William V, Prince of Orange
William V, Prince of Orange was the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic. He went into exile to London in 1795 and he was the reigning Prince of Nassau-Orange until his death in 1806. In that capacity he was succeeded by his son William, William Batavus was born in The Hague on 8 March 1748, the only son of William IV, who had the year before been restored as stadtholder of the United Provinces. He was only three years old when his father died in 1751, and a long regency began, William was made the 568th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1752. William V assumed the position of stadtholder and Captain-General of the Dutch States Army in 1766, on 4 October 1767 in Berlin, Prince William married Princess Wilhelmina of Prussia, the daughter of Augustus William of Prussia, niece of Frederick the Great and a cousin of George III. He became an art collector and in 1774 his Galerij Prins Willem V was opened to the public, the position of the Dutch during the American War of Independence was one of neutrality.
However, things came to a head with the Dutch attempt to join the Russian-led League of Armed Neutrality, after much political debate and pressure from American and French diplomats such as John Adams, Joan van der Capellen tot den Pol and Court Lambertus van Beyma took the initiative. After the signing of the Treaty of Paris, there was growing restlessness in the United Provinces with Williams rule, in the meantime, a band of young revolutionaries, called Patriots, was challenging his authority more and more. In 1785 William left the Hague and removed his court to Guelders, in September 1786 he had to send an army to stop Herman Willem Daendels, organizing an overthrow at the cities vroedschap. In June 1787 his energetic wife Wilhelmina tried to travel to the Hague, outside Schoonhoven, she was stopped by militia, taken to a farm near Goejanverwellesluis and within two days made to return to Nijmegen. To Wilhelmina and her brother, Frederick William II of Prussia, Frederick sent in an army to attack the dissidents.
Many Patriots fled to the North of France, around Saint-Omer, until his overthrow they were supported by King Louis XVI of France. With the coming of the French Revolution William V joined the First Coalition against Republican France in 1793 and his troops fought bravely in the Flanders Campaign, but in 1794 the military situation deteriorated and the Dutch Republic was threatened by invading armies. The year 1795 was a one for the ancien régime of the Netherlands. Supported by the French Army, the revolutionaries returned from Paris to fight in the Netherlands, a few days the Batavian Revolution in Amsterdam occurred, and the Dutch Republic was replaced with the Batavian Republic. Though only a number complied this contributed to their confusion and demoralisation. Almost all Dutch colonies were in the course of time occupied by the British, who in the end returned most, in 1799 the Hereditary Prince took an active part in the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland, engineering the capture of a Batavian naval squadron in the Vlieter Incident.
The surrender of the ships was formally accepted in the name of William V as stadtholder, but that was his only success, as the troops suffered from choleric diseases, and civilians at that time were unwilling to re-instate the old regime
The Hague is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands, and the capital city of the province of South Holland. With a population of 520,704 inhabitants and more than one million including the suburbs, it is the third-largest city of the Netherlands. The Rotterdam The Hague Metropolitan Area, with a population of approximately 2.7 million, is the 12th-largest in the European Union and the most populous in the country. Located in the west of the Netherlands, The Hague is in the centre of the Haaglanden conurbation and lies at the southwest corner of the larger Randstad conurbation. The Hague is the seat of the Dutch government, the Supreme Court, and the Council of State, but the city is not the capital of the Netherlands, which constitutionally is Amsterdam. King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands plans to live at Huis ten Bosch and works at Noordeinde Palace in The Hague, the Hague is home to the world headquarters of Royal Dutch Shell and numerous other major Dutch companies. The Hague originated around 1230, when Count Floris IV of Holland purchased land alongside a pond, in 1248, his son and successor William II, King of the Romans, decided to extend the residence to a palace, which would be called the Binnenhof.
He died in 1256 before this palace was completed but parts of it were finished by his son Floris V, of which the Ridderzaal and it is still used for political events, such as the annual speech from the throne by the Dutch monarch. From the 13th century onwards, the counts of Holland used The Hague as their administrative centre, the village that originated around the Binnenhof was first mentioned as Haga in a charter dating from 1242. In the 15th century, the smarter des Graven hage came into use, literally The Counts Wood, with connotations like The Counts Hedge, s-Gravenhage was officially used for the city from the 17th century onwards. Today, this name is used in some official documents like birth. The city itself uses Den Haag in all its communication and their seat was located in The Hague. At the beginning of the Eighty Years War, the absence of city walls proved disastrous, in 1575, the States of Holland even considered demolishing the city but this proposal was abandoned, after mediation by William of Orange.
From 1588, The Hague became the seat of the government of the Dutch Republic, in order for the administration to maintain control over city matters, The Hague never received official city status, although it did have many of the privileges normally granted only to cities. In modern administrative law, city rights have no place anymore, only in 1806, when the Kingdom of Holland was a puppet state of the First French Empire, was the settlement granted city rights by Louis Bonaparte. After the Napoleonic Wars, modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands were combined in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands to form a buffer against France, as a compromise and Amsterdam alternated as capital every two years, with the government remaining in The Hague. After the separation of Belgium in 1830, Amsterdam remained the capital of the Netherlands, when the government started to play a more prominent role in Dutch society after 1850, The Hague quickly expanded. The growing city annexed the rural municipality of Loosduinen partly in 1903, the city sustained heavy damage during World War II
The Binnenhof is a complex of buildings in the city centre of The Hague, next to the Hofvijver lake. It houses the place of both houses of the States General of the Netherlands, as well as the Ministry of General Affairs. Built primarily in the 13th century, the Gothic castle originally functioned as residence of the counts of Holland and it is counted among the Top 100 Dutch heritage sites. The Binnenhof is the oldest House of Parliament in the still in use. Little is known about the origin of the Binnenhof, the grounds next to the Hofvijver lake, and the small homestead on it, were purchased by Count Floris IV of Holland from Meiland van Wassenaar in November 1229. Between 1230 and 1234 he had the homestead expanded to a small keep, after Floris son and successor William II was crowned King of the Romans in 1248, this construction continued. Between 1248 and 1280, William had the Ridderzaal built, to its left and right, walls were built, which divided the area in front of the building from that behind it.
At the end of the wall on the left, near the Hofvijver, the chapel was built. William died in battle in 1256, before the construction of the Ridderzaal had finished, the Binnenhof was the residence of the counts of Holland for a short period. After the house of Holland died out in 1299, the county fell in the hands of the counts of Hainaut, the counts of Hainaut barely resided in the Binnenhof in the early 14th century. Duke Albert I of Bavaria and his successor William II lived in the Binnenhof virtually permanently, under their reign, the castle saw a sizeable expansion, and gradually became enclosed by buildings. When Holland had become part of the Burgundian Empire in 1432, part of the complex was made into the residence of the stadtholder of Holland, who governed the county in absence of its ruler. After Philip II was deposed as Count of Holland and the Dutch Republic was proclaimed in 1581, in 1584, stadtholder Maurice moved into the stadtholders quarter, and in the same year, the Ridderzaal became the meeting place of the newly formed States General of the Dutch Republic.
Between 1806 and 1810, under French rule, the centre of the Netherlands was moved to Amsterdam. When the Netherlands gained independence from France, the government moved back to the Binnenhof, the local residents, cared more for the historic value of the building, and successfully protested against demolition. Originally built as a ballroom, the Gothic Ridderzaal today forms the centre of the Binnenhof, every third Tuesday of September, on Prinsjesdag, this is where the King holds his annual Speech from the Throne. Other buildings shape a rectangle around the Ridderzaal, creating a courtyard in front of the building. A gilt Neo-Gothic fountain adorns the courtyard and a statue of King William II, one of few Dutch equestrian statues, guards its gate, the Stadtholders Gate, the lower house meets in a chamber in the large modern eastern part of the complex
The Gevangenpoort is a former gate and medieval prison on the Buitenhof in The Hague, Netherlands. It is situated next to the 18th-century art gallery founded by William V, from 1420 until 1828, the prison was used for housing people who had committed serious crimes while they awaited sentencing. Its most famous prisoner was Cornelis de Witt, who was held on the charge of plotting the murder of the stadtholder. He was lynched together with his brother Johan on 20 August 1672 on the square in front of the building called groene zoodje after the grass mat used for the scaffold. When public executions went out of fashion the area was used to build the Witte Society, a club that still exists today. In 1882, the Gevangenpoort became a prison museum, the gate function was lost in 1923 when the houses adjoining the Hofvijver were taken down to build the street that now allows busy traffic to run by it. Since 2010, museum visitors can view the art gallery that can be reached through a special staircase that connects the two buildings.
The collection which hangs here is a reconstruction of the original 1774 art cabinet that was situated upstairs above the fencing school. The paintings are again upstairs, hanging crowded together on the walls in the style of the late 18th century, in 1822 the collection was moved to the Mauritshuis which remains the formal owner of the paintings on display. During restoration activities, highlights of the permanent Mauritshuis collection have been displayed in the gallery
Albert I, Duke of Bavaria
Duke Albert I KG, was a feudal ruler of the counties of Holland and Zeeland in the Low Countries. Additionally, he held a portion of the Bavarian province of Straubing, his Bavarian ducal lines appanage, Albert was the third son of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor from his second wife Empress Margaret, who was the daughter of William III, Count of Holland and Hainaut. Albert was originally a younger son, apportioned at best an appanage and he was only 10 years old when his father died, leaving most of his Bavarian inheritance to his eldest half-brother, Louis V, Duke of Bavaria, but some appanages to the younger sons. His elder brother, William V, Count of Holland, had engaged in a struggle with their mother, obtaining Holland and Zeeland from her in 1354. William was supported by the party of burghers of the cities and they were opposed in this by the Hook faction, the party of disaffected nobles who were supporters of Empress Margaret. Margaret had been Countess of Holland and Hainault in succession to her brother William IV, who was killed in battle.
She had resigned her sovereignty in favour of her son William V, Williams insanity resulted in the appointment of the 22-year-old Albert as governor of his brothers territories from 1358 onwards. During Alberts regency, affairs ran smoothly and trade improved, troubles between the two political parties, the Hoeks and Kabeljauws, remained barely beneath the surface. William lived for thirty years. Albert did not formally succeed him until his death in 1388, by time he had already arranged the marriage of his daughters to a number of Imperial princes. The eldest daughter to have children was Margaret, her son Philip III, in Alberts own reign, troubles erupted between the Hoeks and the Kabeljauws because of a woman. Albert always had mistresses, but this time his attentions were drawn to Aleid van Poelgeest and she was considered very beautiful and was able to gain political influence which was resented. A plot was hatched among the Hoeks as well as members of Alberts household, on 22 September 1392 Aleid was murdered in The Hague.
In his rage Albert persecuted the Hoeks, by sword and fire, even his own son and heir, did not feel safe and went to live in Hainault. During his last years, Albert fought the Frisians and they were beaten time and time again, but were never completely conquered. On Alberts death in 1404, he was succeeded by his eldest son, a younger son, John III, became Bishop of Liège. However, on Williams death in 1417, a war of succession broke out between John and Williams daughter Jacqueline of Hainaut and this would be the last episode of the Hook and Cod wars and would lead to the counties being placed into Burgundian hands. Johanna of Bavaria, married Wenceslaus, King of the Romans, Margaret of Bavaria, married in Cambrai in 1385 John the Fearless
The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
A cadastre, using a cadastral survey or cadastral map, is a comprehensive register of the real estate or real propertys metes-and-bounds of a country. In most countries, legal systems have developed around the administrative systems and use the cadastre to define the dimensions. The cadastre is a source of data in disputes and lawsuits between landowners. In the United States, Cadastral Survey within the Bureau of Land Management maintains records of all public lands, such surveys often require detailed investigation of the history of land use, legal accounts, and other documents. A cadastre commonly includes details of the ownership, the tenure, the location, the dimensions, the cultivations if rural. Cadastres are used by nations around the world, some in conjunction with other records. The International Federation of Surveyors defines cadastre as follows, A Cadastre is normally a parcel based, the word forms the adjective cadastral, used in public administration, primarily for ownership and taxation purposes.
The terminology for cadastral divisions may include counties, ridings, sections, blocks, other languages have kept the original t sound in the second syllable. In modern Greek, though, it has replaced by κτηματολόγιο /ktimatologio/. Some of the earliest cadasters were ordered by Roman Emperors to recover state owned lands that had appropriated by private individuals. In this way Vespasian was able to reimpose taxation formerly uncollected on these lands, with the fall of Rome the use of cadastral maps effectively discontinued. Medieval practice used written descriptions of the extent of land rather than using more precise surveys, only in the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries did the use of cadastral maps resume, beginning in the Netherlands. With the emergence of capitalism in Renaissance Europe the need for cadastral maps reemerged as a tool to determine and this took place first privately in land disputes and spread to governmental practice as a means of more precise tax assessment.
Cadastral surveys document the boundaries of land ownership, by the production of documents, sketches, plans and they were originally used to ensure reliable facts for land valuation and taxation. An example from early England is the Domesday Book in 1086, napoleon established a comprehensive cadastral system for France that is regarded as the forerunner of most modern versions. The Public Lands Survey System is a survey of the United States originating in legislation from 1785. The Dominion Land Survey is a cadastral survey conducted in Western Canada begun in 1871 after the creation of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. Both cadastral surveys are made relative to principal meridian and baselines and these cadastral surveys divided the surveyed areas into townships, square land areas of approximately 36 square miles
McDonalds is an American hamburger and fast food restaurant chain. It was founded in 1940 as a restaurant operated by Richard. In 1948, they reorganized their business as a hamburger stand, the first McDonalds franchise using the arches logo opened in Phoenix, Arizona in 1953. Businessman Ray Kroc joined the company as an agent in 1955. Based in Oak Brook, Illinois, McDonalds confirmed plans to move its headquarters to Chicago by early 2018. Today, McDonalds is one of the worlds largest restaurant chains, McDonalds primarily sells hamburgers, chicken products, french fries, breakfast items, soft drinks, milkshakes and desserts. In response to changing tastes, the company has expanded its menu to include salads, wraps, smoothies. A McDonalds restaurant is operated by either a franchisee, an affiliate, the McDonalds Corporation revenues come from the rent and fees paid by the franchisees, as well as sales in company-operated restaurants. According to a BBC report published in 2012, McDonalds is the second largest private employer,1.5 million of whom work for franchises.
The business began in 1940, with a restaurant opened by brothers Richard and Maurice McDonald at 1398 North E Street at West 14th Street in San Bernardino, the first McDonalds with the arches opened in Phoenix, Arizona in March 1953. The original mascot of McDonalds was a man with a hat on top of a hamburger-shaped head whose name was Speedee. In 1962, the Golden Arches replaced Speedee as the company symbol, a new mascot, Ronald McDonald was introduced in 1965. The clown-like man having puffed out costume legs served advertising aimed at children. On May 4,1961, McDonalds first filed for a U. S. trademark on the name McDonalds with the description Drive-In Restaurant Services, on September 13,1961, the company filed for a trademark on a new logo—an overlapping, double-arched M symbol. By September 6,1962, this M-symbol was temporarily disfavored, although the Golden Arches logo appeared in various forms, the present version as a letter M did not appear until November 18,1968, when the company applied for a U. S. trademark.
Kroc purchased the McDonald brothers equity in the company and led its expansion. Kroc was noted for aggressive business practices, compelling the McDonald brothers to leave the fast-food industry and the McDonald brothers feuded over control of the business, as documented in Krocs autobiography. The San Bernardino restaurant was demolished in 1976 and the site was sold to the Juan Pollo restaurant chain and this area now serves as headquarters for the Juan Pollo chain, as well as a McDonalds and Route 66 museum
Hendrik Petrus Berlage
Hendrik Petrus Berlage was a prominent Dutch architect. He studied architecture at the Zurich Institute of Technology between 1875 and 1878 after which he traveled extensively for 3 years through Europe, in the 1880s he formed a partnership in the Netherlands with Theodore Sanders which produced a mixture of practical and utopian projects. A published author, Berlage held memberships in various architectural societies including CIAM I and this influence is visible in his design for the Amsterdam Commodities Exchange, for which he would draw on the ideas of Viollet-le-Duc. The load-bearing bare brick walls and the notion of the primacy of space, a visit Berlage made to the U. S. in 1911 greatly affected his architecture. From on the architecture of Frank Lloyd Wright would be a significant influence. Lectures he gave when returned to Europe would help to disseminate Wrights thoughts in Germany, a notable overseas commission was the 1916 Holland House, built as offices for a Dutch shipping company in Bury Street in the City of London.
He received the British RIBA Royal Gold Medal in 1932, Berlage died at The Hague in 1934. In 1970, the IAU named the lunar crater Berlage after him. P, Schriften zur Architektur, Birkhäuser Basel, ISBN 3-7643-2587-9 Singelenberg, Pieter, H. P
Top 100 Dutch heritage sites
The Top 100 Dutch heritage sites is a list of rijksmonuments in the Netherlands, established in 1990 by the Department for Conservation. The Top 100 was a selection of historical monuments that were authorized to display the symbol of the Hague Convention of 1954, the list should not be confused with the UNESCO World Heritage list. The buildings on the list could expect extra security in the context of the policy, the Top 100 list is no longer official, as the extra cultural protection policy is no longer applied. The following Top 100 includes a list of the most important stained glass, church bells and organs
The Hofvijver is a pond in the centre of The Hague. It is adjoined in the east by the Korte Vijverberg, in the south by the Binnenhof, in the middle there is a small island with plants and trees which has no name, it is usually referred to as the island in the Vijverberg. The term pond is actually a misnomer, as the Hofvijver has its origin in a natural dunelake fed by the Haagse Beek, the Haagse Beek still feeds the Hofvijver and so the pond is directly connected to the dunes in Kijkduin. In this dunelake there was an island on which William II built his palace in 1248, other sources say he built his palace alongside the pond and created a moat around it. The city of The Hague celebrated its 700 years of existence in 1948, Count Albert decided on the rectangular shape in the 14th century. In the 17th century the Hofvijver got quays and in the 19th century it was elongated, up to around 1800 the Binnenhof was still encircled by a moat and was only accessible by bridges. The island in the Vijverberg we know nowadays was only created around 300 years ago, how or why it was created is unknown.
In the centre of the stands an flagpole and the island itself counts a number of trees. It is not open to the public, alongside the island there is a fountain in the water. During demonstrations the island has been occupied a couple of times, nowadays the Hofvijver is adjoined in the west by the Buitenhof, but until the 19th century that side was adjoined by houses. The pond is encircled by fairly high quays, but is shallow on some points. In 2004 an underwater gate was built to make sure nobody could swim to the prime ministers office without being detected. His office, the Torentje, adjoins the Hofvijver as it is located on the Binnenhof, on the bank across from the Binnenhof there is a statue of Jantje pointing to the Binnenhof. Jantje probably refers to John I, Count of Holland who died at the age of 15 years, located next to the Vijverberg are several museums, like the Mauritshuis, the Gevangenpoort, the Hague Historical Museum and the Gallery Prince William V. Leo van Heijningen, Duizend jaren Hofvijver, de Hofvijvergeest spreekt, Hapax Media related to Hofvijver at Wikimedia Commons