Housing and Development Board
The Housing & Development Board is the statutory board of the Ministry of National Development responsible for public housing in Singapore. It is credited with clearing the squatters and slums of the 1960s and resettling residents into low-cost state-built housing. Today, as many as 82% of Singaporeans live in public housing provided by the HDB. Shortly after achieving self-governance in 1959, Singapore faced a serious problem of housing shortages. In 1947, the British Housing Committee Report noted Singapore had "one of the world’s worst slums --'a disgrace to a civilised community'", the average person-per-building density was 18.2 by 1947. High-rise buildings were rare. In 1959, the shortage problem remained. An HDB paper estimated that in 1966, 300,000 people lived in squatter settlements in the suburbs and 250,000 lived in squalid shophouses in the Central Area. In its election campaign in 1959, the People's Action Party recognized that housing required urgent attention and pledged to provide low-cost housing for the poor if it was elected.
When it won the elections and formed the newly elected government, it took immediate action to solve the housing shortage. The government passed the Housing & Development Act of 1960, which replaced the existing Singapore Improvement Trust with the Housing & Development Board. Led by Lim Kim San, the HDB made first priority during formation to build as many low-cost housing units as possible, introduced the Five-Year Plan; the housing, built was meant for rental by the low-income group. The Home Ownership for the People Scheme was introduced to help this group of people to buy instead of rent their flats. While the new scheme acted as a hedge against inflation, it provided financial security to homeowners; the people were allowed to use their Central Provident Fund money for down payments. These efforts were, not successful enough in convincing the people living in the squatter settlements to move into these flats, it was only after the Bukit Ho Swee Fire in 1961, that the HDB's efficiency and earnestness won the people over.
The HDB estimated that from 1960 to 1969, an average of 147,000 housing units—80,000 from the current deficit, 20,000 due to the redevelopment of the Central Area, 47,000 due to population increase—would need to be constructed, or an average of about 14,000 a year. However, the private sector only had the ability to provide 2,500 per year, at price levels out of reach of the low-income population; as many as 51,031 housing units were built between 1960 and 1965 by the HDB. Due to land constraints, high-rise and high-density flats were chosen; the HDB's policies were in line with the manifesto set out by the Singaporean government: the government was promoting social cohesion and patriotism within the country. In 1968, citizens were allowed to use their pension fund to purchase and own the homes they were renting to give them a stake of the country and as an incentive to work hard. In 1989, the Ethnic Integration Policy was introduced to promote racial integration. To prevent social stratification that may lead to social conflict, the housing of different income groups is mixed together in estates and new towns.
In the 1990s, the HDB concentrated on upgrading existing older flats, installing new facilities such as lifts that stop on every floor. Studio apartments were specially built to suit the needs of senior citizens in Singapore's ageing society. On 1 July 2003, the Building & Development Division of HDB was corporatised to form HDB Corporation Pte. Ltd.. HDBCorp was renamed Surbana Corporation Pte. Ltd. HDB's headquarters were moved from Bukit Merah to its new premises at the HDB Hub at 480 Lorong 6 Toa Payoh on 10 June 2002; the existing Bukit Merah premises, known as Surbana One, became the headquarters for Surbana Corporation Pte. Ltd. HDB employees are organised under HDB Staff Union; the union is an affiliate of the National Trades Union Congress. Public housing in Singapore Public housing precincts in Singapore New towns of Singapore Cash-Over-Valuation Executive Condominium Housing and Urban Development Company flats HLM Official website
Ferrocement or ferro-cement is a system of reinforced mortar or plaster applied over layer of metal mesh, woven expanded-metal or metal-fibers and spaced thin steel rods such as rebar. The metal used is iron or some type of steel, it is used to construct thin, strong surfaces and structures in many shapes such as hulls for boats, shell roofs, water tanks. Ferrocement is the origin of reinforced concrete, it has a wide range of other uses including sculpture and prefabricated building components. The term "ferrocement" has been applied by extension to other composite materials, including some containing no cement and no ferrous material. Cement and concrete are used interchangeably but there are technical distinctions and the meaning of cement has changed since the mid-nineteenth century when ferrocement originated. Ferro- means iron although metal used in ferro-cement is the iron alloy steel. Cement in the nineteenth century and earlier meant mortar or broken stone or tile mixed with lime and water to form a strong mortar.
Today cement means Portland cement, Mortar is a paste of a binder and water. Ferro-concrete is the original name of reinforced concrete known at least since the 1890s and in 1903 it was well described in London's Society of Engineer's Journal but is now confused with ferrocement; the inventors of ferrocement are Frenchmen Joseph Monier who dubbed it "ciment armé" and Joseph-Louis Lambot who constructed a batteau with the system in 1848. Lambot exhibited the vessel at the Exposition Universelle in 1855 and his name for the material "ferciment" stuck. Lambot patented his batteau in 1855 but the patent was granted in Belgium and only applied to that country. At the time of Monier's first patent, July 1867, he planned to use his material to create urns and cisterns; these implements were traditionally made from ceramics, but large-scale, kiln-fired projects were expensive and prone to failure. In 1875, Monier expanded his patents to include bridges and designed his first steel-and-concrete bridge.
The outer layer was sculpted to mimic rustic logs and timbers, thereby ushering Faux Bois concrete. In the first half of the twentieth century Italian Pier Luigi Nervi was noted for his use of ferro-cement, in Italian called ferro-cemento. "ferrocement" being referred to as ferro-concrete or reinforced concrete to better describe the end product instead of its components. Ferro concrete has good strength and resistance to impact; when used in house construction in developing countries, it can provide better resistance to fire and corrosion than traditional materials, such as wood and stone masonry. It has been popular in developed countries for yacht building because the technique can be learned quickly, allowing people to cut costs by supplying their own labor. In the 1930s through 1950's, it became popular in the United States as a construction and sculpting method for novelty architecture, examples of which created "dinosaurs in the desert"; the desired shape may be built from a multi-layered construction of mesh, supported by an armature, or grid, built with rebar and tied with wire.
For optimum performance, steel should be rust-treated, or stainless steel. Over this finished framework, an appropriate mixture of Portland cement and water and/or admixtures is applied to penetrate the mesh. During hardening, the assembly may be kept moist, to ensure that the concrete is able to set and harden and to avoid developing cracks that can weaken the system. Steps should be taken to avoid trapped air in the internal structure during the wet stage of construction as this can create cracks that will form as it dries. Trapped air will leave voids that allow water to degrade the steel. Modern practice includes spraying the mixture at pressure or some other method of driving out trapped air. Older structures that have failed offer clues to better practices. In addition to eliminating air where it contacts steel, modern concrete additives may include acrylic liquid "admixtures" to slow moisture absorption and increase shock resistance to the hardened product or to alter curing rates; these technologies, borrowed from the commercial tile installation trade, have aided in the restoration of these structures.
Chopped glass or poly fiber can be added to reduce crack development in the outer skin. The economic advantage of ferro concrete structures is that they are stronger and more durable than some traditional building methods. Depending on the quality of construction and the climate of its location, houses may pay for themselves with zero maintenance and lower insurance requirements. Water tanks could pay for themselves by not needing periodic replacement, if properly constructed of reinforced concrete. Ferro concrete structures can be built which can have economic advantages. In inclement weather conditions, the ability to quickly
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
A ceiling is an overhead interior surface that covers the upper limits of a room. It is not considered a structural element, but a finished surface concealing the underside of the roof structure or the floor of a story above. Ceilings can be decorated to taste, there are many fine examples of frescoes and artwork on ceilings in religious buildings; the most common type of ceiling is the dropped ceiling, suspended from structural elements above. Panels of drywall are fastened either directly to the ceiling joists or to a few layers of moisture-proof plywood which are attached to the joists. Pipework or ducts can be run in the gap above the ceiling, insulation and fireproofing material can be placed here. A subset of the dropped ceiling is the suspended ceiling, wherein a network of aluminum struts, as opposed to drywall, are attached to the joists, forming a series of rectangular spaces. Individual pieces of cardboard are placed inside the bottom of those spaces so that the outer side of the cardboard, interspersed with aluminum rails, is seen as the ceiling from below.
This makes it easy to repair the pipes and insulation behind the ceiling, since all, necessary is to lift off the cardboard, rather than digging through the drywall and replacing it. Other types of ceiling include the cathedral ceiling, the concave or barrel-shaped ceiling, the stretched ceiling and the coffered ceiling. Coving links the ceiling to the surrounding walls. Ceilings can play a part in reducing fire hazard, a system is available for rating the fire resistance of dropped ceilings. Ceilings are classified according to their construction. A cathedral ceiling is any tall ceiling area similar to those in a church. A dropped ceiling is one in which the finished surface is constructed anywhere from a few inches or centimeters to several feet or a few meters below the structure above it; this may be done such as achieving a desirable ceiling height. An inverse of this would be a raised floor. A concave or barrel-shaped ceiling is curved or rounded upward for visual or acoustical value, while a coffered ceiling is divided into a grid of recessed square or octagonal panels called a "lacunar ceiling".
A cove ceiling uses a curved plaster transition between ceiling. A stretched ceiling uses a number of individual panels using material such as PVC fixed to a perimeter rail. Ceilings have been decorated with fresco painting, mosaic tiles and other surface treatments. While hard to execute a decorated ceiling has the advantage that it is protected from damage by fingers and dust. In the past, this was more than compensated for by the damage from smoke from candles or a fireplace. Many historic buildings have celebrated ceilings; the most famous is the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. Ceiling height may have psychological impacts; the most common ceiling that contributes to fire-resistance ratings in commercial and residential construction is the dropped ceiling. In the case of a dropped ceiling, the rating is achieved by the entire system, both the structure above, from which the ceilings is suspended, which could be a concrete floor or a timber floor, as well as the suspension mechanism and the lowest membrane or dropped ceiling.
Between the structure that the dropped ceiling is suspended from and the dropped membrane, such as a T-bar ceiling or a layer of drywall, there is some room for mechanical and electrical piping and ducting to run. An independent ceiling, can be constructed such that it has a stand-alone fire-resistance rating; such systems must be tested without the benefit of being suspended from a slab above in order to prove that the resulting system is capable of holding itself up. This type of ceiling would be installed to protect items above from fire. Beam ceiling Hammerbeam roof Hollow-core slab Moulding Popcorn ceiling Scottish Renaissance painted ceilings Tin ceiling Passive fire protection Fire test Hy-Rib Media related to Ceilings at Wikimedia Commons "Ceiling". Encyclopædia Britannica. 5. 1911. "Ceiling". New International Encyclopedia. 1904. Merriam-Webster ceiling definition False Ceiling Latest Design Diydata.com treatise on lath & plasterboard ceilings Virtualmuseum.ca treatise on ceiling construction
Soil mechanics is a branch of soil physics and applied mechanics that describes the behavior of soils. It differs from fluid mechanics and solid mechanics in the sense that soils consist of a heterogeneous mixture of fluids and particles but soil may contain organic solids and other matter. Along with rock mechanics, soil mechanics provides the theoretical basis for analysis in geotechnical engineering, a subdiscipline of civil engineering, engineering geology, a subdiscipline of geology. Soil mechanics is used to analyze the deformations of and flow of fluids within natural and man-made structures that are supported on or made of soil, or structures that are buried in soils. Example applications are building and bridge foundations, retaining walls and buried pipeline systems. Principles of soil mechanics are used in related disciplines such as engineering geology, geophysical engineering, coastal engineering, agricultural engineering and soil physics; this article describes the genesis and composition of soil, the distinction between pore water pressure and inter-granular effective stress, capillary action of fluids in the soil pore spaces, soil classification and permeability, time dependent change of volume due to squeezing water out of tiny pore spaces known as consolidation, shear strength and stiffness of soils.
The shear strength of soils is derived from friction between the particles and interlocking, which are sensitive to the effective stress. The article concludes with some examples of applications of the principles of soil mechanics such as slope stability, lateral earth pressure on retaining walls, bearing capacity of foundations; the primary mechanism of soil creation is the weathering of rock. All rock types may be broken down into small particles to create soil. Weathering mechanisms are physical weathering, chemical weathering, biological weathering Human activities such as excavation and waste disposal, may create soil. Over geologic time buried soils may be altered by pressure and temperature to become metamorphic or sedimentary rock, if melted and solidified again, they would complete the geologic cycle by becoming igneous rock. Physical weathering includes temperature effects and thaw of water in cracks, wind and other mechanisms. Chemical weathering includes dissolution of matter composing a rock and precipitation in the form of another mineral.
Clay minerals, for example can be formed by weathering of feldspar, the most common mineral present in igneous rock. The most common mineral constituent of silt and sand is quartz called silica, which has the chemical name silicon dioxide; the reason that feldspar is most common in rocks but silica is more prevalent in soils is that feldspar is much more soluble than silica. Silt and Gravel are little pieces of broken rocks. According to the Unified Soil Classification System, silt particle sizes are in the range of 0.002 mm to 0.075 mm and sand particles have sizes in the range of 0.075 mm to 4.75 mm. Gravel particles are broken pieces of rock in the size range 4.75 mm to 100 mm. Particles larger than gravel are called boulders. Soil deposits are affected by the mechanism of deposition to their location. Soils that are not transported are called residual soils—they exist at the same location as the rock from which they were generated. Decomposed granite is a common example of a residual soil.
The common mechanisms of transport are the actions of gravity, ice and wind. Wind blown soils include dune loess. Water carries particles of different size depending on the speed of the water, thus soils transported by water are graded according to their size. Silt and clay may settle out in a lake, gravel and sand collect at the bottom of a river bed. Wind blown soil deposits tend to be sorted according to their grain size. Erosion at the base of glaciers is powerful enough to pick up large rocks and boulders as well as soil. Gravity on its own may carry particles down from the top of a mountain to make a pile of soil and boulders at the base; the mechanism of transport has a major effect on the particle shape. For example, low velocity grinding in a river bed will produce rounded particles. Freshly fractured colluvium particles have a angular shape. Silts and gravels are classified by their size, hence they may consist of a variety of minerals. Owing to the stability of quartz compared to other rock minerals, quartz is the most common constituent of sand and silt.
Mica, feldspar are other common minerals present in sands and silts. The mineral constituents of gravel may be more similar to that of the parent rock; the common clay minerals are montmorillonite or smectite and kaolinite or kaolin. These minerals tend to form in sheet or plate like structures, with length ranging between 10−7 m and 4x10−6 m and thickness ranging between 10−9 m and 2x10−6 m, they have a large specific surface area; the specific surface area is defined as the ratio of the surface area of particles to the mass of the particles. Clay minerals have specific surface areas in the range of 10 to 1,000 square meters per gram of solid. Due to the large surface area available for chemical and van der Waals interaction, the mechanical behavior of clay minerals is sensitive to the amount of pore fluid available and the type and amount of dissolved ions in the pore fluid. To
Concrete Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement that hardens over time—most a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement. It is distinguished from other, non-cementitious types of concrete all binding some form of aggregate together, including asphalt concrete with a bitumen binder, used for road surfaces, polymer concretes that use polymers as a binder; when aggregate is mixed together with dry Portland cement and water, the mixture forms a fluid slurry, poured and molded into shape. The cement reacts chemically with the water and other ingredients to form a hard matrix that binds the materials together into a durable stone-like material that has many uses. Additives are included in the mixture to improve the physical properties of the wet mix or the finished material. Most concrete is poured with reinforcing materials embedded to provide tensile strength, yielding reinforced concrete.
Famous concrete structures include the Panama Canal and the Roman Pantheon. The earliest large-scale users of concrete technology were the ancient Romans, concrete was used in the Roman Empire; the Colosseum in Rome was built of concrete, the concrete dome of the Pantheon is the world's largest unreinforced concrete dome. Today, large concrete structures are made with reinforced concrete. After the Roman Empire collapsed, use of concrete became rare until the technology was redeveloped in the mid-18th century. Worldwide, concrete has overtaken steel in tonnage of material used; the word concrete comes from the Latin word "concretus", the perfect passive participle of "concrescere", from "con-" and "crescere". Small-scale production of concrete-like materials was pioneered by the Nabatean traders who occupied and controlled a series of oases and developed a small empire in the regions of southern Syria and northern Jordan from the 4th century BC, they discovered the advantages of hydraulic lime, with some self-cementing properties, by 700 BC.
They built kilns to supply mortar for the construction of rubble-wall houses, concrete floors, underground waterproof cisterns. They kept the cisterns secret; some of these structures survive to this day. In the Ancient Egyptian and Roman eras, builders discovered that adding volcanic ash to the mix allowed it to set underwater. German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann found concrete floors, which were made of lime and pebbles, in the royal palace of Tiryns, which dates to 1400–1200 BC. Lime mortars were used in Greece and Cyprus in 800 BC; the Assyrian Jerwan Aqueduct made use of waterproof concrete. Concrete was used for construction in many ancient structures; the Romans used concrete extensively from 300 BC to a span of more than seven hundred years. During the Roman Empire, Roman concrete was made from quicklime, pozzolana and an aggregate of pumice, its widespread use in many Roman structures, a key event in the history of architecture termed the Roman Architectural Revolution, freed Roman construction from the restrictions of stone and brick materials.
It enabled revolutionary new designs in terms of both structural dimension. Concrete, as the Romans knew it, was a revolutionary material. Laid in the shape of arches and domes, it hardened into a rigid mass, free from many of the internal thrusts and strains that troubled the builders of similar structures in stone or brick. Modern tests show that opus caementicium had as much compressive strength as modern Portland-cement concrete. However, due to the absence of reinforcement, its tensile strength was far lower than modern reinforced concrete, its mode of application was different: Modern structural concrete differs from Roman concrete in two important details. First, its mix consistency is fluid and homogeneous, allowing it to be poured into forms rather than requiring hand-layering together with the placement of aggregate, which, in Roman practice consisted of rubble. Second, integral reinforcing steel gives modern concrete assemblies great strength in tension, whereas Roman concrete could depend only upon the strength of the concrete bonding to resist tension.
The long-term durability of Roman concrete structures has been found to be due to its use of pyroclastic rock and ash, whereby crystallization of strätlingite and the coalescence of calcium–aluminum-silicate–hydrate cementing binder helped give the concrete a greater degree of fracture resistance in seismically active environments. Roman concrete is more resistant to erosion by seawater than modern concrete; the widespread use of concrete in many Roman structures ensured that many survive to the present day. The Baths of Caracalla in Rome are just one example. Many Roman aqueducts and bridges, such as the magnificent Pont du Gard in southern France, have masonry cladding on a concrete core, as does the dome of the Pantheon. After the Roman Empire, the use of burned lime and pozzolana was reduced until the technique was all but forgotten between 500 and the 14th century. From the 14th century to the mid-18th century, the use of cement returned; the Canal du Midi was built using concrete in 1670.
The greatest step forward in the modern use
Tampines is a planning area and residential town in the East Region of Singapore. The planning area is bordered by Bedok and Paya Lebar to the west, Pasir Ris to the north, Changi to the east and the Singapore Straits to the south. Tampines New Town is located in the northern portion of Tampines planning area. Tampines is the third largest new town in Singapore by area, covering over 2089 hectares of land and is the third most populated new town, following Bedok and Jurong West, it is the regional centre for the East Region. In the past, Tampines was covered by forests and sand quarries. Ironwood trees, or tempinis in Malay, grew abundantly; the area was part of a military training area until about 1987. The name Tampines goes back to the Franklin and Jackson map of 1828, it is named after Sungei Tampines, which in turn got its name from the tempinis trees which were said to be growing by it. The oldest street in the area, Tampines Road, dates to 1864. At the turn of the 20th century, Tampines was a rubber plantation.
Tampines was home to the sand quarry for a long time. Among the plantations were Teo Tek Ho and Hun Yeang estates; the new town started in 1978. Construction began for Neighbourhoods 1 and 2 and was completed between 1983 and 1987 although they were given priority. Neighbourhoods 8 and 9 started in 1985–1989, followed by Neighbourhood 5, completed in 1989 with the Tampines Town Centre. Neighbourhood 4 was completed with the new Tampines North Division between 1986 and 1988. Tampines Town was at the fast-paced expansion, that breaks it into Tampines East, Tampines West, Tampines North and Tampines Changkat divisions. For the Singapore MRT plans, they showed "Tampines North" and "Tampines South" since the planning stages, due to the similar townships from 1979 to 1982, before they were renamed in 1985 to Tampines and Simei. New construction methods expedited the development of the town's infrastructure. More attractive designs and finishings were incorporated into Tampines, compared to earlier public housing which consisted of uniform slabs of concrete laid out row after row with more thought given to function than form.
The Town Centre was planned. The Housing and Development Board managed the construction of the town until 1991, when it handed the reins over to the Tampines Town Council; the Town Council is run by grassroot leaders and the residents themselves. The Building and Social Housing Foundation of the United Nations awarded the World Habitat Award to Tampines, selected as a representative of Singapore's new towns, on 5 October 1992; the award was given in recognition of an outstanding contribution towards human settlement and development. Neighbourhoods 3 and 7 were only completed in 1997, the constituencies had been reformed to include the new Tampines Central division. Construction was paused until the developments of Tampines Central were started in 2010, which includes The Premiere @ Tampines, Tampines GreenLeaf, Centrale 8, Tampines Trilliant and Citylife @ Tampines, including some of the other leftover pockets of residential developments such as Tampines GreenTerrace, Arc @ Tampines, Q Bay Residences and The Santorini.
Neighbourhood 6, known as Tampines North New Town, has started construction with the first Build-To-Order flats Tampines GreenRidges being announced at the end of November 2014. Tampines GreenRidges is part of the first phase of development of the Tampines North New Town's Park West District, the first district to be constructed in the Tampines North New Town development. Tampines Court, had been en-bloc since July 2017 and all residents vacated their premises by 12 December 2018, it is a former HUDC flat, privatised in 2002.. The upcoming condominium is Treasure at Tampines. Tampines, which includes Tampines North and Simei is home to over 237,800 residents living in 152,000 HDB flats spread out over 20.89 square kilometres: Tampines North Tampines East Tampines Changkat Tampines Central Tampines West Simei Others Tampines Retail Park Tampines Industrial Park A Tampines LogisPark Tampines Wafer Fab Park Tampines Hi-Tech Park Tampines Advance Display Park Changi Business Park Changi South Business Park Singapore Expo The urban planning policy of Singapore is to create self-sufficient towns, in terms of commercial needs, to relieve strain on traffic drawn to the city centre.
Thus, an array of facilities are provided for residents in the new towns. Tampines is one of Singapore's four regional centres, under the plan of the Urban Redevelopment Authority; as a result, the Tampines Regional Centre serves the entire East Region. Retail shopping in the Tampines Regional Centre is done at three main shopping malls: Tampines Mall, Century Square and Tampines 1. Commercial tenants of the shopping centres include restaurants, department stores, bookstores and gift shops. While outside of Tampines Town there is Eastpoint Mall, Singapore Expo and Changi City Point nearby. On 30 November 2006, IKEA opened its second outlet in Singapore at Tampines Retail Park, with adjacent Courts and Giant, together, these three are the first to have warehouse retail stores in Singapore. On 9 April 2009, UNIQLO opened its first outlet in Singapore at Tampines 1; the Tampines Regional Library was located at Tampines Central and has now moved its facilities to the Our Tampines Hub. The three main parks in the Tampines Town are Sunplaza Park, at Tampines Avenue 7 and 9.