British Film Institute
The British Film Institute is a film and charitable organisation which promotes and preserves filmmaking and television in the United Kingdom. It was established by Royal Charter to: Encourage the development of the arts of film and the moving image throughout the United Kingdom, to promote their use as a record of contemporary life and manners, to promote education about film and the moving image and their impact on society, to promote access to and appreciation of the widest possible range of British and world cinema and to establish, care for and develop collections reflecting the moving image history and heritage of the United Kingdom; the BFI maintains the world's largest film archive, the BFI National Archive called National Film Library, National Film Archive, National Film and Television Archive. The archive contains more than 50,000 fiction films, over 100,000 non-fiction titles, around 625,000 television programmes; the majority of the collection is British material but it features internationally significant holdings from around the world.
The Archive collects films which feature key British actors and the work of British directors. The BFI runs the BFI Southbank and London IMAX cinema, both located on the south bank of the River Thames in London; the IMAX has the largest cinema screen in the UK and shows popular recent releases and short films showcasing its technology, which includes 3D screenings and 11,600 watts of digital surround sound. BFI Southbank shows films from all over the world critically acclaimed historical & specialised films that may not otherwise get a cinema showing; the BFI distributes archival and cultural cinema to other venues – each year to more than 800 venues all across the UK, as well as to a substantial number of overseas venues. The BFI offers a range of education initiatives, in particular to support the teaching of film and media studies in schools. In late 2012, the BFI received money from the Department For Education to create the BFI Film Academy Network; the BFI runs the annual London Film Festival along with BFI Flare: London LGBT Film Festival and the youth-orientated Future Film Festival.
The BFI publishes the monthly Sound magazine as well as films on Blu-ray, DVD and books. It runs the BFI National Library, maintains the BFI Film & TV Database and Summary of Information on Film and Television, which are databases of credits and other information about film and television productions. SIFT has a collection of about 7 million still frames from television; the BFI has co-produced a number of television series featuring footage from the BFI National Archive, in partnership with the BBC, including The Lost World of Mitchell & Kenyon, The Lost World of Friese-Greene, The Lost World of Tibet. The institute was founded in 1933. Despite its foundation resulting from a recommendation in a report on Film in National Life, at that time the institute was a private company, though it has received public money throughout its history—from the Privy Council and Treasury until 1965 and the various culture departments since then; the institute was restructured following the Radcliffe Report of 1948 which recommended that it should concentrate on developing the appreciation of filmic art, rather than creating film itself.
Thus control of educational film production passed to the National Committee for Visual Aids in Education and the British Film Academy assumed control for promoting production. From 1952–2000, the BFI provided funding for new and experimental filmmakers via the BFI Production Board; the institute received a Royal Charter in 1983. This was updated in 2000, in the same year the newly established UK Film Council took responsibility for providing the BFI's annual grant-in-aid; as an independent registered charity, the BFI is regulated by the Charity Commission and the Privy Council. In 1988, the BFI opened the London Museum of the Moving Image on the South Bank. MOMI was acclaimed internationally and set new standards for education through entertainment, but subsequently it did not receive the high levels of continuing investment that might have enabled it to keep pace with technological developments and ever-rising audience expectations; the Museum was "temporarily" closed in 1999. This did not happen, MOMI's closure became permanent in 2002 when it was decided to redevelop the South Bank site.
This redevelopment was itself further delayed. The BFI is managed on a day-to-day basis by its chief executive, Amanda Nevill. Supreme decision-making authority rests with a board of up to 14 governors; the current chair is Josh Berger, who took up the post in February 2016. He succeeded Greg Dyke, who took office on 1 March 2008. Dyke succeeded the late Anthony Minghella, chair from 2003 until 31 December 2007; the chair of the board is appointed by the BFI's own Board of Governors but requires the consent of the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. Other Governors are co-opted by existing board members; the BFI operates with three sources of income. The largest is public money allocated by the Department for Culture and Sport. In 2011–12, this funding amounted to £20m; the second largest source is commercial activity such as receipts from ticket sales at BFI Southbank or the BFI London IMAX theatre, sales of DVDs, etc. Thirdly and sponsorship of around £5m
A school is an educational institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, compulsory. In these systems, students progress through a series of schools; the names for these schools vary by country but include primary school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education. An institution where higher education is taught, is called a university college or university, but these higher education institutions are not compulsory. In addition to these core schools, students in a given country may attend schools before and after primary and secondary education. Kindergarten or pre-school provide some schooling to young children. University, vocational school, college or seminary may be available after secondary school. A school may be dedicated to one particular field, such as a school of economics or a school of dance. Alternative schools may provide nontraditional curriculum and methods.
There are non-government schools, called private schools. Private schools may be required. Other private schools can be religious, such as Christian schools, hawzas and others. Schools for adults include institutions of corporate training, military education and training and business schools. In home schooling and online schools and learning take place outside a traditional school building. Schools are organized in several different organizational models, including departmental, small learning communities, academies and schools-within-a-school; the word school derives from Greek σχολή meaning "leisure" and "that in which leisure is employed", but "a group to whom lectures were given, school". The concept of grouping students together in a centralized location for learning has existed since Classical antiquity. Formal schools have existed at least since ancient Greece, ancient Rome ancient India, ancient China; the Byzantine Empire had an established schooling system beginning at the primary level.
According to Traditions and Encounters, the founding of the primary education system began in 425 AD and "... military personnel had at least a primary education...". The sometimes efficient and large government of the Empire meant that educated citizens were a must. Although Byzantium lost much of the grandeur of Roman culture and extravagance in the process of surviving, the Empire emphasized efficiency in its war manuals; the Byzantine education system continued until the empire's collapse in 1453 AD. In Western Europe a considerable number of cathedral schools were founded during the Early Middle Ages in order to teach future clergy and administrators, with the oldest still existing, continuously operated, cathedral schools being The King's School, King's School, Rochester, St Peter's School and Thetford Grammar School. Beginning in the 5th century CE monastic schools were established throughout Western Europe, teaching both religious and secular subjects. Islam was another culture. Emphasis was put on knowledge, which required a systematic way of teaching and spreading knowledge, purpose-built structures.
At first, mosques combined both religious performance and learning activities, but by the 9th century, the madrassa was introduced, a school, built independently from the mosque, such as al-Qarawiyyin, founded in 859 CE. They were the first to make the Madrassa system a public domain under the control of the Caliph. Under the Ottomans, the towns of Bursa and Edirne became the main centers of learning; the Ottoman system of Külliye, a building complex containing a mosque, a hospital and public kitchen and dining areas, revolutionized the education system, making learning accessible to a wider public through its free meals, health care and sometimes free accommodation. In Europe, universities emerged during the 12th century. During the Middle Ages and much of the Early Modern period, the main purpose of schools was to teach the Latin language; this led to the term grammar school, which in the United States informally refers to a primary school, but in the United Kingdom means a school that selects entrants based on ability or aptitude.
Following this, the school curriculum has broadened to include literacy in the vernacular language as well as technical, artistic and practical subjects. Obligatory school attendance became common in parts of Europe during the 18th century. In Denmark-Norway, this was introduced as early as in 1739-1741, the primary end being to increase the literacy of the almue, i.e. the "regular people". Many of the earlier public schools in the United States and elsewhere were one-room schools where a single teacher taught seven grades of boys and girls in the same classroom. Beginning in the 1920s, one-room schools were consolidated into multiple classroom facilities with transportation provided by kid hacks and school buses; the use of the term school varies by country, as do the names of the various levels of education within the country
Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure. Construction differs from manufacturing in that manufacturing involves mass production of similar items without a designated purchaser, while construction takes place on location for a known client. Construction as an industry comprises six to nine percent of the gross domestic product of developed countries. Construction starts with planning and financing. Large-scale construction requires collaboration across multiple disciplines. A project manager manages the job, a construction manager, design engineer, construction engineer or architect supervises it; those involved with the design and execution must consider zoning requirements, environmental impact of the job, budgeting, construction-site safety and transportation of building materials, inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays and bidding. Large construction projects are sometimes referred to as megaprojects. Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form objects, systems, or organizations, comes from Latin constructio and Old French construction.
To construct is the verb: the act of building, the noun construction: how a building was built, the nature of its structure. In general, there are three sectors of construction: buildings and industrial. Building construction is further divided into residential and non-residential. Infrastructure is called heavy civil or heavy engineering that includes large public works, bridges, railways, water or wastewater and utility distribution. Industrial construction includes refineries, process chemical, power generation and manufacturing plants. There are other ways to break the industry into sectors or markets. Engineering News-Record, a trade magazine for the construction industry, each year compiles and reports data about the size of design and construction companies. In 2014, ENR compiled the data in nine market segments divided as transportation, buildings, industrial, manufacturing, sewer/waste, hazardous waste and a tenth category for other projects. In their reporting, they used data on transportation, hazardous waste and water to rank firms as heavy contractors.
The Standard Industrial Classification and the newer North American Industry Classification System have a classification system for companies that perform or engage in construction. To recognize the differences of companies in this sector, it is divided into three subsectors: building construction and civil engineering construction, specialty trade contractors. There are categories for construction service firms and construction managers. Building construction is the process of adding structure to real property or construction of buildings; the majority of building construction jobs are small renovations, such as addition of a room, or renovation of a bathroom. The owner of the property acts as laborer and design team for the entire project. Although building construction projects consist of common elements such as design, financial and legal considerations, projects of varying sizes may reach undesirable end results, such as structural collapse, cost overruns, and/or litigation. For this reason, those with experience in the field make detailed plans and maintain careful oversight during the project to ensure a positive outcome.
Commercial building construction is procured or publicly utilizing various delivery methodologies, including cost estimating, hard bid, negotiated price, management contracting, construction management-at-risk, design & build and design-build bridging. Residential construction practices and resources must conform to local building authority regulations and codes of practice. Materials available in the area dictate the construction materials used. Cost of construction on a per square meter basis for houses can vary based on site conditions, local regulations, economies of scale and the availability of skilled tradesmen. Residential construction as well as other types of construction can generate waste such that planning is required. According to McKinsey research, productivity growth per worker in construction has lagged behind many other industries across different countries including in the United States and in European countries. In the United States, construction productivity per worker has declined by half since the 1960s.
The most popular method of residential construction in North America is wood-framed construction. Typical construction steps for a single-family or small multi-family house are: Obtain an engineered soil test of lot where construction is planned. From an engineer or company specializing in soil testing. Develop floor plans and obtain a materials list for estimations Obtain structural engineered plans for foundation and structure. To be completed by either a licensed engineer or architect. To include both a foundation and framing plan. Obtain lot survey Obtain government building approval if necessary If required obtain approval from HOA or ARC Clear the building site Survey to stake out for the foun
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
A quarry is a type of open-pit mine in which dimension stone, construction aggregate, sand, gravel, or slate is excavated from the ground. The word quarry can include the underground quarrying for stone, such as Bath stone. Types of rock extracted from quarries include: Chalk China clay Cinder Clay Coal Construction aggregate Coquina Diabase Gabbro Granite Gritstone Gypsum Limestone Marble Ores Phosphate rock Quartz Sandstone Slate Many quarry stones such as marble, granite and sandstone are cut into larger slabs and removed from the quarry; the surfaces finished with varying degrees of sheen or luster. Polished slabs are cut into tiles or countertops and installed in many kinds of residential and commercial properties. Natural stone quarried from the earth is considered a luxury and tends to be a durable surface, thus desirable. Quarries in level areas with shallow groundwater or which are located close to surface water have engineering problems with drainage; the water is removed by pumping while the quarry is operational, but for high inflows more complex approaches may be required.
For example, the Coquina quarry is excavated to more than 60 feet below sea level. To reduce surface leakage, a moat lined with clay was constructed around the entire quarry. Ground water entering the pit is pumped up into the moat; as a quarry becomes deeper, water inflows increase and it becomes more expensive to lift the water higher during removal. Some water-filled quarries are worked by dredging. Many people and municipalities consider quarries to be eyesores and require various abatement methods to address problems with noise and appearance. One of the more effective and famous examples of successful quarry restoration is Butchart Gardens in Victoria, BC, Canada. A further problem is pollution of roads from trucks leaving the quarries. To control and restrain the pollution of public roads, wheel washing systems are becoming more common. Many quarries fill with water after abandonment and become lakes. Others are made into landfills. Water-filled quarries can be deep 50 ft or more, cold, so swimming in quarry lakes is not recommended.
Unexpectedly cold water can cause a swimmer's muscles to weaken. Though quarry water is very clear, submerged quarry stones and abandoned equipment make diving into these quarries dangerous. Several people drown in quarries each year. However, many inactive quarries are converted into safe swimming sites; such lakes lakes within active quarries, can provide important habitat for animals. Clay pit Coal mining Collecting fossils Gravel pit List of minerals List of rock types List of stones Miner Mountaintop removal mining Opencast mining Quarry lake Quarries