SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Builder's Old Measurement is the method used in England from 1650 to 1849 for calculating the cargo capacity of a ship. It is a volumetric measurement of cubic capacity, it estimated the tonnage of a ship based on maximum beam. It is expressed in "tons burden", abbreviated "tons bm"; the formula is: Tonnage = × Beam × Beam 2 94 where: Length is the length, in feet, from the stem to the sternpost. The Builder's Old Measurement formula remained in effect until the advent of steam propulsion. Steamships required a different method of estimating tonnage, because the ratio of length to beam was larger and a significant volume of internal space was used for boilers and machinery. In 1849, the Moorsom System was created in Great Britain; the Moorsom system calculates the cargo-carrying capacity in cubic feet, another method of volumetric measurement. The capacity in cubic feet is divided by 100 cubic feet of capacity per gross ton, resulting in a tonnage expressed in tons. King Edward I levied the first tax on the hire of ships in England in 1303 based on tons burthen.

King Edward III levied a tax of 3 shillings on each "tun" of imported wine, equal to £119.59 today. At that time a "tun" was a wine container of 252 gallons weighing about 2,240 lb, a weight known today as a long ton or imperial ton. In order to estimate the capacity of a ship in terms of'tun' for tax purposes, an early formula used in England was: Tonnage = Length × Beam × Depth 100 where: Length is the length, in feet Beam is the beam, in feet. Depth is the depth of the hold, in feet below the main deck; the numerator yields the ship's volume expressed in cubic feet. If a "tun" is deemed to be equivalent to 100 cubic feet the tonnage is the number of such 100 cubic feet'tun' units of volume. 100 the divisor is unitless, so tonnage would be expressed in'ft³ of tun'. In 1678 Thames shipbuilders used a method assuming that a ship's burden would be 3/5 of its displacement. Since tonnage is calculated by multiplying length × beam × draft × block coefficient, all divided by 35 ft³ per ton of seawater, the resulting formula would be: Tonnage = Length × Beam × Beam 2 × 3 5 × 0.62 35 where: Draft is estimated to be half of the beam.

Block coefficient is based on an assumed average of 0.62. 35 ft³ is the volume of one ton of sea water. Or by solving: Tonnage = Length × Beam × Beam 2 94 In 1694 a new British law required that tonnage for tax purposes be calculated according to a similar formula: Tonnage = Length × Beam × Depth 94 This formula remained in effect until the Builder's Old Measurement rule was put into use in 1720, mandated by Act of Parliament in 1773. Depth to deckThe height from the underside of the hull, excluding the keel itself, at the ship's midpoint, to the top of the uppermost full length deck. Depth in holdInterior space. For old warships it is to the ceiling, made up of the lowermost full length deck. Main deckMain deck, used in context of depth measurement, is defined as the uppermost full length deck. For the 16th century ship Mary Rose, main deck is the second uppermost full length deck. In a calculation of the tonnage of Mary Rose the draft was used instead of the depth; the British took the length measurement from the outside of the stem to the outside of the sternpost.

The British measured breadth from outside the planks, whereas the American measured the breadth from inside the planks. Lastly, the British divided by 94, whereas the Americans divided by 95; the upshot was. For instance, when the British measured the captured USS President, their calculations gave her a burthen of 1533​7⁄94 tons, whereas the American calculations gave the burthen as 1444 tons; the British measure yields values about 6% greater than the American. The US system was in use from 1789 until 1864, when a modified version of the Moorsom System was adopted. Thames Measurement "Concerning Measuring of Ships", The Sea-Man's Vade Mecum, London

Star Probe is a space game written by John Snider and published by TSR, Inc. in 1975. It consists of a 36-page rulebook with counters. Prepublication play-testing was done by members of the MMSA. Artwork is by Paul Snider; the object of the game is to discover new worlds with potential for colonization. Each player has a ship which he or she must equip with personnel, weapons and rations; these are consumed during the course of play. The star systems on the map have numbers indicating how far above or below the plane of the map they are, it is telling that and more popular space games such as Imperium used a two dimensional representation of space. The generic type of inhabitants on a planet can be determined by a roll of percentile dice—a similar system appears in Traveller; the rules can handle battles with hostile inhabitants, as well as spaceship battles between the players. Edward C. Cooper reviewed Star Probe in The Space Gamer No. 3. Cooper commented that "Perhaps the greatest advance between Star Probe and other games is the fact the game can be shortened or extended indefinitely according to the players wants without losing the realism and structure of the game."

Star Probe at BoardGameGeek

Beyoncé Pulse is the third women's fragrance created and endorsed by Beyoncé, with Bruno Jovanovic and Loc Dong of IFF. The ad's tagline is "Feel the Power." Beyoncé Pulse comes in an upside-down chrome-and-blue bottle, neatly tucked into a holographic carton, inspired by Knowles' fashion during stage performances. It features notes of pear blossom, midnight blooming jasmine, Madagascar vanilla, bluebird orchid; the commercial for the fragrance was directed by Jake Nava, features the instrumental of Knowles' lead single "Run the World" from her album 4. Photographer Lionel Gasperini photographed the scents printing advertisements. Beyoncé Pulse follows Heat Rush. Knowles first revealed Beyoncé Pulse in an exclusive interview with Elle magazine on June 25, 2011, she started by giving a hint at the motive behind Beyoncé Pulse, stating: "Women always tell me that my music makes them feel strong and confident and Beyoncé Pulse is about finding that inner power." It features notes of pear blossom, midnight blooming jasmine, Madagascar vanilla, bluebird orchid.

According to Knowles' official parfum website, Beyoncé Pulse possesses "an energy unlike any other. It moves around you. Never fading as it surges and electrifies; the woman who wears Beyoncé Pulse is impossible to ignore, exuding strength. Knowles put time into developing the scent, getting feedback from friends and family including her husband Jay-Z, she told Access Hollywood: "I wear it, I live with it for about six months, we tweak. I make sure I get my compliments from everyone—from my fans to my husband." According to Knowles, the scent is made to help women feel empowered, a fragrance is an important accessory: "When you feel good, when you look good, when you smell good, when you're fresh, it makes you feel so confident. You feel that much more sexy when you know that you're going to leave a lasting impression." Beyoncé Pulse was inspired by her alter ego, Sasha Fierce which she used during the I Am... Sasha Fierce era. Knowles told People magazine that Beyoncé Pulse is a fragrance that women can wear all the time.

She added loves the idea of "a signature scent" that lets a woman "leave her mark wherever she goes", and, the reason for which she always tries to make her scents appropriate for any occasion. During her interview with Elle magazine, Knowles compared Beyoncé Pulse to her previous scents and stated how she discovered similarities between music and perfume: Women always tell me that my music makes them feel strong and confident, Pulse is about finding that inner power. Pulse represents the woman; when I think about excitement, it makes me think about my heart racing and a pulsating beat—it's my stage persona. Heat represents my sensual side, it's spicy and Southern. Heat Rush is more about the woman I am on my off time. I'm learning that they're similar! Figuring out the ingredients in a fragrance that complement each other is no different than trying to figure out the combination of melody and lyrics for a song—it's just as difficult. Both are something. You need to have a strong opinion and know what you want.

I use my instincts from writing songs and coming up with videos—all of the things that have developed my taste level—and apply them toward making a fragrance. The fragrance comes in an upside-down chrome-and-blue bottle, neatly tucked into a holographic carton; the bottle is topped by a chrome cap, inspired by Knowles' stage costumes, as she states "I love because it incorporates fashion into the overall design." The scents' packaging states "Resembling a luminous crystal, the tactile bottle seems otherworldly, as if encasing an as-yet-discovered guarded energy source of precious reserves. The Beyoncé Pulse holographic carton shimmers and shines in shades of blue and silver, radiating light and power, as if bursting from the edge of the universe." Reflective of Knowles' incredible energy and powerful femininity, the fresh notes in Beyoncé Pulse intermingle to create a unique citrus, floral gourmand, anchored by Knowles' favorite flower, the orchid. The fragrances top notes sparkle of fresh pear blossom, effervescent blue Curaçao accord and frosted bergamot.

The scents heart notes feature sophisticated floral heat of enticing bluebird orchid, delicate peony and fragrant midnight blooming jasmine. The scent finishes in its base notes with dry-down of warm, opulent Madagascar vanilla, seductive musk and sensual precious woods. A commercial for the fragrance was shot and directed by Jake Nava, who additionally shot the commercial campaign for Beyoncé Pulse; the commercial is 15-seconds long and it features Knowles in a metallic gown walking through a myriad of lights, as the instrumental to her single "Run the World" plays in the background. It was revealed in a behind-the-scenes look at the fragrances commercial that Knowles wore 6-inch studded Christian Louboutin pumps for the shoot. For the video shoot, Knowles was styled by Joe Zee. In a behind-the-scenes look during the making of the commercial, She described the shoot as an "incredible experience" and the set of the fragrances commercial as "energetic" and "magnetic", adding that "the sets' feminism adds to what the fragrance represents."

Hans Dorsinville, the video's creative director, revealed that they used the metaphor of "energy" to construct an electric world, ignited by everything Knowles touches, inspired by Knowles' performance, as he states "She gets on stage and all of a sudden the energy level goes up." The video closes with Knowles stating, "The Pulse campaign is ultra sexy and unique. I can't wait for my fans to see