The Banat Bulgarians known as Bulgarian Roman Catholics and Bulgarians Paulicians or as Paulicians, are a distinct Bulgarian minority group which since the Chiprovtsi Uprising in late 17th century began to settle in the region of the Banat, ruled by the Habsburgs and after World War I was divided between Romania and Hungary. Unlike most other Bulgarians, they are Roman Catholic by confession and stem from groups of Paulicians and Roman Catholics from modern northern and northwestern Bulgaria. Banat Bulgarians speak a distinctive codified form of the Eastern Bulgarian vernacular with much lexical influence from the other languages of the Banat. Although acculturated to the Pannonian region, they have preserved their Bulgarian identity, they consider themselves as Bulgarians among other ethnic groups but self-identify as Paulicians when compared to ethnic Bulgarians; the ethnic group in scholarly literature is called as Banat Bulgarians, Bulgarians Roman Catholics, Bulgarians Paulicians, or Paulicians.
The latter ethnonym is used by the group members as self-identification, to express "I / we", contrasted to "you" of Bulgarian ethnonym. Their Bulgarian identification is rather used when compared to other ethnic groups. According to Blagovest Njagulov, there existed differences in self-designation among communities. In Romania, in the village of Dudeștii Vechi prevailed Paulician ethnonym, while in Vinga the Bulgarian ethnonym because in the latter was a mixture of Bulgarian communities from different regions; until the mid-20th century was developed idea of Bulgarian ethnic nationalism and according to it prevailed Bulgarian ethnonym, with the intermediate decision being "Bulgarians Paulicians". As the community's literature and language is based on Paulician dialect and Latin alphabet it was promoted acceptance of Bulgarian literary language and Cyrillic alphabet. In the 1990s was again argued if they are a distinctive group or part of Bulgarian national and linguistic unity. On the other part, in Serbia the community was not in touch with such political influence and was accepted Paulician ethnonym, only since 1990s became more in contact with other Bulgarian communities and institutions.
According to 1999 research by Njagulov, the people consider to be of Bulgarian ethnos, but not on an individual level, only of a community, characterized by Catholic faith, specific literature and language practice as well elements of traditional material heritage and spiritual culture. The origin of the Bulgarian Roman Catholic community is related to the Paulicianism, a medieval Christian movement from Armenia and Syria whose members between 8th and 10th century arrived in the region of Thrace controlled by Byzantine Empire, they had religious freedom until the 11th century when the majority was Christianised to the official state faith by Alexios I Komnenos. Over the centuries they started to assimilate with the Bulgarians, however never accepted the Orthodox Church, living with specific traditions; the Roman Catholic Bosnian Franciscans in the late 16th and early 17th century managed to convert them to Catholicism. It is considered. In 1688, the members of the community organized the unsuccessful Chiprovtsi Uprising against the Ottoman rule of Bulgaria.
The uprising was suppressed, due to organizational flaws and the halting of the Austrian offensive against the Ottomans. Around 300 families of the surviving Catholics fled north of the Danube to Oltenia settling in Craiova, Râmnicu Vâlcea, other cities, where their existing rights were confirmed by Wallachian Prince Constantin Brâncoveanu; some moved to south-western Transylvania, founding colonies in Vinţu de Jos and Deva and receiving privileges such as civil rights and tax exemption. After Oltenia was occupied by Habsburg Monarchy in 1718, the status of the Bulgarians in the region improved again, as an imperial decree of 1727 allowed them the same privileges as their colonies in Transylvania; this attracted another wave of migration of Bulgarian Catholics, about 300 families from the Paulician villages of central northern Bulgaria. They settled in Craiova between 1726 and 1730, but did not receive the same rights as the colonists from Chiprovtsi; the Habsburgs were forced to withdraw from Oltenia in 1737 in the wake of a new war with the Ottoman Empire.
The Bulgarians fled from this new Ottoman occupation and settled in the Austrian-ruled Banat to the northwest. The Austrian authorities, allowed 2,000 people to found the villages of Stár Bišnov in 1738 and some 125 families Vinga in 1741. In 1744, a decree of Maria Theresa of Austria again confirmed. Around a hundred Paulicians from the region of Svishtov and Nikopol migrated to the Banat from 1753 to 1777; the existing Bulgarian population from Stár Bišnov spread throughout the region from the late 18th to the second quarter of the 19th century. They settled in around 20 villages and towns in search of better economic conditions their need for arable land; such colonies i
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Dobrujan Bulgarians — spelled Dobrudžans and Dobrudjans — is a regional, ethnographic group of ethnic Bulgarians, inhabiting or originating from Dobruja. Today, the larger part of this population is concentrated in Southern Dobruja, but much is spread across the whole of Bulgaria and the diaspora; until the early 1940s, the Dobrujan Bulgarians lived in the whole of Dobruja part of the Ottoman Empire and Kingdom of Romania. In September 1940, the governments of Bulgaria and Kingdom of Romania agreed a population exchange according to the Treaty of Craiova; the Bulgarian population in Northern Dobruja, was expelled into Bulgaria-controlled Southern Dobruja, today Dobrich Province and Silistra Province. Dora Gabe, poet Adriana Budevska, actress Ivailo Petrov, writer Miroslav Kostadinov, singer Khristo Ivanov, organic chemist Panayot Cherna, poet Dimitar Spisarevski, fighter pilot Preslava, singer Penev, psychiatrist Bulgarians Bulgarians in Romania Dobrujan Germans Internal Dobrujan Revolutionary Organisation
Bulgarians in Italy
The Bulgarians in Italy are one of the sizable communities of the Bulgarian diaspora in Western Europe. There are about 120,000 Bulgarians in Italy according to the Bulgarian government. There are Bulgarian Orthodox parishes in Milan. Major centres of Bulgarian migration are Milan, Bologna and Torino. In the early 7th century AD, groups of Bulgars, one of the ancient peoples that participated in the ethnogenesis of the modern Bulgarians, settled in the Italian Peninsula; the main migration was headed by Altsek, a Bulgar leader who joined the Avar Khaganate before switching allegiance to the Germanic Lombards. Altsek and his people arrived in the Exarchate of Ravenna, where Grimoald I of Benevento invited them to populate the Duchy of Benevento. According to the Gesta Dagoberti I regis Francorum, Altsek's Bulgars settled in what are today the communes of Isernia and Sepino. Altsek remained the leader of the Bulgar-populated areas, it is uncertain whether this Altsek can be identified with Altsiok.
According to the Chronicle of Fredegar, Altsiok deserted the Avar Khaganate in 631–632. Altsiok settled in Bavaria with 9,000 Bulgars under Frankish king Dagobert I. Altsiok is known to have moved to the Venetian March with his 700 remaining men after Dagobert I slaughtered most of his people. Paul the Deacon in his Historia Langobardorum writing after the year 787 says that in his time Bulgars still inhabited the area, that though they speak "Latin," "they have not forsaken the use of their own tongue." In times they had evidently become assimilated. Human graves of a steppe nomadic character as well as horse burials dated to the second half of the 8th century AD attest to the presence of Bulgars in the Molise and Campania regions. Toponyms containing the root bulgar and personal names such as Bulgari and di Bulgari continued to appear in medieval documents relating to the Italian Peninsula. In the 17th century, Bulgarian Roman Catholics visited Rome in their attempts to negotiate support for a Bulgarian uprising against the Ottoman Empire.
Prominent religious and public leaders such as Petar Bogdan and Petar Parchevich spent time in the city. The first book printed in modern Bulgarian, was published in Rome in 1651. Based on Demo Istat statistics Rome 1.828 Milan 1.487 Nettuno 834 Anzio 812 Cesena 796 Naples 681 Colleferro 489 Ravenna 442 Ardea 412 Genoa 318 Pizzo 313 Monteroni di Lecce 301 Gambettola 300 Nikolay Diulgheroff, Futurist artist and designer Elena Nicolai, opera singer Boris Christoff, opera singer Nicolai Ghiaurov, opera singer Raina Kabaivanska, opera singer Hristo Zlatanov, Italy men's national volleyball team player Nikoleta Stefanova, table tennis player Vanessa Ferrari, world champion in artistic gymnastics Vencislav Simeonov, volleyball player Georgi Glouchkov, former professional basketball player Moni Ovadia, actor and composer Ivan Donev, fashion designer Angel Tankinov - Human Ofelia Malinov, Italian national team volleyball player
Bulgarian Orthodox Church
The Bulgarian Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Orthodox Church. It is the oldest Slavic Orthodox Church with some 6 million members in the Republic of Bulgaria and between 1.5 and 2.0 million members in a number of European countries, the Americas, New Zealand and Asia. It was recognized as an independent Church by the Patriarchate of Constantinople in AD 870, becoming Patriarchate in 918/919; the Bulgarian Orthodox Church considers itself an inseparable member of the one, holy and apostolic church and is organized as a self-governing body under the name of Patriarchate. It is divided into thirteen dioceses within the boundaries of the Republic of Bulgaria and has jurisdiction over additional two dioceses for Bulgarians in Western and Central Europe, the Americas and Australia; the dioceses of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church are divided into 58 church counties, which, in turn, are subdivided into some 2,600 parishes. The supreme clerical and administrative power for the whole domain of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church is exercised by the Holy Synod, which includes the Patriarch and the diocesan prelates, who are called metropolitans.
Church life in the parishes is guided by the parish priests, numbering some 1,500. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church has some 120 monasteries in Bulgaria, with about 2,000 monks and nearly as many nuns. Eparchies in Bulgaria: Eparchy of Vidin Eparchy of Vratsa Eparchy of Lovech Eparchy of Veliko Tarnovo Eparchy of Dorostol Eparchy of Varna and Veliki Preslav Eparchy of Sliven Eparchy of Stara Zagora Eparchy of Plovdiv Eparchy of Sofia Eparchy of Nevrokop Eparchy of Pleven Eparchy of Ruse Eparchies abroad: Eparchy of Central and Western Europe. Christianity was brought to the Bulgarian lands and the rest of the Balkans by the apostles Paul and Andrew in the 1st century AD, when the first organised Christian communities were formed. By the beginning of the 4th century, Christianity had become the dominant religion in the region. Towns such as Serdica, Philipopolis and Adrianople were significant centres of Christianity in the Roman Empire; the barbarian raids and incursions in the 4th and the 5th and the settlement of Slavs and Bulgars in the 6th and the 7th centuries wrought considerable damage to the ecclesiastical organisation of the Christian Church in the Bulgarian lands, yet they were far from destroying it.
Kubrat and Organa were both baptized together in Constantinople and Christianity started to pave its way from the surviving Christian communities to the surrounding Bulgar-Slavic mass. By the middle of the 9th century, the majority of the Bulgarian Slavs those living in Thrace and Macedonia, were Christianised; the process of conversion enjoyed some success among the Bulgar nobility. It was not until the official adoption of Christianity by Khan Boris I in 865 that an independent Bulgarian ecclesiastical entity was established. Boris I believed that cultural advancement and the sovereignty and prestige of a Christian Bulgaria could be achieved through an enlightened clergy governed by an autocephalous church. To this end, he manoeuvred between the Patriarch of Constantinople and the Roman Pope for a period of five years until in 870 AD, the Fourth Council of Constantinople granted the Bulgarians an autonomous Bulgarian archbishopric; the archbishopric had its seat in the Bulgarian capital of Pliska and its diocese covered the whole territory of the Bulgarian state.
The tug-of-war between Rome and Constantinople was resolved by putting the Bulgarian archbishopric under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople, from whom it obtained its first primate, its clergy and theological books. Although the archbishopric enjoyed full internal autonomy, the goals of Boris I were scarcely fulfilled. A Greek liturgy offered by a Byzantine clergy furthered neither the cultural development of the Bulgarians, nor the consolidation of the Bulgarian Empire. Following the Byzantine theory of "Imperium sine Patriarcha non staret", which predominated that a close relation should exist between an Empire and Patriarchate, Boris I greeted the arrival of the disciples of the deceased Saints Cyril and Methodius in 886 as an opportunity. Boris I gave them the task to instruct the future Bulgarian clergy in the Glagolitic alphabet and the Slavonic liturgy prepared by Cyril; the liturgy was based on the vernacular of the Bulgarian Slavs from the region of Thessaloniki. In 893, Boris I expelled the Greek clergy from the country and ordered the replacement of the Greek language with the Slav-Bulgarian vernacular.
Following Bulgaria's two decisive victories over the Byzantines at Acheloos and Katasyrtai, the government declared the autonomous Bulgarian Archbishopric as autocephalous and elevated it to the rank of Patriarchate at an ecclesiastical and national council held in 919. After Bulgaria and the Byzantine Empire signed a peace treaty in 927 that concluded th
Macedonian Americans are Americans of ethnic Macedonian heritage. The first Macedonian immigrants to the U. S. arrived in the late 19th century from the Bansko region of. These Macedonians had been educated by American missionaries and were encouraged to migrate to the United States for higher education or to attend missionary schools, but the first large swath of Macedonians came in the early 20th century from the border regions in the north of what is today Greek Macedonia the regions near Kastoria and the south-west of the Republic of Macedonia, notably around Bitola. These Macedonians had faced the greatest retributions from the Ottoman military due to the fact that the 1903 Ilinden uprising was centered in these areas. During the early 20th century, several Macedonian immigrants identified only as Macedonians, as indicated by census data, immigration records and several testimonials; that designation was used mainly as a regional, not as a national identification. Macedonian national feelings had shifted throughout the 20th century.
According to the Harvard Encyclopedia of American Ethnic Groups all of Macedonians in the U. S. until World War II classified themselves as Macedonian Bulgarians or as Bulgarians. The Bulgarian national identification during the late Ottoman Empire, from where most of the emigrants arrived, was based on ethno-religious principles and still ambiguous. In the 1920s, many Macedonian-Americans became suspicious that the main Macedonian organization at that time - the Macedonian Patriotic Organization, existed to advance Bulgaria's political interests. Thus, some Macedonian-Americans began to form smaller clubs and societies whose members were limited to fellow villagers. Members of these small groups could trust the others in their group, they knew that they were not being taken advantage of the leaders of the MPO. During 1930s, some Macedonians began to indicate that their nationality was "Macedonian", promoted this new ethnic identification, following political directives; the first organization in the United States to support the idea that Macedonians constitute a separate nationality was the pro-communist Macedonian People's League.
MPL, financially supported by the Soviet Union, acted aggressively against the MPO, which it believed was a Bulgarian weapon. It is estimated that around 50,000 Macedonians emigrated to the United States between 1903 and 1906, but the outbreak of the Balkan Wars and World War I curtailed the flow. Around 20,000 remained in the U. S. and the rest returned home. The immigrants were predominantly peasants, with the remainder including craftsmen and intellectuals. Immigration restarted after the wars; the immigrants' organizations used Bulgarian language in their official documents. Since the 1920s and 1930s the Macedonian language has been recorded in American censuses. However, several Macedonian immigrants did list Macedonian as their native tongue in the 1910 U. S. Census. Around 50,000-60,000 Macedonians had emigrated to the US by the end of World War II; the sense of belonging to a separate Macedonian nation gained credence after World War II, following the establishment of the People's Republic of Macedonia within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and the codification of a distinct Macedonian language.
The aftermath of the war led to a fresh round of Macedonian immigration from Greece, as a consequence of ethnic Macedonians being expelled by the post-war Greek government or otherwise encouraged to leave after the Greek civil war of 1946-49. 70,000 emigrated to Canada, the U. S. and other European countries. The growth of a distinct Macedonian-American community have occurred since the late 1950's, when the first immigrants from Communist Yugoslavia arrived, they have been instrumental in transmitting the national feelings of the older, pro-Bulgarian oriented immigrants from Macedonia. Most of the American-born people of Macedonian-Bulgarian descent had little knowledge of Bulgaria and have identified during the second half of the 20th century as Macedonians. Still, some remnants of the pre-1945 Macedonian diaspora, from the whole area, have retained their strong regional Macedonian identity and Bulgarophile sentiments, while nearly all post-WWII Macedonian emigrants, from Greece and Yugoslavia, have a strong ethnic Macedonian identity.
After Yugoslavia liberalized its emigration policies in 1960, another 40,000 Macedonians emigrated during the period 1960-77. Most have been economic migrants rather than political dissidents. At that time most of the Americans born of Macedonian Bulgarian descent have hardly any knowledge of Bulgaria and began to identify themselves as Macedonians. A large proportion of Macedonian Americans live in the New York metropolitan area and the Northeastern United States. Another large cluster of Macedonian Americans lives in the Midwest Detroit, where 10,000 are reported to be living. Most Macedonian Americans those immigrating to North America in the last half of the 20th century, belong to the Macedonian Orthodox Church, under the American-Canadian Macedonian Orthodox Diocese. Macedonian Americans immigrating before that time were affiliated with either the Bulgarian Orthodox Church, the Bulgarian Diocese of the Orthodox Church in America or the Serbian Orthodox Church. Smaller numbers of Macedonian Americans attend parishes affiliated with the Russian Orthodox Church or the Greek Or
Bulgarians in the United Kingdom
Bulgarians in the United Kingdom include citizens of the United Kingdom who trace their Bulgarian ancestry. The number of Bulgarian-born people resident in the UK has risen from 5,351 at the time of the 2001 Census to an estimated 69,000 in 2015. Since 1 January 2014, Bulgarians have freedom of movement and work in the United Kingdom as citizens of the European Union. A true Bulgarian community in the United Kingdom was formed recently as compared to Bulgarian communities in other countries in Western Europe. Few Bulgarian students enrolled at British universities before World War II, it was only around 1944–1945 that a more apparent circle of Bulgarian political emigrants was formed in the United Kingdom. During the Cold War, when Bulgaria was a socialist state known as the People's Republic of Bulgaria, the Bulgarian community in the United Kingdom numbered some 3,000–4,000 in England. Emigration to the United Kingdom was active in the 1990s and 2000s. By 2000, the Bulgarian community numbered over 10,000 according to unofficial data.
Other estimates from the early 21st century claim over 30,000 Bulgarians live permanently or temporarily in the capital London alone. The 2001 UK Census recorded 5,351 people born in Bulgaria; when Bulgaria joined the European Union in January 2007, the British government placed transitional restrictions on the rights of Bulgarians to move to the UK, which were subsequently extended and these transitional restrictions expired on 1 January 2014. The Office for National Statistics estimates that 69,000 Bulgarian-born immigrants were resident in the UK in 2015. Elizaveta Karamihailova, physicist Dobrinka Tabakova, composer Paul Dickov, Scottish footballer of possible Bulgarian descent Boncho Genchev, first Bulgarian in the Premier League residing in London Stanislav Ianevski, actor Georgi Markov, dissident writer Gerri Peev, journalist Silvena Rowe, chef George Baker, actor Dimitar Berbatov former Tottenham Hotspur, Manchester United and Fulham player Bulgarian diaspora London Bulgarian Choir Ivancheva, M. 2007.
Strawberry Fields Forever? Bulgarian and Romanian student workers in the UK. – Focaal – European Journal of Anthropology, 49, pp. 110–117 Maeva, M. Organizations and Institutions of Bulgarian Emigration in the United Kingdom – In: Karamihova, M.. European dimensions of Culture and History on the Balkans. Sofia: Paradigma, 2010, pp. 276–291 ISBN 978-954-326-134-5 Maeva, M Memories for Socialism into the Internet Forum of Bulgarian Emigrants in the United Kingdom – In: Wilson, P. P. McEntaggart. Navigating Landscapes of Mediated Memory. Oxford, Interdisciplinary Press, 2011, pp. 29–38 ISBN 978-1-84888-090-0. Maeva, M. Internet and Bulgarian Emigration to and in the Great Britain - Ethnologia Balkanica, 2011, vol. 15, publishing by International Association for Southeast European History, Munich, pp. 349–362 OCLC 41714232 Maeva, M. Language as a Border: the Case of Bulgarian Emigrants in the UK – In: Hirstov, P. Migration and identity: Historical and Linguistic Dimensions of Mobility on the Balkans.
Sofia, Paradigma, 2012, 312-325 ISBN 9789543261673 Valkanova, Yordanka. 2009. Being a Rara Avis: Education Experiences of Bulgarian Children in Schools in London - In: Eade, Yordanka Valkanova Accession and Migration: Changing Policy and Culture in an Enlarged Europe. Surrey: Ashgate Publishing, pp. 133–142 ISBN 978-0-7546-7503-7 London Bulgarian Choir Bulgarian Party London Bulgarian London BG London — Bulgarian Newspaper London, UK България загива