A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is typed in black ink with a white or gray background. Newspapers can cover a wide variety of fields such as politics, business and art, include materials such as opinion columns, weather forecasts, reviews of local services, birth notices, editorial cartoons, comic strips, advice columns. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; the journalism organizations that publish newspapers are themselves metonymically called newspapers. Newspapers have traditionally been published in print. However, today most newspapers are published on websites as online newspapers, some have abandoned their print versions entirely. Newspapers developed as information sheets for businessmen. By the early 19th century, many cities in Europe, as well as North and South America, published newspapers; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record.
Newspapers are published daily or weekly. News magazines are weekly, but they have a magazine format. General-interest newspapers publish news articles and feature articles on national and international news as well as local news; the news includes political events and personalities and finance, crime and natural disasters. The paper is divided into sections for each of those major groupings. Most traditional papers feature an editorial page containing editorials written by an editor and expressing an opinion on a public issue, opinion articles called "op-eds" written by guest writers, columns that express the personal opinions of columnists offering analysis and synthesis that attempts to translate the raw data of the news into information telling the reader "what it all means" and persuading them to concur. Papers include articles which have no byline. A wide variety of material has been published in newspapers. Besides the aforementioned news and opinions, they include weather forecasts; as of 2017, newspapers may provide information about new movies and TV shows available on streaming video services like Netflix.
Newspapers have classified ad sections where people and businesses can buy small advertisements to sell goods or services. Most newspapers are businesses, they pay their expenses with a mixture of subscription revenue, newsstand sales, advertising revenue; some newspapers are at least government-funded. The editorial independence of a newspaper is thus always subject to the interests of someone, whether owners, advertisers, or a government; some newspapers with high editorial independence, high journalism quality, large circulation are viewed as newspapers of record. Many newspapers, besides employing journalists on their own payrolls subscribe to news agencies, which employ journalists to find and report the news sell the content to the various newspapers; this is a way to avoid duplicating the expense of reporting from around the world. Circa 2005, there were 6,580 daily newspaper titles in the world selling 395 million print copies a day; the late 2000s–early 2010s global recession, combined with the rapid growth of free web-based alternatives, has helped cause a decline in advertising and circulation, as many papers had to retrench operations to stanch the losses.
Worldwide annual revenue approached $100 billion in 2005-7 plunged during the worldwide financial crisis of 2008-9. Revenue in 2016 fell to only $53 billion, hurting every major publisher as their efforts to gain online income fell far short of the goal; the decline in advertising revenues affected both the print and online media as well as all other mediums. Besides remodeling advertising, the internet has challenged the business models of the print-only era by crowdsourcing both publishing in general and, more journalism. In addition, the rise of news aggregators, which bundle linked articles fro
New Brunswick is one of four Atlantic provinces on the east coast of Canada. According to the Constitution of Canada, New Brunswick is the only bilingual province. About two thirds of the population declare themselves a third francophones. One third of the population describes themselves as bilingual. Atypically for Canada, only about half of the population lives in urban areas in Greater Moncton, Greater Saint John and the capital Fredericton. Unlike the other Maritime provinces, New Brunswick's terrain is forested uplands, with much of the land further from the coast, giving it a harsher climate. New Brunswick is 83% forested, less densely-populated than the rest of the Maritimes. Being close to Europe, New Brunswick was among the first places in North America to be explored and settled by Europeans, starting with the French in the early 1600s, who displaced the indigenous Mi'kmaq and the Passamaquoddy peoples; the French settlers were displaced when the area became part of the British Empire.
In 1784, after an influx of refugees from the American Revolutionary War, the province was partitioned from Nova Scotia. The province prospered in the early 1800s and the population grew reaching about a quarter of a million by mid-century. In 1867, New Brunswick was one of four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation, along with Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada. After Confederation, wooden shipbuilding and lumbering declined, while protectionism disrupted trade ties with New England; the mid-1900s found New Brunswick to be one of the poorest regions of Canada, now mitigated by Canadian transfer payments and improved support for rural areas. As of 2002, provincial gross domestic product was derived as follows: services 43%. Tourism accounts for about 9 % of the labour force indirectly. Popular destinations include Fundy National Park and the Hopewell Rocks, Kouchibouguac National Park, Roosevelt Campobello International Park. In 2013, 64 cruise ships called at Port of Saint John carrying on average 2600 passengers each.
Indigenous peoples have been in the area since about 7000 BC. At the time of European contact, inhabitants were the Mi'kmaq, the Maliseet, the Passamaquoddy. Although these tribes did not leave a written record, their language is present in many placenames, such as Aroostook, Petitcodiac and Shediac. New Brunswick may have been part of Vinland during the Norse exploration of North America, Basque and Norman fishermen may have visited the Bay of Fundy in the early 1500s; the first documented European visits were by Jacques Cartier in 1534. In 1604, a party including Samuel de Champlain visited the mouth of the Saint John River on the eponymous Saint-Jean-Baptiste Day. Now Saint John, this was the site of the first permanent European settlement in New Brunswick. French settlement extended up the river to the site of present-day Fredericton. Other settlements in the southeast extended from Beaubassin, near the present-day border with Nova Scotia, to Baie Verte, up the Petitcodiac and Shepody Rivers.
By the early 1700s the area was part of the French colony of Acadia, in turn part of New France. Acadia covered what is now the Maritimes, as well as bits of Maine. In the early 1700s, rivalry between Britain and France for control of territory led to the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht, under which Acadia was reduced to Île Saint-Jean and Île-Royale; the ownership of New Brunswick being disputed, with an informal border on the Isthmus of Chignecto. The British prevailed, leading to the 1755 Expulsion of the Acadians. Present-day New Brunswick became part of the colony of Nova Scotia. Hostilities ended with the Treaty of Paris in 1763, Acadians returning from exile discovered several thousand immigrants from New England, on their former lands; some settled along the Saint John River. Settlement was slow. Pennsylvanian immigrants founded Moncton in 1766, English settlers from Yorkshire arrived in the Sackville area. After the American Revolution, about 10,000 loyalist refugees settled along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy, commemorated in the province's motto, Spem reduxit.
The number reached 14,000 by 1784, with about one in ten returning to America. The same year New Brunswick was partitioned from Nova Scotia and that year saw its first elected assembly; the colony was named New Brunswick in honour of George III, King of Great Britain, King of Ireland, Prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in what is now Germany. In 1785 Saint John became Canada's first incorporated city; the population of the colony reached 26,000 in 1806 and 35,000 in 1812. The 1800s saw an age of prosperity based on wood export and shipbuilding, bolstered by The Canadian–American Reciprocity Treaty of 1854 and demand from the American Civil War. St. Martins became the third most productive shipbuilding town in the Maritimes, producing over 500 vessels; the first half of the 1800s saw large-scale immigration from Ireland and Scotland, with the population reaching 252,047 by 1861. In 1848, responsible home government was granted and the 1850s saw the emergence of political parties organised along religious and ethnic lines.
The notion of unifying the separate colonies of British North America was discussed i
Woodstock, New Brunswick
Woodstock is a town in Carleton County, New Brunswick, Canada on the Saint John River, 103 km upriver from Fredericton at the mouth of the Meduxnekeag River. It is near the Canada–United States border and Houlton and the intersection of Interstate 95 and the Trans-Canada Highway making it a transportation hub, it is a service centre for the potato industry and for more than 26,000 people in the nearby communities of Hartland, Florenceville-Bristol, Bath and Canterbury for shopping and entertainment. Woodstock was named after Woodstock, Oxfordshire; the name is Old English in origin, meaning a "clearing in the woods". Little is known of the area before it was settled by disbanded veterans of De Lancey's Brigade following the American Revolutionary War; the veterans moved there in late 1783. The 26,000 acres grant was to 110 men. Not all took up the offer, of those who did, not all stayed. By 1790 only 23 families were present, by 1804 only 10 of the original men had possession of the land. According to the diaries of Frederick Dibblee mills were present from 1805.
Export of timber via the Saint John river began about this time. When Carleton County was created in 1831, Woodstock was made county seat, a jail, court house and registry office were installed. From 1837 William Teel Baird operated a pharmacy; the first steamboat from Fredericton reached Woodstock in 1837 and a regular service was established in 1845. By 1847 the population was at 2,000 and the town had four churches, a bank, a grammar school. On The Twelfth of July 1847 a riot took place at the corner of Victoria and Boyne streets near the site of the Orange Hall, built in 1848 and now a vacant lot, it was a conflict between Protestant Irish immigrants of the Orange Order and Catholic Irish immigrants. Around 250 Orangemen clashed with an equal number of Irish Catholics, leading to 10 deaths and many more injuries, it was a result of years of tensions. Subsequently, only Catholics were brought to trial. According to the 1851 census there were 488 inhabited houses, nine places of worship. Immigration was important, with the majority coming from Ireland.
The town was the first in New Brunswick to be incorporated, in 1856. The first mayor was Lewis P. Fisher, he made provisions in his will for the building of several educational institutions, among them the first Agricultural and Vocational School in Canada, the L. P. Fisher Public Library. In 1861, the newly built railway between St. Andrews and Woodstock was seized by several hundred navvies, angry at not being paid. A peaceful settlement was made by Arthur Hamilton-Gordon; the first telephone was installed in 1885 by H. V. Dalling, a homemade telephone whose wires ran between his home and shop; the Bell Telephone Company opened a small telephone exchange in his store. In 1887, Tappan Adney, visiting Woodstock, learnt birchbark canoe construction from a Maliseet and document the building process; the headquarters for the New Brunswick Railway were here from 1870. The first dam at the mouth of the Meduxnekeag River was built in 1886. In the 1880s Woodstock had two small electric companies related to the Small & Fisher and Connell Brothers iron foundries.
These were superseded by the Woodstock Electric Railway Light and Power Company which in 1906 built a dam and a powerhouse on the Meduxnekeag for distribution of power to the town. The first hydro-electric station in New Brunswick, the Hayden dam and its power station was destroyed by a freshet in 1923, which washed out the bridge that crossed the Meduxnekeag. In 1995, the Town of Woodstock opened the Carleton Civic Centre; the multipurpose complex houses a 25-metre indoor swimming pool, an 846-seat arena, a fitness centre, community meeting rooms. The Woodstock Slammers of the Maritime Junior Hockey League played at the Ayr Motor Centre; the annual Woodstock Old Home Week activities are centered around Woodstock and the fair grounds at Connell Park. Activities include parades and fireworks, a gospel concert, 4-H activities, Miss New Brunswick talent show & pageant, beautiful baby contest, horse pulling, harness racing, a demolition derby; the Dooryard Arts Festival is four days of music, theatre, workshops and an open-air market.
A campus of the New Brunswick Community College, Townsview School, Meduxnekeag Consolidated School, Woodstock High School. Woodstock is located on an alignment of the Trans-Canada Highway; the shorter New Brunswick Route 95 extends westward from Woodstock to the Houlton/Woodstock Border Crossing, where it continues into the United States as Interstate 95. The small public Woodstock Airport is in New Brunswick. Regional geology consists of shales over a Late Ordovician to Early Silurian formation. Iron-manganese and iron ore occurrences were reported in 1836 during a geological survey conducted by the state of Maine; the Woodstock Iron Works ran from 1848 to 1884, closing because of competition from the United States. Today Minco owns 100% of an 880 hectare manganese claim, about 6.3 km northwest of Woodstock. Samples were taken in 2010, 2011, 2013. Minco plans to produce manganese well below the typical cost for the industry; the manganese would be used in the production of stainless steel. Woodstock's radio station is CJCJ-FM.
The newspaper is the Bugle-Observer. Many of the original wooden buildings have not survived into modern times. Calamities over the years included a hurricane in 1836, fires in 1860, 1911, As a result, much of downtown was rebuilt in the brick that remains today. Before the arrival of the railway, businesses faced the river banks, since they provided transportation and water. With the switch to rail