Fudai daimyō was a class of daimyōs who were hereditary vassals of the Tokugawa in Edo-period Japan. It was the fudai who filled the ranks of the Tokugawa administration. Many of the families who formed the ranks of the fudai daimyōs were families which had served the Tokugawa clan since before its rise to national primacy; some of these include the Honda, Sakakibara, Ii, Mizuno clans. Tokugawa Ieyasu's "Four Great Generals"—Honda Tadakatsu, Sakakibara Yasumasa, Sakai Tadatsugu, Ii Naomasa—were all pre-Edo period fudai, went on to become fudai daimyōs. In addition, some branches of the Matsudaira clan, while allowed to retain the Matsudaira surname, were fudai; as Tokugawa Ieyasu rose to power in the 16th century, his domains increased, as his domains increased, he began to hand out landholdings to his vassals, so that one by one, many of them became daimyōs. This was the birth of the fudai daimyō class. In contrast to the tozama, the fudai ruled small fiefs, many in strategic locations along the principal roads or in the Kantō region near the headquarters of the shogunate at Edo.
High posts in the shogunate, such as Rōjū and wakadoshiyori went to fudai. In addition, the post of Kyoto Shoshidai always went to a fudai daimyō. Other clans which were not pre-Azuchi–Momoyama period retainers of the Tokugawa came to be counted as fudai: the Ogasawara and Doi are among them. A family could be raised to or from fudai status. For instance, the Matsudaira clan to which Matsudaira Sadanobu belonged went from being a fudai house to being a recognized relative of the Tokugawa family. A hatamoto who had an increase in income which raised his income level over 10,000 koku became a fudai daimyō. Many fudai daimyōs were involved in the vigorous political activity of the Bakumatsu, as well as the renewed military activities which occurred in that period. Two such men of fudai daimyō background were Ogasawara Nagamichi and Itakura Katsukiyo, who were two of the last rōjū, worked for reform and strengthening of the ailing shogunate. Others, such as Matsudaira Munehide, were involved in diplomacy and foreign affairs.
In the Boshin War of 1868–69, some fudai houses such as the Toda of Ogaki and the Tōdō of Tsu sided with the shogunate during the first battle at Toba–Fushimi. However, after the shogunate's loss there, many fudai houses did not side with the shogunate or with the shōgun's former army which moved northward and set up the Ezo Republic; some remained neutral, while others switched allegiances and supported the Imperial Japanese Army. Ogasawara Nagamichi and Itakura Katsukiyo led small groups of their retainers during the fight against the imperial forces. However, their domains had been occupied by the imperial army, were forced to participate in the war on the imperial army's behalf. Only one fudai daimyō, Hayashi Tadataka of Jōzai Domain, willingly left his domain early in 1868, led most of his retainer force on behalf of the armies of the former shōgun, in the fight against the imperial army. A handful of fudai in the far north formed part of the Northern Alliance, fighting for the Alliance but not for the now-retired shōgun.
Most of the fudai in the country entered the Meiji era peacefully, ruled their domains until the domains' dissolution in 1871. After this, the former families of fudai daimyōs became peers in the new Japanese nobility system. Bolitho, Harold.. Treasures Among Men: The Fudai Daimyo in Tokugawa Japan. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-01655-0. Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Charismatic Bureaucrat. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. "Karatsu-han" Yamakawa Kenjirō. Aizu Boshin Senshi. Tokyo: Tokyo Daigaku Shuppankai. "Takada-han" on Edo 300 HTML "Shirakawa-han" on Edo 300 HTML
Tokugawa Tsunayoshi was the fifth shōgun of the Tokugawa dynasty of Japan. He was the younger brother of Tokugawa Ietsuna, thus making him the son of Tokugawa Iemitsu, the grandson of Tokugawa Hidetada, the great-grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu. Tsunayoshi is known for instituting animal protection laws for dogs; this earned him the nickname of "the dog shōgun". He had a dog named Takemaru. Tokugawa Tsunayoshi was born on February 1646, in Edo, he was the son of Tokugawa Iemitsu by one of his concubines, named Otama known as Keishōin 桂昌院. Tsunayoshi had an elder brother five years old, who would become the next shogun after Iemitsu's death, Tokugawa Ietsuna. Tsunayoshi was born in Edo and after his birth moved in with his mother to her own private apartments in Edo Castle. "The younger son distinguished himself by his precociousness and liveliness at an early age, the father, the third shogun, became fearful that he might usurp the position of his duller elder brothers thus he ordered that the boy not to be brought up as a samurai/warrior, as was becoming for his station, but be trained as a scholar."
His childhood name was Tokumatsu. While his father was shōgun, his mother was an adopted daughter of the Honjō family, led by Honjō Munemasa in Kyoto, his mother's natural parents were merchants in Kyoto. This remarkable woman was close with Tsunayoshi in his young years, while his older brother Ietsuna began to rely on regents for much of his reign, Tsunayoshi did the opposite, relying on his remarkable mother for advice until her death. In 1651, shōgun Iemitsu died, his older brother, Tokugawa Ietsuna, became shogun. For the most part, Tsunayoshi's life during the reign of his brother shōgun Ietsuna is unknown, but he never advised his brother. Father: Tokugawa Iemitsu Mother: Keishōin Wife: Takatsukasa Nobuko Jokoin Concubines: Oden no Kata Zuishun-in Yasuko no Kata Seichōin Lady Emonosuke Lady Osuke Jukoin Lady Shinsuke Sheishin-in Children: Tsuruhime by Oden, married Tokugawa Tsunanori of Kii Domain Tokugawa Tokumatsu, Tatebayashi Domain by Oden Tokugawa Chomatsu by Yasuko Adopted: Tokugawa Ienobu Kichihime signed as Midaidokoro's daughter Yaehime daughter of Takatsukasa Sukenobu, married Tokugawa Yoshizane of Mito Family Yousen-in had 1 daughter, Miyohime married Tokugawa Munetaka signed as Midaidokoro's daughter Matsuhime daughter of Tokugawa Tsunanari married Maeda Yoshinori signed as Midaidokoro's daughter Takehime, daughter of Hirosada Seikan'in and adopted by Tokugawa Yoshimune and married Shimazu Tsugutoyo of Satsuma Domain and known as Joganin had 1 daughter, Kikuhime signed as Midaidokoro's daughter and signed as Okume no Kata's daughter when she became adopted daughter of Yoshimune In 1680, shōgun Ietsuna died at the premature age of 38.
June 4, 1680: Shogun Ietsuna's death leads to the accession of Tsunayoshi as head of the shogunate. 1680–81: Gokoku-ji in Edo is founded in honor of Tsunayoshi's mother. 1681: Tsunayoshi's investiture as shōgun. A power struggle ensued, for a time, the succession remained an open question. Sakai Tadakiyo, one of Ietsuna's most favored advisors, suggested that the succession not pass to someone of the Tokugawa line, but rather to the blood royal, favoring one of the sons of Emperor Go-Sai to become the next shōgun but Tadakiyo was dismissed soon after. Hotta Masatoshi, one of the most brilliant advisors of shōgun Ietsuna's rule, was the first person to suggest that Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, as the brother of the former shōgun and the son of the third, become the next shōgun. In 1681, Tsunayoshi's elevation was confirmed. After becoming shōgun, Tsunayoshi gave Hotta Masatoshi the title of Tairō, in a way thanking him for ensuring his succession. After he became shogun, he ordered a vassal of the Takata to commit suicide because of misgovernment, showing his strict approach to the samurai code.
He confiscated his fief of 250,000 koku. During his reign, he would confiscate a total of 1,400,000 koku. In 1682, shōgun Tsunayoshi ordered his censors and police to raise the living standard of the people. Soon, prostitution was banned, waitresses could not be employed in tea houses, rare and expensive fabrics were banned. Most smuggling began as a practice in Japan soon after Tsunayoshi's authoritarian laws came into effect. In 1684, Tsunayoshi decreased the power of the tairō after the assassination of Masatoshi by a cousin in that same year. Nonetheless, due again to maternal advice, Tsunayoshi became religious, promoting the Neo-Confucianism of Zhu Xi. In 1682, he read to the daimyōs an exposition of the "Great Learning", which became an annual tradition at the shōgun's court, he soon began to lecture more, in 1690 lectured about Neo-Confucian work to Shinto and Buddhist daimyōs, to envoys from the court of Emperor Higashiyama in Kyoto. He was interested in several Chinese works, namely The Great Learning and The Classic of Filial Piety.
Tsunayoshi loved art and Noh theater. In 1691, Engelbert Kaempfer visited Edo as part of the annual Dutch embassy from Dejima in Nagasaki, he journeyed from Nagasaki to Osaka, to Kyoto, there to Edo. Kaempfer gives us information on Japan during the early reign of Tokugawa Tsunayoshi; as the Dutch embassy entered Edo in 1692, they a
Samurai were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan. In Japanese, they are referred to as bushi or buke. According to translator William Scott Wilson: "In Chinese, the character 侍 was a verb meaning'to wait upon','accompany persons' in the upper ranks of society, this is true of the original term in Japanese, saburau. In both countries the terms were nominalized to mean'those who serve in close attendance to the nobility', the Japanese term saburai being the nominal form of the verb." According to Wilson, an early reference to the word samurai appears in the Kokin Wakashū, the first imperial anthology of poems, completed in the first part of the 10th century. By the end of the 12th century, samurai became entirely synonymous with bushi, the word was associated with the middle and upper echelons of the warrior class; the samurai were associated with a clan and their lord, were trained as officers in military tactics and grand strategy. While the samurai numbered less than 10% of Japan's population, their teachings can still be found today in both everyday life and in modern Japanese martial arts.
Following the Battle of Hakusukinoe against Tang China and Silla in 663 AD which led to a retreat from Korean affairs, Japan underwent widespread reform. One of the most important was that of the Taika Reform, issued by Prince Naka-no-Ōe in 646 AD; this edict allowed the Japanese aristocracy to adopt the Tang dynasty political structure, culture and philosophy. As part of the Taihō Code of 702 AD, the Yōrō Code, the population was required to report for the census, a precursor for national conscription. With an understanding of how the population was distributed, Emperor Monmu introduced a law whereby 1 in 3–4 adult males were drafted into the national military; these soldiers were required to supply their own weapons, in return were exempted from duties and taxes. This was one of the first attempts by the Imperial government to form an organized army modeled after the Chinese system, it was called "Gundan-Sei" by historians and is believed to have been short-lived. The Taihō Code classified most of the Imperial bureaucrats into 12 ranks, each divided into two sub-ranks, 1st rank being the highest adviser to the Emperor.
Those of 6th rank and below were dealt with day-to-day affairs. Although these "samurai" were civilian public servants, the modern word is believed to have derived from this term. Military men, would not be referred to as "samurai" for many more centuries. In the early Heian period, during the late 8th and early 9th centuries, Emperor Kanmu sought to consolidate and expand his rule in northern Honshū, sent military campaigns against the Emishi, who resisted the governance of the Kyoto-based imperial court. Emperor Kanmu introduced the title of sei'i-taishōgun, or shōgun, began to rely on the powerful regional clans to conquer the Emishi. Skilled in mounted combat and archery, these clan warriors became the Emperor's preferred tool for putting down rebellions. Though this is the first known use of the title shōgun, it was a temporary title and was not imbued with political power until the 13th century. At this time, the Imperial Court officials considered them to be a military section under the control of the Imperial Court.
Emperor Kanmu disbanded his army. From this time, the emperor's power declined. While the emperor was still the ruler, powerful clans around Kyoto assumed positions as ministers, their relatives bought positions as magistrates. To amass wealth and repay their debts, magistrates imposed heavy taxes, resulting in many farmers becoming landless. Through protective agreements and political marriages, the aristocrats accumulated political power surpassing the traditional aristocracy; some clans were formed by farmers who had taken up arms to protect themselves from the Imperial magistrates sent to govern their lands and collect taxes. These clans formed alliances to protect themselves against more powerful clans, by the mid-Heian period, they had adopted characteristic Japanese armor and weapons; the Emperor and non-warrior nobility employed these warrior nobles. In time they amassed enough manpower and political backing, in the form of alliances with one another, to establish the first samurai-dominated government.
As the power of these regional clans grew, their chief was a distant relative of the Emperor and a lesser member of either the Fujiwara, Minamoto, or Taira clans. Though sent to provincial areas for fixed four-year terms as magistrates, the toryo declined to return to the capital when their terms ended, their sons inherited their positions and continued to lead the clans in putting down rebellions throughout Japan during the middle- and later-Heian period; because of their rising military and economic power, the warriors became a new force in the politics of the Imperial court. Their involvement in the Hōgen Rebellion in the late Heian period consolidated their power, which pitted the rivalry of Minamoto and Taira clans against each other in the Heiji Rebellion of 1160; the victor, Taira no Kiyomori, became an imperial advisor and was the first warrior to attain such a position. He seized control of the central government, establishing the first samurai-dominated government and relegating the Emperor to figurehead status.
However, the Taira clan was still conservative when compared to its eventual successor, the Minamoto, instead of expanding or stre
Confucianism known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or a way of life. Confucianism developed from what was called the Hundred Schools of Thought from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius, who considered himself a recodifier and retransmitter of the theology and values inherited from the Shang and Zhou dynasties. In the Han dynasty, Confucian approaches edged out the "proto-Taoist" Huang–Lao as the official ideology, while the emperors mixed both with the realist techniques of Legalism. A Confucian revival began during the Tang dynasty. In the late Tang, Confucianism developed in response to Buddhism and Taoism and was reformulated as Neo-Confucianism; this reinvigorated form was adopted as the basis of the imperial exams and the core philosophy of the scholar official class in the Song dynasty. The abolition of the examination system in 1905 marked the end of official Confucianism; the intellectuals of the New Culture Movement of the early twentieth century blamed Confucianism for China's weaknesses.
They searched for new doctrines to replace Confucian teachings. In the late twentieth century Confucian work ethic has been credited with the rise of the East Asian economy. With particular emphasis on the importance of the family and social harmony, rather than on an otherworldly source of spiritual values, the core of Confucianism is humanistic. According to Herbert Fingarette's conceptualisation of Confucianism as a religion which regards "the secular as sacred", Confucianism transcends the dichotomy between religion and humanism, considering the ordinary activities of human life—and human relationships—as a manifestation of the sacred, because they are the expression of humanity's moral nature, which has a transcendent anchorage in Heaven and unfolds through an appropriate respect for the spirits or gods of the world. While Tiān has some characteristics that overlap the category of godhead, it is an impersonal absolute principle, like the Dào or the Brahman. Confucianism focuses on the practical order, given by a this-worldly awareness of the Tiān.
Confucian liturgy led by Confucian priests or "sages of rites" to worship the gods in public and ancestral Chinese temples is preferred on certain occasions, by Confucian religious groups and for civil religious rites, over Taoist or popular ritual. The worldly concern of Confucianism rests upon the belief that human beings are fundamentally good, teachable and perfectible through personal and communal endeavor self-cultivation and self-creation. Confucian thought focuses on the cultivation of virtue in a morally organised world; some of the basic Confucian ethical concepts and practices include rén, yì, lǐ, zhì. Rén is the essence of the human being, it is the virtue-form of Heaven. Yì is the upholding of the moral disposition to do good. Lǐ is a system of ritual norms and propriety that determines how a person should properly act in everyday life in harmony with the law of Heaven. Zhì is the ability to see what is right and fair, or the converse, in the behaviors exhibited by others. Confucianism holds one in contempt, either passively or for failure to uphold the cardinal moral values of rén and yì.
Traditionally and countries in the Chinese cultural sphere are influenced by Confucianism, including mainland China, Hong Kong, Korea and Vietnam, as well as various territories settled predominantly by Chinese people, such as Singapore. Today, it has been credited for shaping East Asian societies and Chinese communities, to some extent, other parts of Asia. In the last decades there have been talks of a "Confucian Revival" in the academic and the scholarly community, there has been a grassroots proliferation of various types of Confucian churches. In late 2015 many Confucian personalities formally established a national Holy Confucian Church in China to unify the many Confucian congregations and civil society organisations. Speaking, there is no term in Chinese which directly corresponds to "Confucianism". In the Chinese language, the character rú 儒 meaning "scholar" or "learned" or "refined man" is used both in the past and the present to refer to things related to Confucianism; the character rú in ancient China had diverse meanings.
Some examples include "to tame", "to mould", "to educate", "to refine". Several different terms, some of which with modern origin, are used in different situations to express different facets of Confucianism, including: Chinese: 儒 家. Three of them use rú; these names do not use the name "Confucius" at all, but instead focus on the ideal of the Confucian man. The use of the term "Confucianism" has been avoided by some modern scholars, who favor "Ruism" and "Ruists" instead. Robert Eno argues that the term has been "burdened... with the ambiguities and irrelevant
Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first shōgun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which ruled Japan from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Ieyasu seized power in 1600, received appointment as shōgun in 1603, abdicated from office in 1605, but remained in power until his death in 1616, his given name is sometimes spelled Iyeyasu, according to the historical pronunciation of the kana character he. Ieyasu was posthumously enshrined at Nikkō Tōshō-gū with the name Tōshō Daigongen, he was one of the three unifiers of Japan, along with his former lord Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. During the Muromachi period, the Matsudaira clan controlled a portion of Mikawa Province. Ieyasu's father, Matsudaira Hirotada, was a minor local warlord based at Okazaki Castle who controlled a portion of the Tōkaidō highway linking Kyoto with the eastern provinces, his territory was sandwiched between stronger and predatory neighbors, including the Imagawa clan based in Suruga Province to the east and the Oda clan to the west.
Hirotada's main enemy was the father of Oda Nobunaga. Tokugawa Ieyasu was born in Okazaki Castle on the 26th day of the twelfth month of the eleventh year of Tenbun, according to the Japanese calendar. Named Matsudaira Takechiyo, he was the son of Matsudaira Hirotada, the daimyō of Mikawa of the Matsudaira clan, Odai-no-kata, the daughter of a neighbouring samurai lord, Mizuno Tadamasa, his mother and father were step-siblings. They were just 17 and 15 years old when Ieyasu was born. In the year of Ieyasu's birth, the Matsudaira clan was split. In 1543, Hirotada's uncle, Matsudaira Nobutaka defected to the Oda clan; this gave Oda Nobuhide the confidence to attack Okazaki. Soon afterwards, Hirotada's father-in-law died, his son Mizuno Nobumoto revived the clan's traditional enmity against the Matsudaira and declared for Oda Nobuhide as well; as a result, Hirotada sent her back to her family. As both husband and wife remarried and both went on to have further children, Ieyasu had 11 half-brothers and sisters.
As Oda Nobuhide continued to attack Okazaki, in 1548 Hirotada turned to his powerful eastern neighbor, Imagawa Yoshimoto for assistance. Yoshimoto agreed to an alliance under the condition that Hirotada send his young heir to Sunpu Domain as a hostage. Oda Nobuhide, learned of this arrangement and had Ieyasu abducted from his entourage en route to Sunpu. Ieyasu was just five years old at the time. Nobuhide threatened to execute Ieyasu. Despite this refusal, Nobuhide chose not to kill Ieyasu, but instead held him as a hostage for the next three years at the Mansho-ji Temple in Nagoya. In 1549, when Ieyasu was 6, his father Hirotada was murdered by his own vassals, bribed by the Oda clan. At about the same time, Oda Nobuhide died during an epidemic. Nobuhide's death dealt a heavy blow to the Oda clan. An army under the command of Imagawa Sessai laid siege to the castle where Oda Nobuhiro, Nobuhide's eldest son and the new head of the Oda, was living. With the castle about to fall, Sessai offered a deal to Nobuhide's second son.
Sessai offered to give up the siege. Nobunaga agreed, so Ieyasu was taken as a hostage to Sumpu. At Sumpu, he remained a hostage, but was treated well as a useful future ally of the Imagawa clan until 1556 when he was 15 years old. In 1556 Ieyasu came of age, with Imagawa Yoshimoto presiding over his genpuku ceremony. Following tradition, he changed his name from Matsudaira Takechiyo to Matsudaira Jirōsaburō Motonobu, he was briefly allowed to visit Okazaki to pay his respects to the tomb of his father, receive the homage of his nominal retainers, led by the karō Torii Tadayoshi. One year at the age of 13, he married his first wife, Lady Tsukiyama, a relative of Imagawa Yoshitmoto, changed his name again to Matsudaira Kurandonosuke Motoyasu. Allowed to return to his native Mikawa, the Imagawa ordered him to fight the Oda clan in a series of battles. Motoyasu fought his first battle in 1558 at the Siege of Terabe; the castellan of Terabe in western Mikawa, Suzuki Shigeteru, betrayed the Imagawa by defecting to Oda Nobunaga.
This was nominally within Matsudaira territory, so Imagawa Yoshimoto entrusted the campaign to Ieyasu and his retainers from Okazaki. Ieyasu led the attack in person, but after taking the outer defences, grew fearful of a counterattack to the rear, so he burned the main castle and withdrew; as anticipated, the Oda forces attacked his rear lines, but Motoyasu was prepared and drove off the Oda army. He succeeded in delivering supplies in the 1559 Siege of Odaka. Odaka was the only one of five disputed frontier forts under attack by the Oda which remained in Imagawa hands. Motoyasu launched diversionary attacks against the two neighboring forts, when the garrisons of the other forts went to their assistance, Ieyasu's supply column was able to reach Odaka. By 1560 the leadership of the Oda clan had passed to the brilliant leader Oda Nobunaga. Imagawa Yoshimoto, leading a large army invaded Oda clan territory. Motoyasu was assigned a separate mission to capture the stronghold of Marune; as a result, he and his men were not present at the Battle of Okehazama where Yoshimoto was killed in Nobunaga's surprise assault.
With Yoshimoto dead, the Imagawa clan in a state of confus
The Shōgun was the military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868. The shogunate was their government. In most of this period, the shōguns were the de facto rulers of the country, although nominally they were appointed by the Emperor as a ceremonial formality; the shōguns held absolute power over territories through military means. An unusual situation occurred in the Kamakura period upon the death of the first shōgun, whereby the Hōjō clan's hereditary titles of shikken and tokusō dominated the shogunate as dictatorial positions, collectively known as the Regent Rule; the shōguns during this 134-year period met the same fate as the Emperor and were reduced to figurehead status until a coup d'état in 1333, when the shōgun was restored to power in the name of the Emperor. Shōgun is the short form of Sei-i Taishōgun, the individual governing the country at various times in the history of Japan, ending when Tokugawa Yoshinobu relinquished the office to Emperor Meiji in 1867; the tent symbolized the field commander but denoted that such an office was meant to be temporary.
The shōgun's officials were collectively the bakufu, were those who carried out the actual duties of administration, while the imperial court retained only nominal authority. In this context, the office of the shōgun had a status equivalent to that of a viceroy or governor-general, but in reality, shōguns dictated orders to everyone including the reigning Emperor. In contemporary terms, the role of the shōgun was equivalent to that of a generalissimo; the title of Sei-i Taishōgun was given to military commanders during the early Heian period for the duration of military campaigns against the Emishi, who resisted the governance of the Kyoto-based imperial court. Ōtomo no Otomaro was the first Sei-i Taishōgun. The most famous of these shōguns was Sakanoue no Tamuramaro. In the Heian period, one more shōgun was appointed. Minamoto no Yoshinaka was named sei-i taishōgun during the Genpei War, only to be killed shortly thereafter by Minamoto no Yoshitsune. In the early 11th century, daimyō protected by samurai came to dominate internal Japanese politics.
Two of the most powerful families – the Taira and Minamoto – fought for control over the declining imperial court. The Taira family seized control from 1160 to 1185, but was defeated by the Minamoto in the Battle of Dan-no-ura. Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the central government and aristocracy and established a feudal system based in Kamakura in which the private military, the samurai, gained some political powers while the Emperor and the aristocracy remained the de jure rulers. In 1192, Yoritomo was awarded the title of Sei-i Taishōgun by the Emperor and the political system he developed with a succession of shōguns as the head became known as a shogunate. Yoritomo's wife's family, the Hōjō, seized power from the Kamakura shōguns; when Yoritomo's sons and heirs were assassinated, the shōgun himself became a hereditary figurehead. Real power rested with the Hōjō regents; the Kamakura shogunate lasted for 150 years, from 1192 to 1333. In 1274 and 1281, the Mongol Empire launched invasions against Japan.
An attempt by Emperor Go-Daigo to restore imperial rule in the Kenmu Restoration in 1331 was unsuccessful, but weakened the shogunate and led to its eventual downfall. The end of the Kamakura shogunate came when Kamakura fell in 1333, the Hōjō Regency was destroyed. Two imperial families – the senior Northern Court and the junior Southern Court – had a claim to the throne; the problem was solved with the intercession of the Kamakura shogunate, who had the two lines alternate. This lasted until 1331, when Emperor Go-Daigo tried to overthrow the shogunate to stop the alternation; as a result, Daigo was exiled. Around 1334 -- 1336, Ashikaga Takauji helped; the fight against the shogunate left the Emperor with too many people claiming a limited supply of land. Takauji turned against the Emperor when the discontent about the distribution of land grew great enough. In 1336 Daigo was banished again, in favor of a new Emperor. During the Kenmu Restoration, after the fall of the Kamakura shogunate in 1333, another short-lived shōgun arose.
Prince Moriyoshi, son of Go-Daigo, was awarded the title of Sei-i Taishōgun. However, Prince Moriyoshi was put under house arrest and, in 1335, killed by Ashikaga Tadayoshi. In 1338, Ashikaga Takauji, like Minamoto no Yoritomo, a descendant of the Minamoto princes, was awarded the title of sei-i taishōgun and established the Ashikaga shogunate, which lasted until 1573; the Ashikaga had their headquarters in the Muromachi district of Kyoto, the time during which they ruled is known as the Muromachi period. While the title of Shōgun went into abeyance due to technical reasons, Oda Nobunaga and his successor, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who obtained the position of Imperial Regent, gained far greater power than any of their predecessors had. Hideyoshi is considered by many historians to be among Japan's greatest rulers. Tokugawa Ieyasu seized power and established a government at Edo in 1600, he received the title sei-i taishōgun in 1603, after he forged a family tree to show he was of Minamoto descent.
The Tokugawa shogunate lasted until 1867, when Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned as shōgun and abdicated his authority to Emperor Meiji. Ieyasu set a precedent in 1605 when he retired as shōgun in favour of his son Tokugawa Hidetada, though he maintained power from b
Tokugawa Ienobu was the sixth shōgun of the Tokugawa dynasty of Japan. He was the eldest son of Tokugawa Tsunashige, thus making him the nephew of Tokugawa Ietsuna and Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, the grandson of Tokugawa Iemitsu, the great-grandson of Tokugawa Hidetada, the great-great grandson of Tokugawa Ieyasu. All of Ienobu's children died young. Tokugawa Ienobu was born as the oldest son of Tokugawa Tsunashige, daimyō of Kōfu, in 1662, his mother was a concubine. Tsunashige was the middle brother of Tokugawa Ietsuna and Tokugawa Tsunayoshi and the second son of Tokugawa Iemitsu with his concubine, thus making Ienobu their nephew. In 1662, Ienobu's uncle, Ietsuna was shōgun, his father, was daimyō of Kōfu, a valuable piece of land to the Tokugawa. Before becoming shōgun his name was Tokugawa Tsunatoyo, the 4th daimyō of Kōfu Domain from the Tokugawa clan, his childhood name was Toramatsu. Not much is known of Ienobu's early life except that he was expected to become the next daimyō of Kofu after the death of his father.
However, after Tokugawa Ietsuna had died in 1680, his other uncle, Tokugawa Tsunayoshi succeeded the bakufu, Tsunayoshi's failure to produce a male heir increased the chances of Ienobu becoming shogun. Nonetheless, for the time being, Ienobu was not being groomed to succeed to the shogunate but rather to succeed his father Tsunashige as daimyō of Kōfu. In 1678 Tokugawa Tsunashige died and Tokugawa Ienobu succeeded him as daimyō of Kōfu, he became powerful there, since his uncle was the shogun. In 1694, a rōnin, Arai Hakuseki, was appointed as personal advisor to Ienobu. Hakuseki used to be a teacher in Edo, but was recommended by the philosopher Kinoshita Jun'an to become personal tutor to Ienobu and was summoned to Ienobu's Edo residence; until 1709, when Ienobu became shōgun, it is thought that Hakuseki gave him 2000 lectures on the Chinese classics and Confucianism. This was helpful to Ienobu, since Shogun Tsunayoshi had been a great patron of the Chinese classics and of Neo-Confucianism. After Ienobu's ascension, Hakuseki devoted the rest of his life to advising Ienobu writing a book for him, known as the Hankanpu covering the history of various fiefs from 1600 until 1680.
Father: Tokugawa Tsunashige Mother: Ohara no Kata Choshoin Adoptive Father: Tokugawa Tsunayoshi Wife: Konoe Hiroko Ten'ei-in concubines: Okiyo no Kata Gekkoin Ukon no Kata Hoshin-in Osume no Kata Renjo-in Oshino no Kata Itsuki no Miya Honkoin Children: Toyo-hime by Hiroko Tokugawa Mugetsuin by Hiroko Tokugawa Iechiyo by Ukon Tokugawa Daigorō by Osume Tokugawa Ietsugu by Okiyo Tokugawa Torakichi by Osume child by Itsuki no Miya Adopted: Masahime daughter of Konoe Iehiro In 1709, shōgun Tsunayoshi died without a male heir. In genealogical terms, it would have appeared reasonable for the daimyō of Kōfu, Tokugawa Ienobu, to be elevated to the role of shōgun because he was the only remaining direct lineal descendant of Tokugawa Ieyasu. However, this was a secondary factor in the context of intra-bakufu politics which were carried over from the last days of the Tsunayoshi bakufu; the ultimate resolution of any questions about shogunal succession were influenced most by the fact that Ienobu was the expressed preference of the late shōgun Tsunayoshi's wife.
Shogun Ienobu began to reform certain elements of Japanese society. It is said that he transformed the bakufu from a military to a civilian institution, in the making during the rule of Ietsuna and Tsunayoshi, he started off by abolishing the controversial edicts of Tsunayoshi. The chamberlains, who were given strict power by Tsunayoshi, had all power withdrawn from their hands. In 1710, Shogun Ienobu revised the Buke-Sho-Hatto, where language was improved. Censorship was discontinued, Ienobu told his subordinates that the thoughts and feelings of the populace should reach the high levels of the bakufu; this is thought to be Hakuseki's influence. Cruel punishments and persecutions were discontinued, the judicial system was reformed. However, there was one remnant of shōgun Tsunayoshi's rule, not done away with. Neo-Confucianism was still popular and patronized thanks to Hakuseki's influence, since he had long lectured Ienobu on the Confucian classics. Economic reform was ensured, the gold coin was created to stabilize the economy.
Shogun Ienobu was one of the first shōguns in centuries to try to improve relations with the emperor and court in Kyoto. In 1711, the Fujiwara regent, Konoe Motohiro, arrived in Edo from Kyoto to be the mediator for talks between shōgun Ienobu and Emperor Nakamikado and his nobles. Ienobu took the lead, but Motohiro appears to have asserted himself. After the talks were over, it was decided that younger sons of emperors do not have to enter priesthood and can form new branches of the imperial throne and that their daughters can marry and that the bakufu would offer financial grants to the court. Many court ceremonies were revived. Thus, during the rule of shōgun Ienobu, relations with the court were good. Shōgun Ienobu died at the age of 51 on the 14th day of the 10th month, he was succeeded by Tokugawa Ietsugu. Ietsugu became the seventh shōgun, he continued to employ Hakuseki as his adviser. His Buddhist name was buried in Zōjō-ji; the years in which Ienobu was shōgun are more identified