Worms may be called helminths in medical terminology when referring to parasitic worms the Nematoda and Cestoda which reside in the intestines of their host. When an animal or human is said to "have worms", it means that it is infested with parasitic worms roundworms or tapeworms. Lungworm is a common parasitic worm found in various animal species such as fish and cats. In taxonomy, "worm" refers to an obsolete grouping, used by Carl Linnaeus and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck for all non-arthropod invertebrate animals, now seen to be polyphyletic. In 1758, Linnaeus created the first hierarchical classification in his Systema Naturae. In his original scheme, the animals were one of three kingdoms, divided into the classes of Vermes, Pisces, Amphibia and Mammalia. Since the last four have all been subsumed into a single phylum, the Chordata, while his Insecta and Vermes have been renamed or broken up; the process was begun in 1793 by Lamarck, who called the Vermes une espèce de chaos and split the group into three new phyla, worms and polyps.
By 1809, in his Philosophie Zoologique, Lamarck had created 9 phyla apart from vertebrates and molluscs, namely cirripedes, crustaceans, insects, radiates and infusorians. In the 13th century, worms were recognized in Europe as part of the category of reptiles that consisted of a miscellany of egg-laying creatures, including "snakes, various fantastic monsters, assorted amphibians," as recorded by Vincent of Beauvais in his Mirror of Nature. In everyday language, the term worm is applied to various other living forms such as larvae, millipedes, shipworms, or some vertebrates such as blindworms and caecilians. Worms are still technically decomposers; the first of these, includes the flatworms and flukes. They have a flat, ribbon- or leaf-shaped body with a pair of eyes at the front; some are parasites. The second group contains the threadworms and hookworms; this phylum is called Nematoda. Threadworms may be microscopic, such as the vinegar eelworm, or more than 1 metre long, they are found in damp earth, decaying substances, fresh water, or salt water.
Some roundworms are parasites. The Guinea worm, for example, gets under the skin of the feet and legs of people living in tropical countries; the third group consists with bodies divided into segments, or rings. This phylum is called Annelida. Among these are the earthworms and the bristle worms of the sea. Familiar worms include members of phylum Annelida. Other invertebrate groups may be called worms colloquially. In particular, many unrelated insect larvae are called "worms", such as the railroad worm, glowworm, inchworm, mealworm and woolly bear worm. Worms may be called helminths in medical terminology when referring to parasitic worms the Nematoda and Cestoda. Hence "helminthology" is the study of parasitic worms; when a human or an animal, such as a dog or horse, is said to "have worms", it means that it is infested with parasitic worms roundworms or tapeworms. Deworming is a method to kill off the worms that have infected a human or animal by giving anthelmintic drugs. "Ringworm" is not a worm at all, but a skin fungus.
Wurm, or wyrm was the Old English term for carnivorous reptiles, mythical dragons. Worm has been used as a pejorative epithet to describe a weak or pitiable person. Worms can be farmed for the production of nutrient-rich vermicompost. Sea worm, lists various types of marine worms Worm cast Worm charming
James Wear "Bug" Holliday was an American center fielder in Major League Baseball for ten seasons, in the 1885 World Series and from 1889 through 1898. He is the first player to make his major league debut in post-season play, with the Chicago White Stockings in 1885, he played the rest of his career with the Cincinnati Reds, both when they were in the American Association and in the National League. He twice led the league in home runs, was among the leaders in various other offensive categories throughout his career. After his playing career was over, he was an umpire for one season. Holliday was born in St. Louis and became the first player in major league history to make his debut in the post-season when he was called up, at the age of 18, by the Chicago White Stockings when they needed another outfielder for Game 4 of the 1885 World Series, he played in one game, had no hits in four at bats. The distinction has since been matched by Mark Kiger, who played in the 2006 American League Championship Series for the Oakland Athletics as a defensive replacement, Adalberto Mondesí, pinch-hitting for Luke Hochevar in Game 3 of the 2015 World Series for the Kansas City Royals.
Holliday made his regular-season major league debut in 1889 for the Cincinnati Red Stockings of the American Association. In his first season with the Red Stockings, he led the league in home runs with 19, while finishing in the top ten in many offensive categories, he was fifth in batting average with.321, fifth in runs batted in with 104, third in hits with 181, ninth in doubles with 28. Before the 1890 season, the Red Stockings transferred their team over to the National League and became the Reds. Holliday picked up where he left off the previous season, with an opening day home run off Bill Hutchinson in a 5–4 loss to the Chicago Colts, but after that, his season's power numbers dropped as he hit only four home runs, tallied 75 RBIs, had a.270 batting average. He bounced back the following season, when he hit nine home runs, fourth in the league, batted.319 to finish second in the league, totaled 84 RBIs, ninth. He followed the 1891 campaign with an better 1892 season, when he played in 153 games, batted 602 times, scored 114 runs, tripled 16 times, all career highs.
He claimed his second home run title that season, with 13, finished in the top ten with 176 hits as well. Both 1893 and 1894 saw, but statistically, 1894 was his greatest season, when his.372 batting average was his career high, as well as his 119 runs scored, 190 hits, 119 RBIs.420 on-base percentage and.523 slugging percentage. During the first six years of his career, he slugged 63 home runs, second to only Roger Connor during the same span. In his last four seasons he was never more than a part-time player; when Holliday's baseball career was over, he was a National League umpire for the 1903 season, officiating in 53 games that season. He was involved in one incident in which Honus Wagner of the Pittsburgh Pirates and Cincinnati Reds second baseman Jack Morrissey became engaged in words, which led to Wagner being surrounded by other Reds players. Holliday ejected Wagner from the game to quell the possibility of an altercation on the field, he continued to live in Cincinnati, worked in a pool room while covering horse racing for a local newspaper.
He died at the age of 43 in Cincinnati of gangrene of foot and leg, is interred at Spring Grove Cemetery in Cincinnati. The New York Times reported his illness on February 3, 1910, as a result, Reds manager Clark Griffith ordered all of the Cincinnati players to be vaccinated before they left for training camp. List of Major League Baseball annual home run leaders Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference, or Fangraphs, or Baseball-Reference "Bug Holliday". Find a Grave. Retrieved August 10, 2010
World Record (Lower Than Atlantis album)
World Record is the second studio album by British rock band Lower Than Atlantis. Partway through the touring cycle for their Bretton EP, Lower Than Atlantis had several line-up changes. While writing songs for their debut album, Far Q, the band's drummer left, they soon thought about drummer Eddy Thrower from We Stare at Mirrors, who the band had toured with, called him, asking he if would like to partake in a practice session. Duce explained. T was... nice." Shortly after the release of Far Q, We Stare at Mirrors bassist Declan Hart joined the band. Following this, the band toured the UK as part of Rock Sound Presents... Powered by Fender tour in September and October, alongside Architects, Norma Jean and Devil Sold His Soul. Rock Sound predicted; the band recorded World Record at Outhouse Studios in Reading in October. Ben Humphreys helped with engineering. On Far Q, Thrower used a double bass pedal for a lot of fills. For World Record, he used one bass pedal, crash and ride cymbals. Mat Rider of The Holiday Plan contributes guest vocals on "Marilyn's Mansion".
Thrower's dad John plays trumpet on "Another Sad Song". The recordings were mixed by John Mitchell, mastered by Alan Douches at West West Side in New York in November. All of the songs on World Record were written by vocalist/guitarist Mike Duce, but were credited to the band as a whole. Duce considers the album "a big of a gamble" as the band created something they wanted to hear but at the same time they thought it would alienate the fans that enjoyed the fast-paced material found on Far Q. World Record was influenced by Lostprophets' Start Something, it had a more alternative rock sound influenced by Jimmy Eat World. This was something. Duce claimed that there might be "more albums sounding a bit like this afterwards..." The band were going for a bigger sound, compared to Far Q, as that half of that album has "blink-and-you'll-miss-it" moments, according to Duce." Way of Life" is the band's view of life as a touring band. "Beech Like the Tree" is about Duce's friend Josh who models for a living.
"High at Five" is about Duce's "overactive brain" – Duce would over think things and end in having panic attacks. "Uni 9MM" is about how the band envies their friends who graduated university, got jobs, etc. The band is "truly grateful that we get to do what we do but there's always that'what if'?" "Another Sad Song" is about "Me being me", according to Duce. "Marilyn's Mansion" is about when Duce was younger, he would make dens in a forest where he would feel "safe". He wished. "Deadliest Catch" is "about a girl! I won't bore you with gory details", according to Duce. Duce had a fling with a female bassist in another band but she led Duce on, causing him to write "Bug". "Bug" was his nickname for the girl. "Up in Smoke" is about the fact Duce has smoked since he was 11/12 years old and is trying to quit. "Could You? Would You?" is about Duce's friend's girlfriend. She would treat Duce's friend "like crap and I hate her". "Working for the Man by Day, Stickin' It to the Man by Night" is about Duce's old job as a labourer for a bricklayer when he was 16.
Duce admitted that he tried to emanate the message of "it's ok. We all go through some shitty experiences at work" through the lyrics. "R. O. I." is about where Duce's family originated from in Ireland and how Duce is unable to visit due to his schedule. On 3 November 2010, the band announced that their new album would be titled World Record and was due for release early next year; the band went on a European tour in November and December, alongside The Ghost Inside, For the Fallen Dreams and Suffokate. On 12 January 2011, a music video was released for "Beech Like the Tree". Three days the album's track listing was revealed. On 18 January, the album's artwork was released, designed by Paul Jackson. On 8 February, it was announced. Sumerian founder Ash Avildsen said that the band were, after listing hardcore/punk bands At the Drive-In, Refused and Fugazi, a "fresh hope for a true blue-collar DIY punk rock band" bringing the "same spirit to the scene." "Beech Like the Tree" was released as single, with "Grounded" as the B-side, on 14 February.
The band played a series of shows from 18 February until 10 March, before joining The Reckless and Relentless Tour supporting Asking Alexandria throughout March and April. On 28 March, "Uni 9MM" was made available for streaming via Alternative Press. A couple of days a music video was released for "Deadliest Catch", it switches between fan submissions. The band's scenes were filmed by the Brighton seafront; the band included fan-produced content due to having trouble filming the video's original concept. "Up in Smoke" was premiered via Noisecreep on 12 April. "Deadliest Catch" was released on 18 April. World Record was made available for streaming on 18 April through the group's Myspace profile. A double-disc edition contained World Record and their previous album Far Q was released the following day in the US. "Live by the Remote", "Grounded" and "Beside Myself" are tacked onto the end of World Record as bonus tracks. After being pushed back from its 4 April release date, World Record was released in the UK through A Wolf at Your Door Records on 25 April.
In late April and early May, the band supported We Are the Ocean in the UK. At the end of May, the band appeared at the Slam Dunk Festival; the band toured the UK in June, with Futures as the
Terrestrial molluscs or land molluscs are ecological group that includes all molluscs that lives on land in contrast to freshwater and marine molluscs. This group includes land snails and land slugs, however loss of the shell has taken place many times in different groups that are not evolutionarily related, in specialized malacological literature, land snails and slugs are most treated together as one group. All terrestrial molluscs belongs to the class Gastropoda, however colonization of the land took place several times during the evolutionary past, as a result terrestrial molluscs are classified in several different not related, gastropod taxa. Terrestrial mollusks comprise about 35 thousand species, most of which belong to the order Stylommatophora. Terrestrial molluscs occur across the whole planet except Antarctica and some islands, they inhabit a wide range of ecosystems, from tundras to rainforests. In terms of survival, this group of species is one of the most threatened. According to an estimate from Cameron, of the 409 existing gastropod families there are 119 families which include terrestrial molluscs.
Among these families, 104 are Stylommatophora, 7 are terrestrial pulmonates other than stylommatophorans, 8 are operculates. "Prosobranchs" Cyclophoroidea Pomatiidae"Pulmonates" Amphiboloidea Ellobioidea Systellommatophora Stylommatophora Oskar Boettger Jacques Philippe Raymond Draparnaud Wilhelm Kobelt Henry Augustus Pilsbry Emil Adolf Rossmässler Heinrich Simroth Carl Agardh Westerlund Land snail Land slug Stylommatophora Freshwater mollusc Freshwater snail Sea snail Barker G. M; the biology of terrestrial molluscs. CABI Publishing, 2001, 558 pp. ISBN 0-85199-318-4. Cameron R. snails. HarperCollins Publishers, London, 2016, 508 pp. ISBN 978-0-00-711301-9
The Hemiptera or true bugs are an order of insects comprising some 50,000 to 80,000 species of groups such as the cicadas, planthoppers and shield bugs. They range in size from 1 mm to around 15 cm, share a common arrangement of sucking mouthparts; the name "true bugs" is sometimes limited to the suborder Heteroptera. Many insects known as "bugs" belong to other orders. Most hemipterans feed on plants, piercing mouthparts to extract plant sap; some are parasitic while others are predators that feed on small invertebrates. They live in a wide variety of habitats terrestrial, though some species are adapted to life in or on the surface of fresh water. Hemipterans are hemimetabolous, with young nymphs. Many aphids are capable of parthenogenesis, producing young from unfertilised eggs. Humans have interacted with the Hemiptera for millennia; some species, including many aphids, are important agricultural pests, damaging crops by the direct action of sucking sap, but harming them indirectly by being the vectors of serious viral diseases.
Other species have been used for biological control of insect pests. Hemipterans have been cultivated for shellac; the bed bug is a persistent parasite of humans. Cicadas have been used as food, have appeared in literature from the Iliad in Ancient Greece. Hemiptera is the largest order of hemimetabolous insects containing over 75,000 named species; the group is diverse. The majority of species are terrestrial, including a number of important agricultural pests, but some are found in freshwater habitats; these include the water boatmen, pond skaters, giant water bugs. The fossil record of hemipterans goes back to the Carboniferous; the oldest fossils are of the Archescytinidae from the Lower Permian and are thought to be basal to the Auchenorrhyncha. Fulguromorpha and Cicadomorpha appear in the Upper Permian, as do Sternorrhyncha of the Psylloidea and Aleurodoidea. Aphids and Coccoids appear in the Triassic; the Coleorrhyncha extend back to the Lower Jurassic. The Heteroptera first appeared in the Triassic.
The present members of the order Hemiptera were placed into two orders, the so-called Homoptera and Heteroptera/Hemiptera, based on differences in wing structure and the position of the rostrum. The order is now divided into four or more suborders, after the "Homoptera" were established as paraphyletic; the cladogram is based on one analysis of the phylogeny of the Paraneoptera by Hu Li and colleagues in 2015, using mitochondrial genome sequences and homogeneous models. It places the Sternorrhyncha as sister clade to the Thysanoptera and the lice, making the Hemiptera as traditionally understood non-monophyletic. However, when heterogeneous models were used, Hemiptera was found to be monophyletic; the result where Hemiptera was found to be non-monophyletic is due to phylogenetic artifacts, such as elevated substitution rates in Sternorrhyncha compared with the other suborders of Hemiptera. English names are given in parentheses where possible; the defining feature of hemipterans is their "beak" in which the modified mandibles and maxillae form a "stylet", sheathed within a modified labium.
The stylet is capable of sucking liquids, while the labium supports it. The stylet contains a channel for the outward movement of saliva and another for the inward movement of liquid food. A salivary pump drives saliva into the prey. Both pumps are powered by substantial dilator muscles in the head; the beak is folded under the body when not in use. The diet is plant sap, but some hemipterans such as assassin bugs are blood-suckers, a few are predators. Both herbivorous and predatory hemipterans inject enzymes to begin digestion extraorally; these enzymes include amylase to hydrolyse starch, polygalacturonase to weaken the tough cell walls of plants, proteinases to break down proteins. Although the Hemiptera vary in their overall form, their mouthparts form a distinctive "rostrum". Other insect orders with mouthparts modified into anything like the rostrum and stylets of the Hemiptera include some Phthiraptera, but for other reasons they are easy to recognize as non-hemipteran; the mouthparts of Siphonaptera, some Diptera and Thysanoptera superficially resemble the rostrum of the Hemiptera, but on closer inspection the differences are considerable.
Aside from the mouthparts, various other insects can be confused with Hemiptera, but they all have biting mandibles and maxillae instead of the rostrum. Examples include cockroaches and psocids, both of which have longer, many-segmented antennae, some beetles, but these have hardened forewings which do not overlap; the forewings of Hemiptera are either membranous, as in the Sternorrhyncha and Auchenorrhyncha, or hardened, as in most Heteroptera. The name "Hemiptera" is from the Greek ἡμι- and πτερόν, referring to the forewings of many heteropterans which are ha
Slipper lobsters are a family of about 90 species of achelate crustaceans, in the Decapoda Reptantia, found in all warm oceans and seas. They are not true lobsters, but are more related to spiny lobsters and furry lobsters. Slipper lobsters are recognisable by their enlarged antennae, which project forward from the head as wide plates. All the species are edible, some, such as the Moreton Bay bug and the Balmain bug are of commercial importance. Slipper lobsters have six segments in their heads and eight segments in the thorax, which are collectively covered in a thick carapace; the six segments of the abdomen each bear a pair of pleopods, while the thoracic appendages are either walking legs or maxillipeds. The head segments bear two pairs of antennae; the first antennae, or antennules, are held on a long flexible stalk, are used for sensing the environment. The second antennae are the slipper lobsters' most conspicuous feature, as they are expanded and flattened into large plates that extend horizontally forward from the animal's head.
There is considerable variation in size among species of slipper lobsters. The Mediterranean species Scyllarus pygmaeus is the smallest, growing to a maximum total length of 55 millimetres, more than 40 mm; the largest species, Scyllarides haanii, may reach 50 centimetres long. Slipper lobsters are bottom dwellers of the continental shelves, found at depths of up to 500 metres. Slipper lobsters eat a variety of molluscs, including limpets and oysters, as well as crustaceans and echinoderms, they grow and live to a considerable age. They lack the giant neurones which allow other decapod crustaceans to perform tailflips, must rely on other means to escape predator attack, such as burial in a substrate and reliance on the armoured exoskeleton; the most significant predators of slipper lobsters are bony fish, with the grey triggerfish being the most significant predator of Scyllarides latus in the Mediterranean Sea. After hatching out of their eggs, young slipper lobsters pass through around ten instars as phyllosoma larvae — leaf-like, planktonic zoeae.
These ten or so stages last the greater part of a year, after which the larva moults into a "nisto" stage that lasts a few weeks. Nothing is known about the transition from this stage to the adults, which continue to grow through a series of moults. Although they are fished for wherever they are found, slipper lobsters have not been the subject of such intense fishery as spiny lobsters or true lobsters; the methods used for catching slipper lobsters varies depending on the species' ecology. Those that prefer soft substrates, such as Thenus and Ibacus, are caught by trawling, while those that prefer crevices and reefs are caught by scuba divers; the global catch of slipper lobsters was reported in 1991 to be 2,100 tonnes. More annual production has been around 5,000 tonnes, the majority of, production of Thenus orientalis in Asia. A number of common names have been applied to the family Scyllaridae; the most common of these is "slipper lobster", followed by "shovel-nosed lobster" and "locust lobster".
"Spanish lobster" is used for members of the genus Arctides, "mitten lobster" for Parribacus, "fan lobster" for Evibacus and Ibacus. In Australia, a number of species are called "bugs" those in the genus Ibacus. Other names used in Australia include "bay lobster", "blind lobster", "flapjack", "flat lobster", "flying saucer", "gulf lobster", "mudbug", "sandbug", "shovel-nose bug", "shovelnose lobster", "crayfish", "slipper bug" and "squagga". Rarer terms include "flathead lobster" and "bulldozer lobster". In Greece they may be known as Kolochtypes which translates as'bum hitter'. Twenty-two genera are recognised, the majority of which were erected in 2002 by Lipke Holthuis for species classified under Scyllarus: The fossil record of slipper lobsters extends back 100–120 million years, less than that of slipper lobsters' closest relatives, the spiny lobsters. One significant earlier fossil is Cancrinos claviger, described from Upper Jurassic sediments at least 142 million years ago, may represent either an ancestor of modern slipper lobsters, or the sister group to the family Scyllaridae sensu stricto.
Kari L. Lavalli; the biology and fisheries of the slipper lobster. Boca Raton: CRC/Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780849333989. Data related to Scyllaridae at Wikispecies Media related to Scyllaridae at Wikimedia Commons
Bug is the name both of the westernmost tongue of land on the peninsula of Wittow on the German island of Rügen, as well as the name of the former village there. Bug belongs territorially to that municipality. One theory suggests the name Bug goes back to a landowner, Baronet Antonius de Buge, first mentioned in 1284. Another suggests that the word Bug is derived from the German word Biegung = "bend", it is possible that it may have come from a Slavic word bug = beech. The peninsula of Bug runs in a southwesterly direction from the village of Dranske for a distance of 8 km and has an area of 500 ha, it is only 55 metres wide at its narrowest point in the northeast. To the west of the Bug is the Baltic Sea with the northern part of the island of Hiddensee. To the southwest is the lagoon of Vitter Bodden. A large inlet separates the peninsula from the main body of Rügen itself, comprising the lagoon of Wieker Bodden in the northeast, the Buger Bodden and the channel of the Rassower Strom in the southeast.
Its southernmost point is the Buger Haken. Other spits on the bodden side, from north to south, are the Blevser Haken, Fischer Haken and Neubessin; the Bug is the largest spit on the island of Rügen, is still growing. The windwatts of Altbessin and Neubessin in front of the island of Hiddensee to the west are growing towards Bug. Only a dredged shipping channel separates Bug from the island of Hiddensee; the southern part of the Bug belongs to the Western Pomerania Lagoon Area National Park. The Bug was a military out-of-bounds zone for many years; that enabled nature to develop undisturbed. The Bug has woods and species-rich wet areas; the woods are laid out as a forest. As in the northeast of the neighbouring island of Hiddensee the formation of new land in the south of Bug provides a habitat for numerous invertebrates, like worms and mussels; this rich source of food draws rare native bird species as well as many migrating birds. 1540 – Christoph von der Lancken establishes large fish traps for catching fish.
1615 – the Bug is flooded by a storm surge. 1658 – construction of a post station as an intermediate station on the Stralsund to Ystad route 1683 – the post line from Stralsund via Bug to Ystad is opened. The Swedish postal ship, plied this route from 1692 to 1702. 1700 – the Bug is now treeless as a result of clearing and consists of sandy steppe and pastureland. Between 1806 and 1810 – closure of the post route 1822 – the Bug–Ystad route is opened again, this time with steamships. 1835-1930 - the Bug grew annually by six metres a year thanks to sand deposition. 1865 – construction of a telegraph station at the postal harbour of Bug 1872 - the Bug is cut off from Wittow by the floods of 12/13 November 1872. 1887/1888 – reforestation of Bug 1895 – construction of a forester's lodge, start of pilot operations 1914-1945 - used as a military air base 1916 – extension for the seaplane base 1931–1937 – clearing of the Bug: demolition of the customs station, eviction notices served on the inhabitants, in Dranske all buildings were knocked down 1935–1945 – Bug air base 1946/1947 – the Red Army blow up and dismantle the installations on the Bug.
The asphalt airfield was planted. 1947 – the Bug is uninhabited, in the south nature spreads unhindered. 1954 – a youth hostel is built. 1965 – the NVA opens Dranske/Bug duty station for the 6th Flotilla of the Volksmarine. to 1990 - the Bug is an out-of-bounds area. 1990/1991 – use of the fast patrol boat base by the Bundesmarine 1991–1999 – concepts of use put forward since 2001 – renovation of the Bug, demolition of all old buildings and plans for a holiday and leisure centre since 2003 – project stalls due to lack of sufficient funding from its private investors