Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web browser. Consumers find a product of interest by visiting the website of the retailer directly or by searching among alternative vendors using a shopping search engine, which displays the same product's availability and pricing at different e-retailers; as of 2016, customers can shop online using a range of different computers and devices, including desktop computers, tablet computers and smartphones. An online shop evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a regular "bricks-and-mortar" retailer or shopping center; when an online store is set up to enable businesses to buy from another businesses, the process is called business-to-business online shopping. A typical online store enables the customer to browse the firm's range of products and services, view photos or images of the products, along with information about the product specifications and prices.
Online stores enable shoppers to use "search" features to find specific models, brands or items. Online customers must have access to the Internet and a valid method of payment in order to complete a transaction, such as a credit card, an Interac-enabled debit card, or a service such as PayPal. For physical products, the e-tailer ships the products to the customer; the largest of these online retailing corporations are Alibaba, Amazon.com, eBay. Alternative names for the activity are "e-tailing", a shortened form of "electronic retail" or "e-shopping", a shortened form of "electronic shopping". An online store may be called an e-web-store, e-shop, e-store, Internet shop, web-shop, web-store, online store, online storefront and virtual store. Mobile commerce describes purchasing from an online retailer's mobile device-optimized website or software application; these websites or apps are designed to enable customers to browse through a companies' products and services on tablet computers and smartphones.
One of the earliest forms of trade conducted online was IBM's online transaction processing developed in the 1960s and it allowed the processing of financial transactions in real-time. The computerized ticket reservation system developed for American Airlines called Semi-Automatic Business Research Environment was one of its applications. Here, computer terminals located in different travel agencies were linked to a large IBM mainframe computer, which processed transactions and coordinated them so that all travel agents had access to the same information at the same time; the emergence of online shopping as we know today developed with the emergence of the Internet. This platform only functioned as an advertising tool for companies, providing information about its products, it moved on from this simple utility to actual online shopping transaction due to the development of interactive Web pages and secure transmissions. The growth of the internet as a secure shopping channel has developed since 1994, with the first sales of Sting album'Ten Summoner's Tales'.
Wine and flowers soon followed and were among the pioneering retail categories which fueled the growth of online shopping. Researchers found that having products that are appropriate for e-commerce was a key indicator of Internet success. Many of these products did well as they are generic products which shoppers did not need to touch and feel in order to buy, but importantly, in the early days, there were few shoppers online and they were from a narrow segment: affluent, male, 30+. Online shopping has come along way since these early days and -in the UK- accounts for significant percents; as the revenues from online sales continued to grow researchers identified different types of online shoppers, Rohm & Swaninathan identified four categories and named them "convenience shoppers, variety seekers, balanced buyers, store-oriented shoppers". They focused on shopping motivations and found that the variety of products available and the perceived convenience of the buying online experience were significant motivating factors.
This was different for offline shoppers, who were more motivated by time saving and recreational motives. Digital High Street 2020 English entrepreneur Michael Aldrich was a pioneer of online shopping in 1979, his system connected a modified domestic TV to a real-time transaction processing computer via a domestic telephone line. He believed that videotex, the modified domestic TV technology with a simple menu-driven human–computer interface, was a'new, universally applicable, participative communication medium — the first since the invention of the telephone.' This enabled'closed' corporate information systems to be opened to'outside' correspondents not just for transaction processing but for e-messaging and information retrieval and dissemination known as e-business. His definition of the new mass communications medium as'participative' was fundamentally different from the traditional definitions of mass communication and mass media and a precursor to the social networking on the Internet 25 years later.
In March 1980 he launched Redifon's Office Revolution, which allowed consumers, agents, distributors and service companies to be connected on-line to the corporate systems and allow business transactions to be completed electronically in real-time. During the 1980s he
Kmart Corporation is an American big box department store chain headquartered in Hoffman Estates, United States. The company was incorporated in 1899 as S. S. Kresge Corporation and renamed to Kmart Corporation in 1977; the first store with the Kmart name opened in 1962. At its peak in 1994, Kmart operated 2,323 discount stores and Super Kmart Center locations in the United States. After declaring bankruptcy in 2002 and again in 2018, the chain's store count has been reduced to 202 locations. From 2005 through 2019, Kmart was a subsidiary of Sears Holdings Corporation and is now a subsidiary of Transform Holdco LLC. S. S. Kresge, the founder of the company that would become Kmart, met variety-store pioneer Frank Winfield Woolworth while working as a traveling salesman and selling to all 19 of Woolworth's stores at the time. In 1897 Kresge invested $6,700 saved from his job into a five-and-dime store in Tennessee, he jointly owned the first store with John McCrory. Kresge and McCrory added a second store in downtown Detroit the following year.
These were the first S. S. Kresge stores. After two years of partnership, he traded McCrory his share in the Memphis store, plus $3,000, for full ownership of the Detroit store, formed the Kresge & Wilson Company with his brother-in-law, Charles J. Wilson. In 1912, Kresge incorporated the S. S. Kresge Company in Delaware with eighty-five stores. In 1916, Kresge incorporated a new S. S. Kresge took over the operations of the original company; the company was first listed on the New York Stock Exchange on May 23, 1918. During World War I, Kresge experimented with raising the limit on prices in his stores to $1. By 1924, Kresge was worth $375 million and owned real estate of the approximate value of $100 million. Growth early in the 20th century remained brisk, with 257 stores in 1924, rising to 597 stores by 1929. Kresge retired as president in 1925; the Great Depression reduced profitability and resulted in store closings, with the number rising to 682 in 1940. After the war, shopping patterns changed and many customers moved out of the cities into the suburbs.
The Kresge Company closed and merged many urban stores. Under the leadership of executive Harry Cunningham, S. S. Kresge Company opened the first Kmart-named store on March 1, 1962, in Garden City, just four months before the first Walmart opened. Eighteen Kmart stores opened that year. Kmart Foods, a now-defunct chain of Kmart supermarkets, opened in that decade. Though the store chain continued to open Kmart branded stores, the store chain was still called S. S. Kresge Company. Company founder Kresge died on October 18, 1966. Around the time of the opening of the first Kmart, some poorly performing S. S. Kresge stores were converted to a new "Jupiter Discount Stores" brand, conceived as a bare-bones, deep discount outfit. During the 1970s, Kmart put a number of competing retailers out of business. Kresge and Kmart stores competed with other store chains like Zayre, Bradlees, Caldor and those that were operated by MMG-McCrory Stores. In 1977, S. S. Kresge Company changed its name to K Mart Corporation.
In 1980, Vice Chairman Bernard M. Fauber was elected as the CEO of Kmart. In 1981, the 2,000th Kmart store opened. By the end of 1981, there were 2,055 Kmart stores across the United States and Puerto Rico. In 1987, the Kmart Corporation sold its remaining 76 Kresge and Jupiter stores in the United States to McCrory Stores, the brands were entirely discontinued, although Canadian Kresge and Jupiter stores continued to operate until 1994. Kmart experimented with co-branding in 1985, when the in-store cafeteria at the store in Canton, was converted to a Wendy's; until November 1990, when it was passed by Walmart, Kmart was the second-largest retailer in the United States, after Sears. During the 1980s, the company's fortunes began to change. In the late 1980s and into the 1990s, the corporate office shifted much of its focus from the Kmart stores to other companies it had acquired or created, such as Sports Authority, Builders Square, Waldenbooks; the original Blue Light Special, first introduced in 1965, was retired in 1991.
The company brought back the Blue Light Special in 2001, but again discontinued it in 2002. The concept was revived in 2005, though Kmart at that time had no plans to use the concept long-term. Blue Light Specials were revived again in 2009 on Saturdays, offering surprise hour-long sales on selected merchandise, but were discontinued again. Blue Light Specials were revived once again in November 2015. In 1990, in an effort to update its image, Kmart introduced a new logo, it dropped the old-style italic "K" with a turquoise "mart" in favor of a red block letter K with the word "mart" written in script and contained inside the "K". Kmart began remodeling stores shortly thereafter; this logo was replaced in 2004 with the current logo. In 1990, Little Caesars Pizza Station opened its first in-store Kmart restaurant in Rochester, Michigan. Coincidentally, both Little Caesars and Kmart were founded in Garden City, Michigan, in 1959 and 1962 respectively. In 1995, Kmart tried to reinvent itself by using the short-lived name Today's Kmart.
In 1991, the company changes its pronunciation to Kmart Corporation. In 1992, Kmart entered the Eastern European market with the purchase of 13 stores in
The Hechinger Company was an American chain of home-improvement centers headquartered in Landover, Maryland, on the immediate outskirts of Washington, D. C. from 1911 to 1999. It was an online retailer owned by Home Decor Products from 2004 to 2009. Sidney L. Hechinger had established himself in the wrecking and salvage business in 1911, in 1919 opened his first hardware store in Southwest Washington, D. C. Sidney Hechinger focused his hardware business on retail customers in 1924, eschewing contractors and builders, his decision foresaw the rise of the home improvement industry before the sector had a name. The five-store company reorganized in 1953, with Sidney's son John and son-in-law Richard England becoming partners in the company, divided into a retail hardware business and a wholesale building supplies company, the latter being called Richard England Associates. John served on the City Council of Washington. In 1972, John Hechinger, Sr. and brother-in-law Richard England took the ten-store company public with an offering of 400,000 shares.
John Hechinger, Jr. became the third generation of Hechingers to head the company when he was named president of the 54-store chain in 1986. That year, Hechinger Co. announced plans to reincorporate in Delaware, approved in a January 1987 shareholders' meeting. Hechinger had grown to a 69-store chain by the time it made its December 1987 offer to acquire the six stores of Virginia Beach, Virginia-based Home Quarters Warehouse for $66 million. HQ had been founded in 1984 by W. R. Grace & Co. in the mold of big-box stores such as Home Depot, operated as a separate division of Hechinger Co. In the 1980s, it underwent a massive expansion of both HQ and the Hechinger Co. divisions, opening big-box stores to better compete with rivals Home Depot and Lowe's. In January 1995, Hechinger announced it would close or reformat 22 of its 131 stores, including closing all 14 of the Home Quarters Warehouse stores in North and South Carolina. In August of that year, Hechinger Co. consolidated HQ with Hechinger in a further restructuring.
Searching for a niche, Hechinger management in 1997 launched new, smaller concept stores such as Better Spaces in Albany, New York in February and Wye River Hardware & Home in Wheaton and Rockville in August. In July 1997, Los Angeles, California-based investors Leonard Green & Partners announced plans to buy Hechinger Co. for $3 per share, or about $127 million, intending to merge Hechinger with Builders Square, which it had purchased from Kmart for $10 million. However, when Hechinger posted a second quarter loss of $40.6 million in August, Leonard Green cut their offer price, purchased Hechinger Company for $2.375 per share, or about $100.2 million, in September 1997. After several rounds of store closings, the Hechinger Company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection on June 11, 1999, but the reorganization failed; that year, in September 1999, Hechinger's assets were liquidated, including its 117 remaining stores. In 2004, Home Décor Products bought the Hechinger brand name and opened an online retailer the following year, which sold the same products as the former brand.
On February 5, 2009, it was announced that the site would shut down and Hechinger would no longer sell tools. The site closed shortly thereafter. Golubovskis, George. "Hechinger no longer our hometown store," Washington Business Journal, July 18, 1997 "Post 200: Hechinger Co." The Washington Post, April 28, 1997
Chicago metropolitan area
The Chicago metropolitan area, or Chicagoland, is the metropolitan area that includes the city of Chicago and its suburbs. With an estimated CSA population of 9.9 million people and an MSA population of 9.5 million people, it is the third largest metropolitan area in the United States. The Chicago metropolitan area is one of the world's largest and most diversified economies, with more than four million employees and generating an annual gross regional product of $680 billion in 2017; the region is home to more than 400 major corporate headquarters, including 31 in the Fortune 500. There are several definitions of the area, including the area defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget as the Chicago–Joliet–Naperville-Aurora, IL–IN–WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, the area under the jurisdiction of the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning; the Chicago Metropolitan Statistical Area was designated by the United States Census Bureau in 1950. It comprised the Illinois counties of Cook, DuPage, Kane and Will, along with Lake County in Indiana.
As surrounding counties saw an increase in their population densities and the number of their residents employed within Cook County, they met Census criteria to be added to the MSA. The Chicago MSA, now defined as the Chicago-Naperville-Elgin, IL-IN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the third largest MSA by population in the United States; the 2015 census estimate for the MSA was 9,532,569, a decline from 9,543,893 in the 2014 census estimate. This loss of population has been attributed to taxes, political issues and other factors; the Chicago MSA is further subdivided by state boundaries into the Chicago-Naperville-Joliet, IL Metropolitan Division, corresponding to the CMAP region. A breakdown of the 2009 estimated populations of the three Metropolitan Divisions of the MSA are as follows: The OMB defines a larger region as a Combined Statistical Area; the Chicago–Naperville, IL–IN–WI Combined Statistical Area combines the metropolitan areas of Chicago, Michigan City, Kankakee. This area represents the extent of the labor market pool for the entire region.
The CSA has a population of 9,928,312. The Chicago urban agglomeration, according to the United Nations World Urbanization Prospects report, lists a population of 9,545,000; the term "urban agglomeration" refers to the population contained within the contours of a contiguous territory inhabited at urban density levels. It incorporates the population in a city plus that in the surrounding area. Chicagoland is an informal name for the Chicago metropolitan area; the term Chicagoland has no official definition, the region is considered to include areas beyond the corresponding MSA, as well as portions of the greater CSA. Colonel Robert R. McCormick and publisher of the Chicago Tribune gets credit for placing the term in common use. McCormick's conception of Chicagoland stretched all the way to nearby parts of four states; the first usage was in the Tribune's July 27, 1926 front page headline, "Chicagoland's Shrines: A Tour of Discoveries", for an article by reporter James O'Donnell Bennett. He stated that Chicagoland comprised everything in a 200-mile radius in every direction and reported on many different places in the area.
The Tribune was the dominant newspaper in a vast area stretching to the west of the city, that hinterland was tied to the metropolis by rail lines and commercial links. Today, the Chicago Tribune's usage includes the city of Chicago, the rest of Cook County, eight nearby Illinois counties, the two Indiana counties of Lake and Porter. Illinois Department of Tourism literature uses Chicagoland for suburbs in Cook, Lake, DuPage and Will counties, treating the city separately; the Chicagoland Chamber of Commerce defines it as all of Cook, DuPage, Lake, McHenry, Will counties. In addition, company marketing programs such as Construction Data Company's "Chicago and Vicinity" region and the Chicago Automobile Trade Association's "Chicagoland and Northwest Indiana" advertising campaign are directed at the MSA itself, as well as LaSalle, Winnebago and Ogle counties in Illinois, in addition to Jasper, La Porte counties in Indiana and Kenosha and Walworth counties in Wisconsin, as far northeast as Berrien County, Michigan.
The region is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis. Chicago Metropolitan Agency for Planning is an Illinois state agency responsible for transportation infrastructure, land use, long term economic development planning for the areas under its jurisdiction within Illinois; the planning area has a population of over 8 million, which includes the following locations in Illinois: The city of Chicago lies in the Chicago Plain, a flat and broad area characterized by little topographical relief. The few low hills are sand ridges. North of the Chicago Plain, steep bluffs and ravines run alongside Lake Michigan. Along the southern shore of the Chicago Plain, sand dunes run alongside the lake; the tallest dunes are found in Indiana Dunes National Park. Surrounding the low plain are bands of moraines in the south and west suburbs; these areas are hillier than the Chicago Plain. A continental divide, separating the Mississippi River watershed from that of
Elle is a worldwide lifestyle magazine of French origin that focuses on fashion, beauty and entertainment. It was founded in 1945 by the writer Pierre Lazareff; the title "her," in French. Elle was founded in Paris the immediate aftermath of World War II and first sold as a supplement to France-Soir, edited at the time by Pierre Lazareff. Hélène Gordon-Lazareff, Elle's pioneering founder, returned to Paris from New York City to create a unique publication that grappled with the many forces shaping the lives of women in France in 1945. Women won the right to vote in 1944, Elle dived into long-form "newspaper-like" features on women's role in national politics and the growing feminist movement, its 100th issue, published on 14 October 1947, featured the work of Christian Dior just eight months after his debut show. Bridget Bardot graced her first Elle cover at age 17, on 7 January 1952, months before her screen debut in Manina, the Girl In the Bikini. By the 1960s, Elle had a readership of 800,000 across France and was said to "not so much reflect fashion as decree it."
This dominance was reflected in the famous slogan: "Si elle lit, elle lit Elle". Hachette began launching its Japanese publication. In 1985, Elle launched in the United States; the Chinese version of the magazine was first published in 1988. It was the first four-color fashion magazine offered in China; the magazine was used as an informational and educational tool for opening of the Chinese textile market. By 1991, the magazine's sales were in decline in the U. S. Elle.com was launched in 2007. In 2011, The Hearst Corporation reached a €651M deal with Lagardére to purchase the rights to publish Elle Magazine in fifteen countries including the United Kingdom, Spain and Ukraine. Lagardére, which struggled in the international market in the 2000s, retained the rights to the French edition and would collect royalties from the international editions. Elle printed special collectors’ covers for their September 2016 issue, one of them featured Hari Nef, the first time an transgender woman had been on the cover of a major commercial British magazine.
Elle editors have included Jean-Dominique Bauby, who became known for writing a book after suffering total paralysis and Robbie Myers. In September 2017, it was announced that Roberta Myers was stepping down from the role of editor-in-chief, position she held since 2000, stating through a memo to the staff that "I want to spend the next seasons as available to my children as I can be, so I take my leave of Elle now". A day of the announcement, it was reported that Nina Garcia, creative director of Marie Claire was appointed as the new editor-in-chief effective 18 September. Patricia Wang was the first editor of Elle China. Elle is the world's largest fashion magazine, with 43 international editions in over 60 countries; this includes region-specific editions such as Elle Hong Kong and Elle Quebec which are published in addition to Elle China and Elle Canada respectively. In Belgium, Elle is published as two magazines for the Flanders and Wallonia regions, while Elle Middle East is targeted at several countries in the region.
Technologically speaking, the Elle brand is a global network encompassing over 33 websites. Subscriptions account for 73 percent of readers. There are 33 Elle websites globally, which collectively attract over 25 million unique visitors and 370 million page views per month; the magazine reaches over 69 million readers. The vast majority of Elle's audience are women between the ages of 18 and 49, its readers have a median age of 34.7 years. Forty percent of the readers are single, the median household income is $69,973. "Our readers are young enough to think about life as an adventure and old enough to have the means to live it", said Roberta Myers, editor in chief. The first international edition of Elle was launched in Japan in 1969, its U. S. and UK editions were launched in 1985. Spain followed in 1986, with Italy and Hong Kong editions launching in 1987. In 1988, the magazine was launched in Germany, China, Sweden and Portugal; the next year, the Quebec joined the international Elle community. Australia and Taiwan versions were launched in 1990, Argentina in 1994, a Russian edition, published monthly, launched in 1996.
Elle is owned by the Lagardère Group of France. It is published in the U. S. and the UK by Hearst Magazines, in Canada by TVA Group, in Brazil by Grupo Editora Abril, in Mexico by Grupo Expansión, in Argentina by Grupo Clarín, in Singapore by Mediacorp, in Serbia/Croatia by Adria Media, in Turkey by Doğan Burda Magazine, in Germany by Hubert Burda Media, in Romania by Ringier. In China, the publisher is Shanghai Translation Publishing House. In India it is published by Ogaan Publications Pvt. Ltd; as an international magazine, Elle has its headquarters in Paris as well as licensed publishers in New York City, Toronto, Mexico City, South Africa, Istanbul, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Tokyo, Belgrade, Helsinki, Athens, Madrid, Munich, Kiev, Kuala Lumpur, other cities. In December 2013, Elle hired Randy Minor as design director. In November 2016, ELLE Canada promoted Vanessa Craft to Editor in Chief, making her the first black woman at the helm of an ELLE magazine globally. Elle Girl Elle Elle Decor List of fashion magazines List of women's magazines European Union Didier Guérin, executive in charge of new releases Official website French Elle – magazine profile at Fashion Model Directory