Rally Trophy is a 2001 historic PC rally simulation, created by Bugbear Entertainment and JoWood Productions for the Microsoft Windows. Rally Trophy received positive reviews upon its release, it holds 82/100 on aggregate web sites GameRankings and Metacritic. The Finnish gaming magazine Pelit summarized that "Rally Trophy sets the standard for all future driving games; the graphics are stunning and the lack of inspiring game modes is compensated by the sheer thrill of driving cars that behave uniquely and realistically. A must-have for all rally fans. IGN summarized that " is a superb game that offers an unusual alternative to the more technology packed offerings like McRae and Pro Rally." Several critics compared the game to Grand Prix Legends including IGN and GameSpot. Rally Trophy was a nominee for PC Gamer US's "2002 Best Racing Game" award, which went to NASCAR Racing 2002 Season. Rally Trophy at MobyGames Rally Trophy at Curlie
Metro is a franchise consisting of novels and video games, which began with the release of Dmitry Glukhovsky's Metro 2033 novel in 2005. Although it began in Russia, the project enjoys plenty of popularity in Poland, Hungary and Germany as well. Ukrainian studio 4A Games had developed three titles set in the universe: Metro 2033, Metro: Last Light and Metro Exodus. All of the Metro stories share the same setting – the fictional world of Glukhovsky's original novel. Although it described only his own vision of a post-apocalyptic Moscow, the books of the extended universe take place in a wide variety of different areas. Among these are: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Leningrad Oblast, Nizhny Novgorod, Tver Oblast, Moscow Oblast, Kola Peninsula, Rostov-on-Don, Novosibirsk and the Kaliningrad oblast; some of the books in the series are set in other locations outside of Russia, such as Ukraine, United Kingdom, Italy and Antarctica. A first-person shooter video game titled Metro 2033 was created for Microsoft Windows and Xbox 360 gaming platforms.
It was developed by 4A Games in Ukraine and published in March 2010 by THQ. A sequel, Metro: Last Light, was released in May 2013 on Microsoft Windows, Xbox 360 and PlayStation 3. Redux versions of the games were released in 2014, featuring updated graphics and gameplay with all released downloadable content bundled; the Metro Redux bundle was released for the PC, Xbox One and PlayStation 4. A third game, Metro Exodus, was released in February 2019; the Universe of Metro 2033 is a series of short stories and novels, spanning a variety of genres ranging from post-apocalyptic action to romance, written by several different authors. Despite being written by various authors, the stories of the extended Metro series are all supported by Dmitry Glukhovsky and advertised on the official Metro website. Most of the written works of the series were released in Russia; some books from the universe of Metro 2033, like Piter, Towards the Light and Into the Darkness, have been translated to a number of European languages, such as German and Swedish.
Prior to 2014 and the video games Metro 2033 and Metro: Last Light, no books in the series were released in a country where English is the prominent language. A graphic novel titled Metro 2033: Britannia Comic Prologue inspired by the prologue of the Metro 2033 novel Britannia was published in 2012; the story was written by Grant McMaster, the author of the novel and is illustrated by Benedict Hollis. It is available as a free download and unlike the novels it is in English rather than Russian. A Metro 2033 board game based on the original novel was released in 2011, it was published by Hobby World. The Metro series was being developed into films by Michael De Luca and Solipsist Films; however as of 11 December 2018 the project has been cancelled due to a desire to Americanize the project. Metro 2033 portal
Red Faction is a series of shooter video games developed by Volition and owned by THQ Nordic. Originating in 2001, the Red Faction games have spanned Microsoft Windows, macOS and consoles, including the PlayStation 2, GameCube, PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360; the series is known for its heavy theme including revolutionary undertones. The series has had three unique styles of gameplay; the first is a traditional first-person shooter element, used by the first two games in the series, while the second is a third person style of open world gameplay, used in Red Faction: Guerrilla, a third person style of corridor shooter used in Red Faction: Armageddon. Both styles share the series' unique environmental destruction features; this was enhanced in Red Faction: Guerrilla when it was applied to every building in the game making the game's entire environment destructible. The first two games were traditional first person shooters with unique environmental destruction features that were praised in both games.
The games include vehicles, rifles and other traditional shooter weapons and features. While the first two games did not re-invent the first person shooter, their Geo-mod Engine and rebellious story made both games a new step for the genre. Rather than the traditional first person shooter style of the first two games, both Guerrilla and Armageddon utilize a third person style of gameplay. Guerrilla takes place in an open world environment on the planet of Mars allowing players to free roam across the environment. Armageddon is a more linear experience moving through corridors and caverns from objective to objective. In the games, all environments are destructible which means that every single building in the game can be destroyed. Players are equipped with four weapons, the primary weapon is a sledgehammer with three more weapons of the player's choice; these weapons are purchased using salvage, the main currency of the game, with the exception of the remote charges and assault rifle, both of which are given to the player by default at the start of the game.
Purchasable weapons include an Arc Rifle, Rocket Launcher, Proximity Mines and a Nano Rifle, the last of, effective for remote demolitions. Players go around completing missions for the Red Faction and perform guerrilla actions to liberate various sectors of Mars from the control of the Earth Defense Force. In each game for the series, an engine called Geo-Mod, short for "Geometry Modification" technology, is present in some form; the Geo-Mod engine enables the player to destroy parts of the walls and other features of the levels in a non-predefined manner using various explosive weapons. For Red Faction: Guerrilla, the engine, now based on the Saints Row engine, was planned to be called RED, short for Realtime Environment Destruction, but renamed as Geo-Mod 2.0, which allowed for the free-form destruction of buildings and other structures. Geo-Mod was updated to version 2.5 within Red Faction: Armageddon. Though Volition had planned to include Geo-Mod in Saints Row: The Third, it did not make it into the final game.
Red Faction is the first game in the Red Faction franchise, released in mid-2001 and re-released for other platforms. Red Faction was the first game to run on the Geo-Mod engine that allowed for unparalleled environmental destruction; the game takes place on Mars in the year 2075. The protagonist, Parker, is a miner. Instead, he finds that the Ultor Corporation abuses the workers and forces them to endure hazardous living conditions. A plague of an unknown origin sweeps through the colony, but Ultor does nothing to halt its propagation or to provide for the sick. Red Faction II is the sequel to Red Faction; the game was released in October 2002 for the PlayStation 2, early 2003 for other platforms. Red Faction II is an earth based FPS that deviated from the story set in Red Faction, only keeping minor plot details. Many new features had been added to the original game's sequel. Among these are new and evolved weapons and improved visuals. Taking place on Earth in the year 2080, the protagonist, Alias, is a genetically enhanced super soldier employed by the Ultor Corporation.
Nanotechnology developed by Dr. Capek has fallen into the hands of the EDF and many other terrorist groups. A dictatorship, “The Commonwealth,” has employed Alias to retrieve nanotechnology and other data. Red Faction: B. E. A. S. T. was an intended spinoff title of the series. It was planned to for release on the Nintendo Wii. THQ however decided to close down the Locomotive Games studio and cancelled the prototype game in the process. Red Faction: Guerrilla is the third installment of the Red Faction franchise; the game assumes a third person point of an open world to play in. The game was released on some platforms on June 2, 2009, seven years after its predecessor and featured a vastly different gameplay system. Red Faction: Guerrilla takes place in 2125; the Earth Defense Force, the allies in the original "Red Faction", has become the main antagonist of Guerrilla. Earth's natural resources have run scarce, as a result, its global economy has collapsed from rampant speculation of commodities and lack of production.
Under pressure by Earth's corporations and leaders to acquire the resources of Mars at any cost and at a pace to meet Earth's high demand, the EDF has forced Martian society into a permanent state of unfree labour. The newly reformed "Red Faction" arises to rebel against the EDF, drive them off the planet, begin fairer negotiations with Earth. On June 4, 20
Sega Games Co. Ltd. is a Japanese multinational video game developer and publisher headquartered in Tokyo. The company known as Sega Enterprises Ltd. and Sega Corporation, is a subsidiary of Sega Holdings Co. Ltd., part of Sega Sammy Holdings. Its international branches, Sega of America and Sega of Europe, are headquartered in Irvine and London. Sega's arcade division, once part of Sega Corporation, has existed as Sega Interactive Co. Ltd. a Sega Holdings subsidiary, since 2015. The company was founded by Martin Bromley as Nihon Goraku Bussan on June 3, 1960, which became known as Sega Enterprises, Ltd. after acquiring Rosen Enterprises, an importer of coin-operated games. Sega developed its first coin-operated game with Periscope in the late 1960s. In 1969, Sega was sold to Western Industries. Following a downturn in the arcade business in the early 1980s, Sega began to develop video game consoles, starting with the SG-1000 and Master System, but struggled against competitors such as the Nintendo Entertainment System.
In 1984, Sega executives David Rosen and Hayao Nakayama led a management buyout of the company with backing from CSK Corporation. Sega released its next console, the Sega Genesis, in 1988. Although it was a distant third in Japan, the Genesis found major success after the release of Sonic the Hedgehog in 1991 and outsold its main competitor, the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, in the U. S; however in the decade, Sega suffered commercial failures such as the 32X, Sega Saturn, Dreamcast consoles. In 2001, Sega stopped manufacturing consoles to become a third-party developer and publisher, was acquired by Sammy Corporation in 2004. In the years since the acquisition, Sega has been more profitable, but has been criticized for prioritizing quantity of game releases over quality. Sega produces multi-million-selling game franchises including Sonic the Hedgehog, Total War, Yakuza, is the world's most prolific arcade game producer, it operates amusement arcades and produces other entertainment products, including Sega Toys.
Sega is a subsidiary of Sega Sammy Holdings, a corporate conglomerate with over 60 individual subsidiaries. In 1940, American businessmen Martin Bromley, Irving Bromberg, James Humpert formed Standard Games in Honolulu, Hawaii, to provide coin-operated amusement machines to military bases, they saw that the increase in military personnel with the onset of World War II would create demand for entertainment at military bases. After the war, the founders sold Standard Games and established a new distributor, Service Games, named for the military focus. In 1951, the United States government outlawed slot machines in US territories, so in 1952 Bromley sent two employees, Richard Stewart and Ray LeMaire, to Tokyo to establish a new distributor; the company provided coin-operated slot machines to U. S. bases in Japan, by 1953 had changed its name to Service Games of Japan. The name Sega, an abbreviation of Service Games, was first used in 1954 on the Diamond Star Machine, a slot machine. On May 31, 1960, Service Games of Japan was dissolved.
On June 3, Bromley established two companies to take over its business activities: Nihon Goraku Bussan and Nihon Kikai Seizō. Kikai Seizō focused on manufacturing Sega machines, while Goraku Bussan served as a distributor and operator of coin-operated machines jukeboxes; the two companies merged in 1964. In 1954, David Rosen, an American officer in the United States Air Force stationed in Japan, launched a two-minute photo booth business in Tokyo; this company became Rosen Enterprises, in 1957 began importing coin-operated games to Japan. In 1965, Nihon Goraku Bussan acquired Rosen Enterprise to form Sega Enterprises, Ltd. Rosen was installed as the CEO and managing director. Shortly afterward, Sega stopped leasing to military bases and moved its focus from slot machines to become a publicly traded company of coin-operated amusement machines, its imports included Rock-Ola jukeboxes, pinball games by Williams, gun games by Midway Manufacturing. Because Sega imported second-hand machines that required maintenance, Sega began the transition from importer to manufacturer by constructing replacement guns and flippers for its imported games.
According to former Sega director Akira Nagai, this led to Sega developing their own games as well. The first electromechanical game Sega manufactured was the submarine simulator game Periscope, released worldwide in the late 1960s; the game sported light and sound effects considered innovative, was successful in Japan. It was placed in malls and department stores, it cost 25 cents per play in the United States. Sega was surprised by the success, for the next two years produced and exported between eight and ten games per year. Despite this, rampant piracy in the industry would lead to Sega stepping away from exporting its games. In order to advance the company, Rosen had a goal to take the company public, decided this would be easier to accomplish in the United States than in Japan. Rosen was advised that this would be easiest accomplished by Sega being acquired by a larger company. In 1969, Sega was sold to American conglomerate Gulf and Western Industries, although Rosen remained CEO following the sale.
Rosen continued to develop his relationship with Gulf and Western chairman Charles Bluhdorn, in 1974 Gulf and Western made Sega Enterprises, Ltd. a subsidiary of an American company renamed Sega Enterprises, Inc. Sega released Pong-Tron, its first video-based game, in 1973. Despite late competition from Taito's hit arcade game Space Invaders in 1978, Sega prospered from the arcade gam
Nokia Corporation is a Finnish multinational telecommunications, information technology, consumer electronics company, founded in 1865. Nokia's headquarters are in the greater Helsinki metropolitan area. In 2017, Nokia employed 102,000 people across over 100 countries, did business in more than 130 countries, reported annual revenues of around €23 billion. Nokia is a public limited company listed on New York Stock Exchange, it is the world's 415th-largest company measured by 2016 revenues according to the Fortune Global 500, having peaked at 85th place in 2009. It is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index; the company has had various industries in over 150 years. It was founded as a pulp mill and had long been associated with rubber and cables, but since the 1990s focuses on large-scale telecommunications infrastructures, technology development, licensing. Nokia is a notable major contributor to the mobile telephony industry, having assisted in the development of the GSM, 3G and LTE standards, is best known for having been the largest worldwide vendor of mobile phones and smartphones for a period.
After a partnership with Microsoft and market struggles, its mobile phone business was bought by the former, creating Microsoft Mobile as its successor in 2014. After the sale, Nokia began to focus more extensively on its telecommunications infrastructure business and on the Internet of things, marked by the divestiture of its Here mapping division and the acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent, including its Bell Labs research organization; the company also experimented with virtual reality and digital health, the latter through the purchase of Withings. The Nokia brand has since returned to the mobile and smartphone market through a licensing arrangement with HMD Global. Nokia continues to be a major patent licensor for most large mobile phone vendors; as of 2018 Nokia is the world's third largest network equipment manufacturer. The company was viewed with national pride by Finns, as its successful mobile phone business made it by far the largest worldwide company and brand from Finland. At its peak in 2000, during the telecoms bubble, Nokia alone accounted for 4% of the country's GDP, 21% of total exports, 70% of the Helsinki Stock Exchange market capital.
Nokia's history dates back to 1865, when Finnish-Swede mining engineer Fredrik Idestam established a pulp mill near the town of Tampere, Finland. A second pulp mill was opened in 1868 near the neighboring town of Nokia, offering better hydropower resources. In 1871, together with friend Leo Mechelin, formed a shared company from it and called it Nokia Ab, after the site of the second pulp mill. Idestam retired in 1896. Mechelin expanded into electricity generation by 1902. In 1904 Suomen Gummitehdas, a rubber business founded by Eduard Polón, established a factory near the town of Nokia and used its name. In 1922, Nokia Ab entered into a partnership with Finnish Rubber Works and Kaapelitehdas, all now jointly under the leadership of Polón. Finnish Rubber Works company grew when it moved to the Nokia region in the 1930s to take advantage of the electrical power supply, the cable company soon did too. Nokia at the time made respirators for both civilian and military use, from the 1930s well into the early 1990s.
In 1967, the three companies - Nokia and Finnish Rubber Works - merged and created a new Nokia Corporation, a new restructured form divided into four major businesses: forestry, cable and electronics. In the early 1970s, it entered the radio industry. Nokia started making military equipment for Finland's defence forces, such as the Sanomalaite M/90 communicator in 1983, the M61 gas mask first developed in the 1960s. Nokia was now making professional mobile radios, telephone switches and chemicals. After Finland's trade agreement with the Soviet Union in the 1960s, Nokia expanded into the Soviet market, it soon widened trade. Nokia co-operated on scientific technology with the Soviet Union; the U. S. government became suspicious of that technologic co-operation after the end of the Cold War détente in the early 1980s. Nokia imported many US-made components and used them for the Soviets, according to U. S. Deputy Minister of Defence, Richard Perle, Nokia had a secret co-operation with The Pentagon that allowed the U.
S. to keep track in technologic developments in the Soviet Union through trading with Nokia. However this was a demonstration of Finland trading with both sides, as it was neutral during the Cold War. In 1977, Kari Kairamo became. By this time Finland were becoming what has been called "Nordic Japan". Under his leadership Nokia acquired many companies. In 1984, Nokia acquired television maker Salora, followed by Swedish electronics and computer maker Luxor AB in 1985, French television maker Oceanic in 1987; this made Nokia the third-largest television manufacturer of Europe. The existing brands continued to be used until the end of the television business in 1996. In 1987, Nokia acquired Schaub-Lorenz, the consumer operations of Germany's Standard Elektrik Lorenz, which included its "Schaub-Lorenz" and "Graetz" brands, it was part of American conglomerate Internationa
Helsinki is the capital and most populous city of Finland. Located on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, it is the seat of the region of Uusimaa in southern Finland, has a population of 650,058; the city's urban area has a population of 1,268,296, making it by far the most populous urban area in Finland as well as the country's most important center for politics, finance and research. Helsinki is located 80 kilometres north of Tallinn, Estonia, 400 km east of Stockholm, 390 km west of Saint Petersburg, Russia, it has close historical ties with these three cities. Together with the cities of Espoo and Kauniainen, surrounding commuter towns, Helsinki forms the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which has a population of nearly 1.5 million. Considered to be Finland's only metropolis, it is the world's northernmost metro area with over one million people as well as the northernmost capital of an EU member state. After Stockholm and Oslo, Helsinki is the third largest municipality in the Nordic countries.
The city is served by the international Helsinki Airport, located in the neighboring city of Vantaa, with frequent service to many destinations in Europe and Asia. Helsinki was the World Design Capital for 2012, the venue for the 1952 Summer Olympics, the host of the 52nd Eurovision Song Contest. Helsinki has one of the highest urban standards of living in the world. In 2011, the British magazine Monocle ranked Helsinki the world's most liveable city in its liveable cities index. In the Economist Intelligence Unit's 2016 liveability survey, Helsinki was ranked ninth among 140 cities. According to a theory presented in the 1630s, settlers from Hälsingland in central Sweden had arrived to what is now known as the Vantaa River and called it Helsingå, which gave rise to the names of Helsinge village and church in the 1300s; this theory is questionable, because dialect research suggests that the settlers arrived from Uppland and nearby areas. Others have proposed the name as having been derived from the Swedish word helsing, an archaic form of the word hals, referring to the narrowest part of a river, the rapids.
Other Scandinavian cities at similar geographic locations were given similar names at the time, e.g. Helsingør in Denmark and Helsingborg in Sweden; when a town was founded in Forsby village in 1548, it was named Helsinge fors, "Helsinge rapids". The name refers to the Vanhankaupunginkoski rapids at the mouth of the river; the town was known as Helsinge or Helsing, from which the contemporary Finnish name arose. Official Finnish Government documents and Finnish language newspapers have used the name Helsinki since 1819, when the Senate of Finland moved itself into the city from Turku; the decrees issued in Helsinki were dated with Helsinki as the place of issue. This is; as part of the Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire, Helsinki was known as Gelsingfors in Russian. In Helsinki slang, the city is called Stadi. Hesa, is not used by natives of the city. Helsset is the Northern Sami name of Helsinki. In the Iron Age the area occupied by present day Helsinki was inhabited by Tavastians, they used the area for fishing and hunting, but due to a lack of archeological finds it is difficult to say how extensive their settlements were.
Pollen analysis has shown that there were cultivating settlements in the area in the 10th century and surviving historical records from the 14th century describe Tavastian settlements in the area. Swedes colonized the coastline of the Helsinki region in the late 13th century after the successful Second Crusade to Finland, which led to the defeat of the Tavastians. Helsinki was established as a trading town by King Gustav I of Sweden in 1550 as the town of Helsingfors, which he intended to be a rival to the Hanseatic city of Reval. In order to populate his newly founded town, the King issued an order to resettle the bourgeoisie of Porvoo, Ekenäs, Rauma and Ulvila into the town. Little came of the plans as Helsinki remained a tiny town plagued by poverty and diseases; the plague of 1710 killed the greater part of the inhabitants of Helsinki. The construction of the naval fortress Sveaborg in the 18th century helped improve Helsinki's status, but it was not until Russia defeated Sweden in the Finnish War and annexed Finland as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland in 1809 that the town began to develop into a substantial city.
Russians besieged the Sveaborg fortress during the war, about one quarter of the town was destroyed in an 1808 fire. Russian Emperor Alexander I of Russia moved the Finnish capital from Turku to Helsinki in 1812 to reduce Swedish influence in Finland, to bring the capital closer to Saint Petersburg. Following the Great Fire of Turku in 1827, the Royal Academy of Turku, which at the time was the country's only university, was relocated to Helsinki and became the modern University of Helsinki; the move helped set it on a path of continuous growth. This transformation is apparent in the downtown core, rebuilt in the neoclassical style to resemble Saint Petersburg to a plan by the German-born architect C. L. Engel; as elsewhere, technological advancements such as railroads and industrialization were key factors behind the city's growth. Despite the tumultuous nature of Finnish history during the first half of the 20th century, Helsinki continued its steady development. A landmark e
Video game industry
The video game industry is the economic sector involved in the development and monetization of video games. It encompasses dozens of job disciplines and its component parts employ thousands of people worldwide; the computer and video-game industry has grown from focused markets to mainstream. They took in about US$9.5 billion in the US in 2007, 11.7 billion in 2008, 25.1 billion in 2010. Modern personal computers owe many advances and innovations to the game industry: sound cards, graphics cards and 3D graphic accelerators, faster CPUs, dedicated co-processors like PhysX are a few of the more notable improvements. Sound cards were developed for addition of digital-quality sound to games and only improved for music and audiophiles. Early on, graphics cards were developed for more colors. Graphic cards were developed for graphical user interfaces and games, they are one of the only pieces of hardware to allow multiple hookups. CD- and DVD-ROMs developed for mass distribution of media in general. Ben Sawyer of Digitalmill observes that the game industry value chain is made up of six connected and distinctive layers: Capital and publishing layer: involved in paying for development of new titles and seeking returns through licensing of the titles.
Product and talent layer: includes developers and artists, who may be working under individual contracts or as part of in-house development teams. Production and tools layer: generates content production tools, game development middleware, customizable game engines, production management tools. Distribution layer: or the "publishing" industry, involved in generating and marketing catalogs of games for retail and online distribution. Hardware layer: or the providers of the underlying platform, which may be console-based, accessed through online media, or accessed through mobile devices such as smartphones; this layer now includes network infrastructure and non-hardware platforms such as virtual machines, or software platforms such as browsers or further Facebook, etc. End-users layer: or the users/players of the games; the game industry employs those experienced in other traditional businesses, but some have experience tailored to the game industry. Some of the disciplines specific to the game industry include: game programmer, game designer, level designer, game producer, game artist and game tester.
Most of these professionals are employed by video game publishers. However, many hobbyists produce computer games and sell them commercially. Game developers and publishers sometimes employ those with extensive or long-term experience within the modding communities. Prior to the 1970s, there was no significant commercial aspect of the video game industry, but many advances in computing would set the stage for the birth of the industry. Many early publicly-available interactive computer-based game machines used or other mechanisms to mimic a display; some examples of these included the 1940 "Nimatron", an electromagentic relay-based Nim-playing device designed by Edward Condon and built by Westinghouse Electric for the New York World's Fair, Bertie the Brain, an arcade game of tic-tac-toe, built by Josef Kates for the 1950 Canadian National Exhibition, Nimrod created by engineering firm Ferranti for the 1951 Festival of Britain,The development of cathode ray tube—the core technology behind televisions—created several of the first true video games.
In 1947 Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann filed a patent for a "cathode ray tube amusement device". Their game, which uses a cathode ray tube hooked to an oscilloscope display, challenges players to fire a gun at target. Between the 1950s and 1960s, with mainframe computers becoming available to campus colleges and others started to develop games that could be played at terminals that accessed the mainframe. One of the first known examples is Spacewar!, developed by Harvard and MIT employees Martin Graetz, Steve Russell, Wayne Wiitanen. The introduction of easy-to-program languages like BASIC for mainframes allowed for more simplistic games to be developed. In 1971, the arcade game, Computer Space was released; the following year, Inc. released the first commercially successful video game, the original arcade version of which sold over 19,000 arcade cabinets. That same year saw the introduction of video games to the home market with the release of the early video game console, the Magnavox Odyssey.
However, both the arcade and home markets would be dominated by Pong clones, which flooded the market and led to the video game crash of 1977. The crash came to an end with the success of Taito's Space Invaders, released in 1978, sparking a renaissance for the video game industry and paving the way for the golden age of video arcade games; the game's success inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores during the golden age. Space Invaders would go on to sell over 360,000 arcade cabinets worldwide, by 1982, generate a revenue of $2 billion in quarters, equivalent to $4.6 billion in 2011. Soon after, Space Invaders was licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; the success of the Atari 2600 in turn revived the home video game market dur