Joker (playing card)
The Joker is a playing card found in most modern card decks, as an addition to the standard four suits. The Joker originated in the United States during the Civil War and was created as a trump card for the game of Euchre, it has since been adopted into many other card games. The card is unique within the French pack. In the game of Euchre, the highest trump card is the Jack of the trump suit, called the right bower; the concept appears to have originated from Germany where the games and Bester Bube had right and left bowers. Around 1860, American Euchre players may have devised a higher trump, the "Best Bower", out of a blank card. Samuel Hart is credited with printing the first illustrated "Best Bower" card in 1863 with his "Imperial Bower". Best Bower-type jokers continued to be produced well into the 20th-century. Cards labelled "Joker" began appearing around the late 1860s with some depicting jesters, it is believed that the term "Joker" comes from Jucker or Juckerspiel, the original German spelling of Euchre.
One British manufacturer, Charles Goodall, was manufacturing packs with Jokers for the American market in 1871. The first joker for the domestic British market was sold in 1874. Italians call jokers "Jolly" as many early cards were labelled "Jolly Joker"; the next game to use a joker was poker around 1875. Packs with two jokers started to become the norm during the late 1940s for the game of Canasta. Since the 1950s, German and Austrian packs have included three jokers to play German Rummy. Jokers do not have any standardized appearance across the card manufacturing industry; each company produces their own depictions of the card. The publishers of playing cards trademark their jokers, which have unique artwork that reflect contemporary culture. Out of convention, jokers tend to be illustrated as jesters. There are two Jokers per deck noticeably different. For instance, the United States Playing Card Company prints their company's guarantee claim on only one. More common traits are the appearance of black/non-colored Jokers.
At times, the Jokers will each be colored to match the colors used for suits. In games where the jokers may need to be compared, the red, full-color, or larger-graphic Joker outranks the black, monochrome, or smaller-graphic one. If the joker colors are similar, the joker without a guarantee will outrank the guaranteed one. With the red and black jokers, the red one can alternately be counted as a heart/diamond and the black is used to substitute clubs/spades; the Unicode for playing cards provide symbols for three jokers: red and white. Many decks do not provide the Joker with a corner index symbol, of those that do, the most common is a solid five-pointed star or a star within a circle, it is very common for decks to use a stylized "J" or the word "JOKER" in the corner. Like sports trading cards, jokers are prized by collectors. Many unusual jokers are available for purchase online while other collectible jokers are catalogued online for viewing; the Guinness Book of World Records recognizes the largest joker collection as having 8,520 jokers and belonging to Donato de Santis in Italy.
Some European games have as many as six jokers per pack. Zwicker uses 6 Jokers in a 52-card French deck. German Rummy uses 2 packs of French playing cards, with 3 Jokers per pack; the Joker is compared to " Fool" in the Tarot or Tarock decks. They share many similarities both in play function. In Central Europe, the Fool, or Sküs, is the highest trump. Practitioners of cartomancy include a Joker in the standard 52-card deck with a meaning similar to the Fool card of Tarot. Sometimes, the two Jokers are used. An approach is to identify the "black" Joker with a rank of zero with the Fool and the "red" Joker with "the Magician" known as "the Juggler", a card with a rank of one, somewhat similar in interpretation and is considered the first step in the "Fool's Journey". In a standard deck, there are two Jokers; the Joker's use varies greatly. Many card games omit the card entirely. Other games, such as a 25-card variant of Euchre which uses the joker as the highest trump, make it one of the most important in the game.
The joker is a wild card, thereby allowed to represent other existing cards. The term "joker's wild" originates from this practice; the Joker can be an beneficial, or an harmful, card. In Euchre it is used to represent the highest trump. In poker, it is wild. However, in the children's game named Old Maid, a solitary joker represents the Maid, a card, to be avoided. Euchre, 500: As the highest trump or "top Bower". Canasta: The joker, like the deuce, is a wild card. However, the joker is worth 50 points in melding, as opposed to 20 for the deuce. Gin Rummy: a wild card, able to be used as any necessary rank or suit to complete a meld. Chase the Joker: An alternative version of Old Maid where the Joker card is used instead of the Ace. Poker: A joker can be wild, or can be a "bug", a limited form of wildcard which c
Poker is a family of card games that combines gambling and skill. All poker variants involve betting as an intrinsic part of play, determine the winner of each hand according to the combinations of players' cards, at least some of which remain hidden until the end of the hand. Poker games vary in the number of cards dealt, the number of shared or "community" cards, the number of cards that remain hidden, the betting procedures. In most modern poker games the first round of betting begins with one or more of the players making some form of a forced bet. In standard poker, each player bets according to the rank they believe their hand is worth as compared to the other players; the action proceeds clockwise as each player in turn must either match the maximum previous bet, or fold, losing the amount bet so far and all further involvement in the hand. A player who matches a bet may "raise" the bet; the betting round ends when all players folded. If all but one player folds on any round, the remaining player collects the pot without being required to reveal their hand.
If more than one player remains in contention after the final betting round, a showdown takes place where the hands are revealed, the player with the winning hand takes the pot. With the exception of initial forced bets, money is only placed into the pot voluntarily by a player who either believes the bet has positive expected value or, trying to bluff other players for various strategic reasons. Thus, while the outcome of any particular hand involves chance, the long-run expectations of the players are determined by their actions chosen on the basis of probability and game theory. Poker has increased in popularity since the beginning of the 20th century and has gone from being a recreational activity confined to small groups of enthusiasts to a popular activity, both for participants and spectators, including online, with many professional players and multimillion-dollar tournament prizes. Poker was developed sometime during the early 19th century in the United States. Since those early beginnings, the game has grown to become an popular pastime worldwide.
In the 1937 edition of Foster's Complete Hoyle, R. F. Foster wrote: "the game of poker, as first played in the United States, five cards to each player from a twenty-card pack, is undoubtedly the Persian game of As-Nas." By the 1990s some gaming historians including David Parlett started to challenge the notion that poker is a direct derivative of As-Nas. Developments in the 1970s led to poker becoming far more popular. Modern tournament play became popular in American casinos after the World Series of Poker began, in 1970. In casual play, the right to deal a hand rotates among the players and is marked by a token called a dealer button. In a casino, a house dealer handles the cards for each hand, but the button is rotated clockwise among the players to indicate a nominal dealer to determine the order of betting; the cards are dealt clockwise around one at a time. One or more players are required to make forced bets either an ante or a blind bet; the dealer shuffles the cards, the player on the chair to his or her right cuts, the dealer deals the appropriate number of cards to the players one at a time, beginning with the player to his or her left.
Cards may be dealt depending on the variant of poker being played. After the initial deal, the first of what may be several betting rounds begins. Between rounds, the players' hands develop in some way by being dealt additional cards or replacing cards dealt. At the end of each round, all bets are gathered into the central pot. At any time during a betting round, if one player bets, no opponents choose to call the bet, all opponents instead fold, the hand ends the bettor is awarded the pot, no cards are required to be shown, the next hand begins; this is. Bluffing is a primary feature of poker, one that distinguishes it from other vying games and from other games that make use of poker hand rankings. At the end of the last betting round, if more than one player remains, there is a showdown, in which the players reveal their hidden cards and evaluate their hands; the player with the best hand according to the poker variant being played wins the pot. A poker hand comprises five cards. Poker variations are played where a "low hand" may be the best desired hand.
In other words, when playing a poker variant with "low poker" the best hand is one that contains the lowest cards. So while the "majority" of poker game variations are played "high hand", where the best high "straight, flush etc." wins, there are poker variations where the "worst hand" wins, such as "low ball, acey-ducey, high-lo split etc. game variations". To summarize, there can be variations that are "high poker", "low poker", "high low split". In the case of "high low split" the pot is divided among low hand. Poker has many variations, all following a similar pattern of play and using the same hand ranking hierarchy. There are four main families of variants grouped by the protocol of card-dealing and betting: Straight A complete hand is dealt to each player, players bet in one round, with raising and re-raising allowed; this is the oldest poker family.
Wild card (cards)
A wild card in card games is one that may be used to represent any other playing card, sometimes with certain restrictions. These may be jokers, for example in Rummy games, or ordinary ranked and suited cards may be designated as wild cards. A card, not wild may be referred to as a natural card. In most cases, the wild card or cards must be agreed upon by all players before the cards are dealt and play commences. There are two common rules regarding wild cards: "fully wild" cards and the "bug". A card, wild can be designated by its holder as any card they choose with no restrictions. Under this rule, for example, a hand with any natural pair and a wild card becomes three of a kind. Conversely, a bug is a limited wild; the common rule in casinos is that a wild card plays as a bug, given the rank of ace unless designating it as a different card would complete a straight, flush, or straight flush. Under this rule, a hand such as K-K-Joker-5-2 is just a pair of kings, but any four same-suit cards with a bug make a flush, a hand such as 7-Joker-5-4-3 makes a straight.
There is a variation of the "Fully Wild" rule in which the wild card can be any card of the suits matching the cards colour or current suit. For example in a jokers wild game with these rules, the red joker could be used as any card of hearts or diamonds. Inversely, the black joker would be any card of spades. Two exceptions to standard poker practice sometimes seen in home games are the double-ace flush rule, the natural wins rule; the latter rule states that between hands that would otherwise tie, the hand with fewer wild cards wins. This should be treated as an exception to standard practice. In some Austrian and South Tyrolean card games, one or more other cards may be used as wild cards, including the Weli, a special 6 of Bells, the 7 of Bells and 7 of Acorns. In the game of Perlaggen there are six or seven wild cards: four permanent Perlaggs - K or Maxl, 6 or Weli, 7 or Little Weli, the 7 of Bells or Bell-Spitz and 7 or Eichelspitz - as well as 3 "Trump Perlaggs" - the 7, Unter and Ober of Trumps.
There is a tendency among some players to regard wild cards as "impure" or treat wild card games as silly or amateurish. While it is true that a game with too many wild cards can become so random that all skill is lost, the occasional use of wild cards can add variation to a game and add opportunities for skillful play. In particular, five-card draw is traditionally played with a joker in California, plays well with deuces wild. Seven-card stud plays well with one or two bugs when played high-low split. Other games such as Texas hold. For some players, the problem with wild card games is that the winner is always the hand with the most wild cards, making the other cards irrelevant, making skill less important. Another issue with wild cards is. In 5-card stud, the stronger hands are less frequent than the weaker hands; when wild cards are added, the stronger hands gain frequency. For example, if a player holds a pair and a wild card, they will always choose three of a kind rather than two pair; this causes three of a kind to be more common than two pair.
But if two pair ranks above three of a kind, the two pair will become more common