Garden city movement
The garden city movement is a method of urban planning that was initiated in 1898 by Sir Ebenezer Howard in the United Kingdom. Garden cities were intended to be planned, self-contained communities surrounded by greenbelts, containing areas of residences, industry. Inspired by the utopian novel Looking Backward and Henry Georges work Progress and Poverty, Howard published his book To-morrow, the garden city would be self-sufficient and when it reached full population, another garden city would be developed nearby. Howard envisaged a cluster of several cities as satellites of a central city of 58,000 people, linked by road. Howard’s To-morrow, A Peaceful Path to Real Reform sold enough copies to result in a second edition and this success provided him the support necessary to pursue the chance to bring his vision into reality. Howard believed that all agreed the overcrowding and deterioration of cities was one of the troubling issues of their time. He quotes a number of respected thinkers and their disdain of cities, Howard’s garden city concept combined the town and country in order to provide the working class an alternative to working on farms or ‘crowded, unhealthy cities’.
To build a city, Howard needed money to buy land. He decided to get funding from gentlemen of responsible position and undoubted probity and he founded the Garden City Association, which created First Garden City, Ltd. in 1899 to create the garden city of Letchworth. However, these donors would collect interest on their investment if the city generated profits through rents or, as Fishman calls the process. Howard tried to include working class cooperative organisations, which included over two members, but could not win their financial support. In 1904, Raymond Unwin, an architect and town planner, along with his partner Barry Parker, won the competition run by First Garden City Ltd. to plan Letchworth. However, the architects ignored Howard’s symmetric design, instead replacing it with a more ‘organic’ design, Letchworth slowly attracted more residents because it was able to attract manufacturers through low taxes, low rents and more space. Despite Howard’s best efforts, the prices in this garden city could not remain affordable for blue-collar workers to live in.
The populations comprised mostly skilled middle class workers, after a decade, the First Garden City became profitable and started paying dividends to its investors. Although many viewed Letchworth as a success, it did not immediately inspire government investment into the line of garden cities. Likely in frustration, Howard bought land at Welwyn to house the garden city in 1919. The purchase was at auction, with money Howard desperately and successfully borrowed from friends, the Welwyn Garden City Corporation was formed to oversee the construction
A synagogue, spelled synagog, is a Jewish house of prayer. Synagogues have a hall for prayer, and may have smaller rooms for study and sometimes a social hall. Some have a room for Torah study, called the beith midrash beis medrash —בית מדרש. Synagogues are consecrated spaces used for the purpose of prayer, Tanakh reading and assembly, halakha holds that communal Jewish worship can be carried out wherever ten Jews assemble. Worship can be carried out alone or with fewer than ten people assembled together, halakha considers certain prayers as communal prayers and therefore they may be recited only by a minyan. The synagogue does not replace the long-since destroyed Temple in Jerusalem, israelis use the Hebrew term beyt knesset. Jews of Ashkenazi descent have traditionally used the Yiddish term shul in everyday speech, Sephardi Jews and Romaniote Jews generally use the term kal. Spanish Jews call the synagogue a sinagoga and Portuguese Jews call it an esnoga, persian Jews and some Karaite Jews use the non-Hebrew term kenesa, which is derived from Aramaic, and some Arab Jews use kenis.
Reform and some Conservative Jews use the word temple, the Greek word synagogue is used in English, to cover the preceding possibilities. The all-day Yom Kippur service, in fact, was an event in which the congregation both observed the movements of the kohen gadol as he offered the days sacrifices and prayed for his success. During the Babylonian captivity the Men of the Great Assembly formalized and standardized the language of the Jewish prayers, prior to that people prayed as they saw fit, with each individual praying in his or her own way, and there were no standard prayers that were recited. Rabbi Yohanan ben Zakkai, one of the leaders at the end of the Second Temple era and this contributed to the continuity of the Jewish people by maintaining a unique identity and a portable way of worship despite the destruction of the Temple, according to many historians. A synagogue dating from between 75 and 50 BCE has been uncovered at a Hasmonean-era winter palace near Jericho, more than a dozen Second Temple era synagogues have been identified by archaeologists.
Any Jew or group of Jews can build a synagogue, there is no set blueprint for synagogues and the architectural shapes and interior designs of synagogues vary greatly. In fact, the influence from local religious buildings can often be seen in synagogue arches, domes. Historically, synagogues were built in the architectural style of their time. Thus, the synagogue in Kaifeng, China looked very like Chinese temples of that region and era, with its outer wall, the styles of the earliest synagogues resembled the temples of other sects of the eastern Roman Empire. The surviving synagogues of medieval Spain are embellished with mudéjar plasterwork, the surviving medieval synagogues in Budapest and Prague are typical Gothic structures
The Jodenbuurt is a neighborhood of Amsterdam, Netherlands. For centuries before World War II, it was the center of the Jews of Amsterdam — hence and it is best known as the birthplace of Baruch Spinoza, the home of Rembrandt, and the Jewish ghetto of Nazi occupation of the Netherlands. But it grew to include parts of Nieuwmarkt, Sint Antoniesbreestraat, the Plantage, and Weesperzijde, especially after 1882, the first Jews to settle in Amsterdam were the Sephardim, who had been expelled from Portugal and Spain in 1593. They were joined in the decades by the Ashkenazi from Central and Eastern Europe. By 1612, the population was about 500 people but it doubled to about 1,000 in 1620, the Jews gave their new home, its Hebrew name, Mokum to show that they had finally felt at home in the city. So the Jews were allowed to build their own synagogues, the first of them was the Beth Jakob, built between 1602 and 1610, followed by the second synagogue, Neve Shalom, constructed between 1608 and 1612, and the third, Beth Israel, founded in 1618.
They were all hidden and therefore not visible from the streets, but the Jews were not alone in the Jodenbuurt. They were joined by several Christians, one of them was the artist Rembrandt, who was fascinated by the Biblical faces of his new neighbors. In 1641, a group of Franciscans came to establish a Catholic clandestine church in a house called Moses, known as the Jewish Church, it began as the Sint-Anthoniuskerk but it grew into the Mozes en Aäronkerk. It is still standing today at the Waterlooplein, on 8 November 1616, the Jews were made legal citizens by the City of Amsterdam. But they were not allowed to enter certain occupations, they were not permitted by the guilds of Amsterdam. So they were limited to street trading, book printing, from 1622, the synagogues began to cooperate for the good of the Jodenbuurt. On 3 April 1693, they merged their districts into a municipality under the name of Talmud Torah. In that year, they opened the first synagogue that was visible from the streets.
It stood on the Houtgracht, at the present Waterlooplein, next to the new synagogue on Nieuwe Amstelstraat was a meat market, where the residents of the neighborhood could buy their kosher meat. The Sephardi did not have knowledge about Judaism. They were not allowed to be Jews in Portugal and Spain, so in Amsterdam they sent for the rabbis to come out of Italy, North Africa, and the Ottoman Empire to teach them the ways of Judaism in the Jodenbuurt. The Portuguese Synagogue was the place where Spinoza was placed under the ban by the Sephardic Jewish community in 1656, because of their knowledge of Spanish and Portuguese, many of the Sephardim were involved with trade and plantations in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in South America
De Negen Straatjes is a neighborhood of Amsterdam, Netherlands. It consists of nine streets of the Prinsengracht, Herengracht. Together they form a sub-neighborhood within the larger western Grachtengordel, one with small and diverse shops. The construction in this area back to the first half of the 17th century. The Negen Straatjes is bordered on the north by the Raadhuisstraat, the idea to promote the Nine Little Streets as a shopping area came from Djoeke Wessing. Still a local shop keeper, she wanted a name for the area to give the same allure as the Jordan. This, she felt, would promote cooperation and business growth, the Association of The 9 Streets was founded on November 12,1996. Nobody thought it was a name at the time, but the name has stuck. In recent years the Hazenstraat, a street of the Elandsgracht in the Jordaan
Amstelland is the area along the river Amstel, a river running north towards Amsterdam in southern North Holland. Amstellands history is linked with the Amstel river and the growth of Amsterdam. Its history is essentially the history of Amstelveen, Ouderkerk aan de Amstel, the river was important in medieval times as a waterway leading to the south and to Utrecht. The oldest settlement in the area was Ouderkerk aan de Amstel, Amsterdam at this time was a small fishing village at the mouth of the Amstel. A part of Utrecht, this area was part of the seigniory of the Van Aemstel family, at one point the right bank of the Amstel was being referred to as the Old Amstel, the left bank as the New Amstel. Peat was an important source of fuel at the time, the fens around the river were dredged for their peat. By the 13th century there was a community of peat workers in the fens west of the Amstel -- the Amstel fen in Nieuwer-Amstel. Meanwhile, when a dam was constructed at the mouth of the Amstel, the settlement on the Amstel dam became Amstellerdam, which became Amsterdam.
Amsterdam acquired city rights around 1300 and quickly dominated the entire region, after the Napoleonic occupation of the Netherlands, the French created new administrative divisions in the Netherlands and named them after major rivers. From 1807 to 1810, there was a département called Amstelland, the landdrost was Jan van Styrum. On 1 January 1811 Amstelland was integrated into a new département called Zuyderzee, Amstelland was no longer used as the name. In 1896 and 1921 Amsterdam annexed parts of Nieuwer Amstel and built suburbs along the Amstel, today Amsterdam and Amstelveen have grown extensively, including large parts of land on both sides of the river. However, much of Amstelland has remained undeveloped and has retained its green, the term Amstelland today generally refers to the area along the river Amstel just south of the city of Amsterdam. The borders of Amstelland are not, precisely defined, Amstelland includes the green wedge-shaped area that juts into Amsterdam from the south.
Extending south of the Utrechtsebrug, this area has a rural character. It is managed by an organisation called Groengebied Amstelland, when used in this sense, Amstelland means just the triangle of green space just south of Amsterdam and does not include the surrounding built-up areas and villages. It is seen as an area worth protecting because of the green, not every city can boast that there is pasture land just a 15-minute cycle away. A project called Toekomst Amstelland has been set up to protect this area
Boroughs of Amsterdam
The boroughs of Amsterdam are the eight principal subdivisions of the municipality of Amsterdam, Netherlands. Each borough is governed by an elected district committee. The first Amsterdam boroughs were created in 1981, with other boroughs created in years, the last area to be granted the status of borough was Amsterdam-Centrum. The existing system of eight boroughs, covering all parts of Amsterdam, is the result of a major reform in 2010. The current boroughs have populations of around 80,000 to 140,000, until 2014, the Amsterdam boroughs had the status of submunicipalities, a form of government which existed only in Amsterdam and Rotterdam. The borough of Westpoort, was governed by the municipal authorities. The submunicipalities were recognized under the Dutch Municipalities Act and enjoyed far-going autonomy, with the municipal authorities abiding to the submunicipalities decide. The submunicipalities were governed by an elected district council as well as a separate district executive board.
The central municipal authorities retained some power, especially in the areas of public order, public transport, in 2013, the Dutch parliament adopted a revision of the Municipalities Act abolishing submunicipalities as a form of government. Since the 2014 municipal elections, the Amsterdam district councils have ceased to exist, under a municipal ordinance, they were replaced by smaller, but still directly elected district committees. Each district committee elects three of its members to form an executive committee, the district committees jurisdiction is determined by the central municipal council. As the new district committees depend on powers being delegated by the municipal council. Since 2010, the eight Amsterdam boroughs are, Amsterdam-Centrum Amsterdam-Noord Amsterdam Nieuw-West Amsterdam-Oost Amsterdam-West Amsterdam Westpoort Amsterdam-Zuid Amsterdam Zuidoost
Lastage is a neighbourhood in the Centrum district of Amsterdam, in the Netherlands. It is located between the Geldersekade and Oudeschans canals, just east of old medieval city, the neighbourhood is known as Nieuwmarktbuurt. The area is protected as a heritage site, in the 16th century, the marshy land east of the city developed into an industrial and port area of Amsterdam. Halfway through the 16th century, five ropewalks, some ships mast factories, due to the location of the area outside the city wall, taxes were much lower and spatial planning regulations were much less strict. The adjacent bend in the IJ inlet called Waal was shallow, during the Guelderian Wars, the area came under threat several times by the troops of Charles of Guelders. When the nearby towns of Weesp and Muiden came under Charles occupation in the spring of 1508, in December 1512, it was burnt down again, this time at the hands of the Guelders troops. The name Lastage derives from the various ships ballast-related activities that took place here, near the Schreierstoren on the quay along the IJ, a crane was built to lift cargo and anchors.
A ditch was dug between Montelbaansgracht and Geldersekade around 1530, and was named Rechtboomssloot after Cornelis P. Boom, the old stream that ran through the Lastage was named Kromboomssloot. In 1550 there were already 550 houses outside the city walls, in 1564, the residents, backed by the vogt, urged the city government once more to expand the city. Due to the activities in the area posing a fire hazard. When the Dutch Revolt broke out in 1566, and the Duke of Alba instituted the Council of Troubles, several of the landowners in the area fled the city and they would return again in 1578 with new insights and trade contacts in the Baltic Sea area. When a ban on building activities was declared in 1579, the city wanted to expropriate the land in Lastage. On the other hand, the land value made it unacceptable for the city council to consider buying the land instead. In the following years a number of landowners agreed to a value determined by a committee. Two owners, namely the rope maker Claes Burchmansz and Robrecht Cools and were taken to court.
The proceedings were taken all the way up to the highest body and Cools were eventually forced to agree and cooperate, and hastily a defensive rampart was erected, known today as Oudeschans. Around 1586, the city started drawing up plans to determine how the streets, the local landowners were compelled to demolish the existing buildings, such as fences, drying sheds and tar houses, and to raise the land with sand. The city would provide the sand and the stones needed for pavements and embankments, for this amelioration, the landowners would have to pay a yet to be determined sum in tax
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 851,373 within the city proper,1,351,587 in the urban area, the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe. Amsterdams name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the citys origin around a dam in the river Amstel, during that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, and many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned, the 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered a world city by the Globalization.
The city is the capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and seven of the worlds 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment, the city was ranked 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009. The Amsterdam seaport to this day remains the second in the country, famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river, the earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated October 27,1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V.
This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges, the certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam, Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century. This does not necessarily mean there was already a settlement then, since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306, from the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished, largely from trade with the Hanseatic League