Bucharest is the capital and largest city of Romania, as well as its cultural and financial centre. It is located in the southeast of the country, at 44°25′57″N 26°06′14″E, on the banks of the Dâmbovița River, less than 60 km north of the Danube River and the Bulgarian border. Bucharest was first mentioned in documents in 1459, it became the capital of Romania in 1862 and is the centre of Romanian media and art. Its architecture is a mix of historical, communist era and modern. In the period between the two World Wars, the city's elegant architecture and the sophistication of its elite earned Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris". Although buildings and districts in the historic city centre were damaged or destroyed by war and above all Nicolae Ceaușescu's program of systematization, many survived and have been renovated. In recent years, the city has been experiencing an cultural boom. In 2016, the historical city centre was listed as "endangered" by the World Monuments Watch. According to the 2011 census, 1,883,425 inhabitants live within the city limits, a decrease from the 2002 census.
Adding the satellite towns around the urban area, the proposed metropolitan area of Bucharest would have a population of 2.27 million people. According to Eurostat, Bucharest has a functional urban area of 2,412,530 residents. Bucharest is the sixth-largest city in the European Union by population within city limits, after London, Madrid and Paris. Economically, Bucharest is the most prosperous city in Romania and is one of the main industrial centres and transportation hubs of Eastern and Central Europe; the city has big convention facilities, educational institutes, cultural venues, traditional "shopping arcades", recreational areas. The city proper is administratively known as the "Municipality of Bucharest", has the same administrative level as that of a national county, being further subdivided into six sectors, each governed by a local mayor; the Romanian name București has an unverified origin. Tradition connects the founding of Bucharest with the name of Bucur, a prince, an outlaw, a fisherman, a shepherd or a hunter, according to different legends.
In Romanian, the word stem bucurie means "joy", it is believed to be of Dacian origin, hence the city Bucharest means "city of joy". Other etymologies are given by early scholars, including the one of an Ottoman traveller, Evliya Çelebi, who said that Bucharest was named after a certain "Abu-Kariș", from the tribe of "Bani-Kureiș". In 1781, Austrian historian Franz Sulzer claimed that it was related to bucurie, bucuros, or a se bucura, while an early 19th-century book published in Vienna assumed its name has been derived from "Bukovie", a beech forest. In English, the city's name was rendered as Bukarest. A native or resident of Bucharest is called a "Bucharester". Bucharest's history alternated periods of development and decline from the early settlements in antiquity until its consolidation as the national capital of Romania late in the 19th century. First mentioned as the "Citadel of București" in 1459, it became the residence of the famous Wallachian prince Vlad III the Impaler; the Ottomans appointed Greek administrators to run the town from the 18th century.
A short-lived revolt initiated by Tudor Vladimirescu in 1821 led to the end of the rule of Constantinople Greeks in Bucharest. The Old Princely Court was erected by Mircea Ciobanul in the mid-16th century. Under subsequent rulers, Bucharest was established as the summer residence of the royal court. During the years to come, it competed with Târgoviște on the status of capital city after an increase in the importance of southern Muntenia brought about by the demands of the suzerain power – the Ottoman Empire. Bucharest became the permanent location of the Wallachian court after 1698. Destroyed by natural disasters and rebuilt several times during the following 200 years, hit by Caragea's plague in 1813–14, the city was wrested from Ottoman control and occupied at several intervals by the Habsburg Monarchy and Imperial Russia, it was placed under Russian administration between 1828 and the Crimean War, with an interlude during the Bucharest-centred 1848 Wallachian revolution. An Austrian garrison took possession after the Russian departure.
On 23 March 1847, a fire consumed about 2,000 buildings. In 1862, after Wallachia and Moldavia were united to form the Principality of Romania, Bucharest became the new nation's capital city. In 1881, it became the political centre of the newly proclaimed Kingdom of Romania under King Carol I. During the second half of the 19th century, the city's population increased and a new period of urban development began. During this period, gas lighting, horse-drawn trams, limited electrification were introduced; the Dâmbovița River was massively channelled in 1883, thus putting a stop to endemic floods like the 1865 flooding of Bucharest. The Fortifications of Bucharest were built; the extravagant architecture and cosmopolitan high culture of this period won Bucharest the nickname of "Little Paris" of the east, with Calea Victoriei as its Champs-Élysées. Between 6 December 1916 and November 1918, the city was occupied by German forces as a result of the Battle of Bucharest, with the official capital temporarily moved to Iași, in
Socialist Republic of Romania
The Socialist Republic of Romania refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party communist rule that existed from 1947 to 1989. From 1947 to 1965, the state was known as the Romanian People's Republic; the country was a Soviet-aligned Eastern Bloc state with a dominant role for the Romanian Communist Party enshrined in its constitutions. As World War II ended, Romania, a former Axis member, was occupied by the Soviet Union, the sole representative of the Allies. On 6 March 1945, after mass demonstrations by communist sympathizers and political pressure from the Soviet representative of the Allied Control Commission, a new pro-Soviet government that included members of the outlawed Romanian Workers' Party was installed. More members of the Workers' Party and communist-aligned parties gained control of the administration and pre-war political leaders were eliminated from political life. In December 1947, King Michael was coerced to abdicate and the People's Republic of Romania was declared.
At first, Romania's scarce post-war resources were drained by the "SovRoms", new tax-exempt Soviet-Romanian companies that allowed the Soviet Union to control Romania's major sources of income. Another drain was the war reparations paid to the Soviet Union. In the 1950s, Romania's communist government began to assert more independence, for example, the withdrawal of all Soviet troops from Romania by 1958. In the 1960s and 1970s, Nicolae Ceaușescu became General Secretary of the Communist Party, Chairman of the State Council and assumed the newly established role of President in 1974. Ceaușescu's denunciation of the 1968 Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia and a brief relaxation in internal repression helped give him a positive image both at home and in the West. However, rapid economic growth fueled in part by foreign credits gave way to an austerity and political repression that led to the fall of his totalitarian government in December 1989. A large number of people were executed or died in custody during communist Romania's existence, most during the Stalinist era of the 1950s.
While judicial executions between 1945 and 1964 numbered 137, deaths in custody are estimated in the tens or hundreds of thousands. Many more were imprisoned for political, economical or other reasons and suffered abuse, torture and/or death. Geographically, Romania bordered the Black Sea to the east; when King Michael, supported by the main political parties, overthrew Ion Antonescu in August 1944, breaking Romania away from the Axis and bringing it over to the Allied side, Michael could do nothing to erase the memory of his country's recent active participation in the German invasion of the Soviet Union. Romanian forces fought under Soviet command, driving through Northern Transylvania into Hungary proper, on into Czechoslovakia and Austria. However, the Soviets treated Romania as conquered territory, Soviet troops remained in the country as occupying forces under the pretext that Romanian authorities could not guarantee the security and stability of Northern Transylvania; the Yalta Conference had granted the Soviet Union a predominant interest in Romania, the Paris Peace Treaties failed to acknowledge Romania as a co-belligerent, the Red Army was sitting on Romanian soil.
The Communists, as all political parties, played only a minor role in the first Michael's wartime governments, headed by General Constantin Sănătescu, though their presence increased in the one led by Nicolae Rădescu. This changed in March 1945, when Dr. Petru Groza of the Ploughmen's Front, a party associated with the Communists, became prime minister, his government was broad-based on paper, including members of most major prewar parties except the Iron Guard. However, the Communists held the key ministries, most of the ministers nominally representing non-Communist parties were, like Groza himself, fellow travelers; the King was not happy with the direction of this government, but when he attempted to force Groza's resignation by refusing to sign any legislation, Groza chose to enact laws without bothering to obtain Michael's signature. On 8 November 1945, King Michael's name day, a pro-monarchy demonstration in front of the Royal Palace in Bucharest escalated into street fights between opposition supporters and soldiers and pro-government workers, resulting in dozens of killed and wounded.
Despite the King's disapproval, the first Groza government brought women's suffrage. However, it brought the beginnings of Soviet domination of Romania. In the elections of 19 November 1946, the Communist-led Bloc of Democratic Parties claimed 84% of the votes; these elections were characterized by widespread irregularities, including intimidation, electoral fraud, assassinations Archives confirm suspicions at the time that the election results were, in fact, falsified. After forming a government, the Communists moved to eliminate the role of the centrist parties. A show trial of their leadership was arranged, they were put in jail. Other parties were forced to "merge" with the Communists. In 1946 and 1947, several high-ranking members in the pro-Axis government were executed as war criminals for their involvement in the Holocaust and for attacking the Soviet Union. Ant
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m
The Cișmigiu Gardens or Cișmigiu Park are a public park near the center of Bucharest, spanning areas on all sides of an artificial lake. The gardens' creation was an important moment in the history of Bucharest, they form the oldest and, at 16 hectares, the largest park in city's central area. The main entrance is in front of the City Hall; the southwestern corner of the park is adjacent to the Gheorghe Lazăr High School. The Rondul Român or Rotonda Scriitorilor is a circular alley which has stone busts of twelve important Romanian writers: Mihai Eminescu, Alexandru Odobescu, Titu Maiorescu, Ion Luca Caragiale, George Coșbuc, Ștefan Octavian Iosif, Ion Creangă, Alexandru Vlahuță, Duiliu Zamfirescu, Bogdan Petriceicu Hasdeu, Nicolae Bălcescu and Vasile Alecsandri. Monumentul Eroilor Francezi commemorates French soldiers who died fighting during the World War I Romanian Campaign. Made in Carrara marble the French monument was created by the Romanian sculptor Ion Jalea and was inaugurated at 25 October 1922.
The sculptural work Izvorul Sissi Stefanidi, was created by Ioan C. Dimitriu Bârlad, it depicts a mother, aggrieved by the death of her daughter, pouring water from a pitcher. Monumentul Eroilor Americani commemorates the 378 US soldiers who died in Romania during World War II; the granite sculpture is the work of the artist Remus Botarro and it was inaugurated in 2002 by the Romanian Government and the American Embassy in Bucharest. Other statues located in Cișmigiu are the one of journalist George Panu sculpted by Gheorghe Horvath and of writer and women's rights activist Maica Smara, sculpted by Mihai Onofrei; the park was built in 1847, at a time when Bucharest was the capital of Wallachia, on a site known as Lacul lui Dura neguțătorul, or as Dura. The pool it replaced was a popular site for fishing from as early as the 17th century, was inhabited by mallard colonies. A part of the present-day gardens was occupied by a vineyard, planted around a water source: the latter had been tapped during the bubonic plague epidemic of 1795, when the two sons of Prince Alexander Mourousis took refuge in the uninhabited zone.
The decision to replace the lake was taken in 1846, during a period of Imperial Russian administration introduced by Regulamentul Organic. It was based on an earlier proposal made by Russian governor Pavel Kiselyov in 1830, various small-scale works had first been undertaken in 1837; the initiative, countersigned by Prince Gheorghe Bibescu, was part of a series of major public works, the plan dates back to 1844. On 27 February 1845, the area passed into public ownership through a princely decree. In 1843, Bibescu had called on experts in horticulture and planning to join in the effort to restructure the city gardens, they were to become involved in redesigning Dura area: Meyer was responsible for setting up the new lanes, for planting new floral species, as well as for setting up a Romantic landscape with rocks leading down to the lake. The central lake was connected to the Dâmbovița River through a canal; the gardens were inaugurated on 23 September 1847, Meyer was appointed their administrator in 1848.
The word cișmigiu comes from Turkish: a Ceșme is a public fountain and a cișmigiu used to be the person responsible for building and maintaining public fountains. The name replaced older references to Dura, was coined by the public because, at the time, the administrator of Bucharest fountains was living on park grounds. Cișmigiu continued to be developed by Meyer long after its official inauguration: in 1870, the horticulturist laid out a plan to redesign the lanes, to introduce an artesian aquifer, to create a kiosk for an orchestra, he proposed to have gondolas carrying visitors over the lake. By 1851, new species of trees were brought in: chestnuts from Gorj County, walnuts from Dâmboviţa County, other plants from places such as Vienna and Brașov. At the same time, the lanes were reinforced with debris from the ruins of Curtea Nouă and Zlătari area. Works were completed despite Meyer's sudden death as a result of typhoid fever; the park was delimited after Bucharest became capital of the Romanian Kingdom: in 1871, Academiei Boulevard was extended to its western side, and, in 1890, under Mayor Pache Protopopescu, Elisabeta Boulevard was created on its southern side.
During the 1860s, Bucharest was visited by the socialist activist and philosopher Ferdinand Lassalle, who argued that "Cișmigiu exceeds by far anything Germany has to offer". In 1882, the gardens were fitted with electrical lighting. Seven years the Gheorghe Lazăr High School was built on its southwestern corner. During the late 19th and early 20th century, Cișmigiu became noted for housing the Thierry Restaurant, kept by a Frenchman, various amateur photographers who made affordable portraits; the building in front of the park was assigned to the City Hall during the communist regime. Meyer was succeeded in his office of garden administrator by other Germans: Ulrich Hoffman, Wilhelm Knechtel, Friedrich Rebhuhn, it was Rebhuhn who, after 1910, redesigned many parts of the
Dâmbovița is a river in Romania. It has its sources on the Curmătura Oticu; the upper reach of the rivers, upstream of the confluence with the Boarcășu River is known as Izvorul Oticului River or Oticu River. It passes through Bucharest and flows into the Argeș River 286 kilometres from its source, near Budești, in Călărași County, its drainage basin area is 2,824 km2. Dâmbovița County is named after the river; the name of the Dâmbovița is of Slavic origin, derived from Common Slavic dǫbŭ, meaning "oak", as it once flowed through the oak forests of the Wallachian Plain. For centuries, Dâmbovița was the main source of drinking water for the city of Bucharest. While there were a few dozen water wells, most of the water in Bucharest was distributed by water-carriers. Bucharest folklore mentions the waters of Dâmbovița as "sweet", at the beginning of the 18th century, Anton Maria del Chiaro considered it "light and clean". However, toward the end of the 18th century, as the population of Bucharest increased, the river ceased to be as clean, hence the need of the aqueducts.
The earliest aqueducts with public fountains were built during the rule of Prince Alexander Ypsilantis. Many watermills were built on the Dâmbovița, most of them owned by the prince, the monasteries or boyars. Dâmbovița used to have two tributaries in Bucharest: Dâmbovicioara, on the right bank, which flowed in what is the area where Sființii Apostoli street is located. Bucureștioara, which rose from a pond located in what is now Grădina IcoaneiAdditionally, there was a branch, Gârlița, which formed an island, Ostrovu; the Dâmbovița flooded Bucharest the left bank, lower. After the great 1775 flood, Ypsilantis ordered a branch canal to be built, in order to prevent, or at least diminish the effects of such flooding; the portion of the river flowing through the capital was channelled twice: in 1883, in the late 1970s, to aid in the replanning of the Central area and the construction of the Bucharest Metro. To prevent floods, in 1986 a dam was built between Crângași and Militari quarters, Morii Lake artificial lake was created.
Dâmbovița has never been navigable, but there has been an unsuccessful attempt in 1902 to introduce boats on the river. Early in its history, Bucharest had few bridges over the Dâmbovița, as the right bank was only sparsely populated; the estates of some boyars used to extend on both banks of the river and they had footbridges. There are sixteen bridges over Dâmbovița River in central Bucharest; the Dâmbovița was polluted before the opening in 2011 of the Glina Wastewater Station, the biggest ecological project in Romania, which treats the sewage waters that pour into the channel, built below the river floor. Before entering Bucharest, the river's water is treated by the company "Compania de Apă Târgoviște". After exiting Bucharest, the Dâmbovița waters were polluted, due to the hundreds of millions of cubic meters of raw sewage which are dumped every year directly in the channel below the river, but now the quality of water is much improved. In Bucharest, the river is vertically divided into 2 separated parts.
The lower part, under Dâmbovița river floor, is a channel which contains the sewage from the city, which combines when exiting Bucharest with the upper, cleaner part. There are river plants and fish that live in the upper side of the river and sometimes one can see some fishers on the sides; the quality of the waters is improved as of October 10, 2011 opening of Glina Wastewater Station, the first sewage treatment plant of Bucharest, while a second one, which will clean all the water should be ready by 2015. The following rivers are tributaries to the river Dâmbovița: Left: Valea Vladului, Berevoescu, Luțele Mari, Luțele Mici, Valea lui Aron, Valea Comisului, Valea Nemțoaicelor, Răchita, Valea lui Stanciu, Valea Turcilor, Tămașul, Valea Dragoslăvenilor, Valea lui Ivan, Valea Largă, Valea Seacă, Valea Speriatei, Valea Gruiului, Berila, Dâmbovicioara, Valea Orățiilor, Ghimbav, Valea Luncii, Valea Caselor, Valea Hotarului, Olăneasca, Valea Runcului, Valea Jocii, Bădeni, Valea Grecului, Pârâul lui Coman, Valea Chiliilor, Valea Pleșei, Valea Măgurii, Valea Vlazilor, Valea Ulmului, Valea Largă, Râul Alb, Gârlița Satului, Colentina, Pasărea Right: Boarcășu, Colții lui Andrei, Izvorul Foișorului, Valea Barbului, Izvorul Hotarului, Cuza, Pârâul Larg, Sântinica, Valea lui Aron, Bălțatul, Cascue, Râul Căciulelor, Valea Șaului, Clăbucet, Oncioaia, Valea Jugii, Valea Arșiței, Râușorul, Stoeneasca, Valea Cheii, Aninoasa, Câlnău, Grui The river flows through the following communes and cities: Rucăr, Stoenești, Malu cu Flori, Cândești, Vulcana-Băi, Voinești, Mănești, Dragomirești, Nucet, Conțești, Lungulețu, Bucharest, Plătărești, Vasilați, Budești
An auditorium is a room built to enable an audience to hear and watch performances at venues such as theatres. For movie theatres, the number of auditoriums is expressed as the number of screens. Auditoria can be found in entertainment venues, community halls, theaters, may be used for rehearsal, performing arts productions, or as a learning space; the term is taken from Latin. The audience in a modern theatre are separated from the performers by the proscenium arch, although other types of stage are common; the price charged for seats in each part of the auditorium varies according to the quality of the view of the stage. The seating areas can include some or all of the following: Stalls, orchestra or arena: the lower flat area below or at the same level as the stage. Balconies or galleries: one or more raised seating platforms towards the rear of the auditorium. In larger theatres, multiple levels are stacked vertically behind the stalls; the first level is called the dress circle or grand circle.
The highest platform, or upper circle is sometimes known as the gods in large opera houses, where the seats can be high and a long distance from the stage. Boxes: placed to the front and above the level of the stage, they are separate rooms with an open viewing area which seat only a handful of people. These seats are considered the most prestigious of the house. A state box or royal box is sometimes provided for dignitaries. Seating arrangement: Seating arrangements in an auditorium seating layout will either be identified as “multiple-aisle” or “continental.” These terms are found in design standards manuals, building codes, similar architectural reference documents. Each size is unique, with specific guidelines governing row size, row spacing, exit ways. A multiple-aisle arrangement will have a maximum of 14–16 chairs per row with access to an aisle-way at both ends. In a continental arrangement, all seats are located in a central section. Here the maximum quantity of chairs per row can exceed the limits established in a multiple-aisle arrangement.
In order to compensate for the greater length of rows allowed, building codes will require wider row spacing, wider aisles, strategically located exit doors. Although it would seem like more space is called for, a continental seating plan is not any less efficient than a multiple-aisle arrangement. In fact, if it is planned, a continental arrangement can accommodate more seating within the same space. Sports venues such as stadiums and racetracks have royal boxes or enclosures, for example at the All England Club and Ascot Racecourse, where access is limited to royal families or other distinguished personalities. In other countries, sports venues have luxury boxes, where access is open to anyone who can afford tickets. Auditorium Building List of concert halls Music venue Noise mitigation Performing arts center Smoking ban Concert hall acoustics on-line exhibition
Filimon Sârbu was a Romanian communist activist and anti-fascist militant executed by the pro-Nazi authorities during World War II. After the war, he was acclaimed as a hero by the communist government. Sârbu was born into a family of workers in Transylvania, his father, a railway worker, was sacked in 1926 for his participation in the strikes of the early 1920s, the family had to move to Constanţa by 1930. Due to lack of material means, the young Sârbu was forced to abandon school after completing primary education, in October 1930 he started as an apprentice lathe operator at the Workshops of the Directorate of Maritime Ports in Constanţa. There he joined the worker's movement and came under communist influence, in 1933 he was dismissed for his political opinions, being readmitted at his colleagues pressure. In that period he took part in the meetings of the National Antifascist Committee, a front organization of the Communist Party of Romania, banned by the government in the 1920s. Arrested along other activists in 1936 during such an antifascist conference, he was condemned by a Military Tribunal to 6 months of jail.
In 1938 he was assigned to the border area of Carei. In August 1940 the area, along with all Northern Transylvania was awarded to Hungary. Sârbu's protests against the territorial settlement led to his disciplinary transfer to the 10th Mountain Hunters Battalion in Târnăveni. Discharged in April 1941, he reestablished contacts with the antifascist organizations, first in Braşov back in Constanţa. After joining the Union of Communist Youth in 1941, he received the task to organize sabotage acts against the fascist forces in the city and in the port, he became the Secretary of the county organization of the UTC. Sârbu was responsible for spreading anti-war propaganda leaflets in the factories of Constanţa. According to Vartan Arachelian and Corneliu Coposu, Sârbu was part of a group who set fire to a German military depot in Constanţa, signaled Soviet warplanes at night. On June 22, 1941, Sârbu was arrested along four other anti-fascist militants by Romania's secret police during a clandestine meeting on the Pescărie beach, in Mamaia.
The purpose of the meeting was described by the official indictment as "instigation to sabotage acts against the state order". After a summary trial by the Court Martial of the Bucharest Territorial High Command, he was sentenced to death on July 4. On the evening of July 19, he was executed by firing squad at Jilava prison, in a place named Valea Piersicilor. Sârbu was the only one to be executed, the other 4 activists tried in the same case being sentenced to prison. Francisc Panet Ştefan Plavăţ B. I. Gheorghe, "Filimon Sîrbu", in Anale de Istorie, Vol. XV, Nr. 4, Institutul de Studii Istorice și Social-Politice de pe lîngă C. C. al P. C. R, 1969, pp. 153–156 Vartan Arachelian, "Dialoguri cu Corneliu Coposu" Stamp honouring Filimon Sârbu