IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement
The IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement or IMRO-BNM is a nationalist political party in Bulgaria, founded in 1991. It claims to be the successor to the historic Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization. IMRO's leader is Krasimir Karakachanov; the abbreviation IMRO references the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, a historic Bulgarian-established revolutionary political organization in the Macedonia and Thrace regions founded in the late 19th century. By its establishment in 1991, the name of the organization was IMRO-Union of Macedonian Assotiations. At the Fourth Congress in 1997, IMRO-UMA dropped the addition UMA, it was not involved in Bulgarian politics, but after 1994, it became politically active and entered the Bulgarian parliament. Renamed the IMRO-Bulgarian National Movement in 1998, the organization was transformed into a right-wing populist political party in the 2000s. In 2010, a group of members formed the National Ideal for Unity. In the 2014 European Parliament election, the party was part of the coalition "Bulgaria Without Censorship", which included the parties Bulgaria Without Censorship, IMRO-BNM, People's Agricultural Union, George's Day Movement.
The coalition won two seats in the European Parliament. MEPs elected from the coalition include IMRO vice-leader Angel Djambazki and BBT leader Nikolay Barekov. On 3 August 2014 a coalition agreement between the NFSB and IMRO called Patriotic Front was signed for the upcoming parliamentary elections 2014, and states its purpose to be for: "a revival of the Bulgarian economy, a fight against monopolies, achieving modern education and healthcare and a fair and uncorrupt judiciary." The signing of a coalition agreement between IMRO and NFSB marks the end of the BBT-IMRO coalition. The members of the alliance are - PROUD, National Ideal for Unity, Middle European Class, Association Patriot, Undivided Bulgaria, National Movement BG Patriot, Union of the Patriotic Forces "Defense", National Association of Alternate Soldiery "For the Honor of epaulette", National Movement for the Salvation of the Fatherland and National Democratic Party; the IMRO describes itself as a patriotic party based on modern nationalism.
It defines itself as a "pan-Bulgarian national movement" aiming at "spiritual unity of the Bulgarian nation". It is known as a nationalist and Orthodox Christian party, opposed to minority rights and strives for a Greater Bulgaria which would include today's Republic of Macedonia; the rhetoric of party leaders is directed against Bulgarian Turks and members of non-traditional religious groups and sects. The National Youth Committee of IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement Official website Media related to IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement at Wikimedia Commons
Marxism is a theory and method of working class self-emancipation. As a theory, it relies on a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation, it originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Friedrich Engels. Marxism uses a methodology, now known as historical materialism, to analyze and critique the development of class society and of capitalism as well as the role of class struggles in systemic economic and political change. According to Marxist theory, in capitalist societies, class conflict arises due to contradictions between the material interests of the oppressed and exploited proletariat—a class of wage labourers employed to produce goods and services—and the bourgeoisie—the ruling class that owns the means of production and extracts its wealth through appropriation of the surplus product produced by the proletariat in the form of profit.
This class struggle, expressed as the revolt of a society's productive forces against its relations of production, results in a period of short-term crises as the bourgeoisie struggle to manage the intensifying alienation of labor experienced by the proletariat, albeit with varying degrees of class consciousness. In periods of deep crisis, the resistance of the oppressed can culminate in a proletarian revolution which, if victorious, leads to the establishment of socialism—a socioeconomic system based on social ownership of the means of production, distribution based on one's contribution and production organized directly for use; as the productive forces continued to advance, Marx hypothesized that socialism would be transformed into a communist society: a classless, humane society based on common ownership and the underlying principle: "From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs". Marxism has developed into many different branches and schools of thought, with the result that there is now no single definitive Marxist theory.
Different Marxian schools place a greater emphasis on certain aspects of classical Marxism while rejecting or modifying other aspects. Many schools of thought have sought to combine Marxian concepts and non-Marxian concepts, which has led to contradicting conclusions; however there is movement toward the recognition that historical materialism and dialectical materialism remains the fundamental aspect of all Marxist schools of thought. Marxism has had a profound impact on global academia and has influenced many fields such as archaeology, media studies, political science, history, art history and theory, cultural studies, economics, criminology, literary criticism, film theory, critical psychology and philosophy; the term "Marxism" was popularized by Karl Kautsky, who considered himself an "orthodox" Marxist during the dispute between the orthodox and revisionist followers of Marx. Kautsky's revisionist rival Eduard Bernstein later adopted use of the term. Engels did not support the use of the term "Marxism" to describe either his views.
Engels claimed that the term was being abusively used as a rhetorical qualifier by those attempting to cast themselves as "real" followers of Marx while casting others in different terms, such as "Lassallians". In 1882, Engels claimed that Marx had criticized self-proclaimed "Marxist" Paul Lafargue, by saying that if Lafargue's views were considered "Marxist" "one thing is certain and, that I am not a Marxist". Marxism analyzes the material conditions and the economic activities required to fulfill human material needs to explain social phenomena within any given society, it assumes that the form of economic organization, or mode of production, influences all other social phenomena—including wider social relations, political institutions, legal systems, cultural systems and ideologies. The economic system and these social relations form a superstructure; as forces of production, i.e. technology, existing forms of organizing production become obsolete and hinder further progress. As Karl Marx observed: "At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or—this expresses the same thing in legal terms—with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto.
From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Begins an era of social revolution"; these inefficiencies manifest themselves as social contradictions in society which are, in turn, fought out at the level of the class struggle. Under the capitalist mode of production, this struggle materializes between the minority who own the means of production and the vast majority of the population who produce goods and services. Starting with the conjectural premise that social change occurs because of the struggle between different classes within society who are under contradiction against each other, a Marxist would conclude that capitalism exploits and oppresses the proletariat, therefore capitalism will lead to a proletarian revolution. Marxian economics and its proponents view capitalism as economically unsustainable and incapable of improving the living standards of the population due to its need to compensate for falling rates of profit by cutting employee's wages, social benefits and pursuing military aggression.
The socialist system would succeed capitalism as humanity's mode of production through workers' revolution. According to Marxian crisis theory, socialism is not an economic necessity. In a sociali
National Assembly (Bulgaria)
The National Assembly is the unicameral parliament and legislative body of the Republic of Bulgaria. The National Assembly was established in 1879 with the Tarnovo Constitution; the National Assembly consists of 240 members elected for a four-year term elected by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies. Political parties must garner a minimum of 4 % of the national vote. Bulgaria has a multi-party system; the Assembly is responsible for enactment of laws, approval of the budget, scheduling of presidential elections and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other ministers, declaration of war, concluding peace and deployment of troops outside Bulgaria, ratification of international treaties and agreements. It presided by the Chairperson of the National Assembly of Bulgaria; the Assembly administers the publication of Bulgaria's gazette of record. By the Constitution, the National Assembly is inaugurated by the eldest elected member of Parliament. On the first day of sitting, he or she presides over the election of two deputies.
Once elected, the Speakers retain their party allegiances, which means that they remain as MPs and are allowed to take part in debates and voting. 121 MPs must be present in order for any session to commence, 50%+1 of those present must vote "for" any point of order or bill to be approved. Ministers may be chosen from among the MPs or they may be experts outside Parliament. All MPs picked to be Cabinet ministers lose their MP status, other members from their party are called up to Parliament to fill the seats they vacate. Parliament sits Wednesday to Friday, sessions begin at 9 am. Parliamentary committees sit in the afternoons; the Chamber is made up of all facing the 5-seat speaker's bench in a 26 x 11 arrangement. In front of the Speaker facing the chamber, is the pulpit, in front of, the stenographers' desk. Parties sit in parliamentary groups, loosely following the rule that the political left sit to the Speaker's left and the political right to his right; the largest parties choose the left, right or centre wings of the chamber, with smaller blocks accommodating themselves wherever convenient.
Individual MPs will sometimes sit outside their block or stand, since compulsory electronic registration was implemented, may vote from any seat in the house. To the speaker's right facing the chamber, is a section with 17 seats reserved for the Cabinet, any of whom may or may not be present at any time during a parliamentary session. Any of them may, however, be called up by Parliament at any time. In addition to the ordinary National Assembly, a Grand National Assembly may be convened in order for matters of special jurisdiction, such as: 1) Adoption of a new Constitution. Before the World War II the Grand National Assembly was competent in electing the Regency of the Bulgarian Kingdom if the tzar had not come to age; the First and the Third Grand National Assemblies elected the first two Bulgarian monarchs after the liberation from Ottoman rule – Prince Alexander Battenberg and Prince Ferdinand Saxe Coburg-Gotha. As an organ, the Grand National Assembly was introduced with the Tarnovo Constitution of 1879, abolished in 1947 and reintroduced with the 1991 constitution.
In different constitutional provisions, it was constituted by a different number of representatives. According to the 1991 Constitution, it consists of 400 deputies; the 1991 Constitution was adopted by the Seventh Grand National Assembly and was composed of 200 members being elected by proportional representation and the other 200 under a first-past-the-post voting system. The Constitution provides that the elections for Grand National Assembly shall be conducted in the same manner as those for the Ordinary National Assembly. A qualified majority of 2/3 during three voting procedures on separate dates is required for a decision to be made; the Grand National Assembly can serve as an ordinary National Assembly, taking care of regular legislative activities, in urgent cases only. After it has concluded its work on the matter for which it was elected, the Grand National Assembly is dissolved ex lege and the President of the Republic shall appoint elections for an ordinary National Assembly. A total of seven Grand National Assemblies have been in operation in Bulgaria, the last one from 10 July 1990 to 12 July 1991 adopting the current constitution.
The National Assembly's main building has been proclaimed a monument of culture for its historic significance. Situated in downtown Sofia, it was designed in Neo-Renaissance style by Konstantin Jovanović. Due to insufficient space in the main building at Parliament Square, some administrative offices of the National Assembly are now housed by the former headquarters of the Bulgarian Communist Party, located at the Largo. There has been a proposal that the entire National Assembly be permanently moved to the old Party house building, with its inner courtyard being converted into an interior space for the plenary chamber. Politics of Bulgaria List of legislatures by country Народно събрание на Република България/ National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria, official website Bulgaria The National Assembly Historical photographs of the National Assembly
Sofia is the capital and largest city of Bulgaria. The city is at the foot of Vitosha Mountain in the western part of the country. Being in the centre of the Balkan peninsula, it is midway between the Black Sea and the Adriatic Sea, closest to the Aegean Sea. Sofia has been an area of human habitation since at least 7000 BC; the recorded history of Sofia begins with the attestation of the conquest of Serdica by the Roman Republic in 29 BC from the Celtic tribe Serdi, raided by Huns in 343-347 AD and 447 AD, conquered by Visigoths in 376-382 AD, conquered by Avars and Slavs in 617 AD, on 9th April, 809 Serdica was surrendered to Krum of Bulgaria. In 1018, the Byzantines ended Bulgarian rule; the town was conquered by the Pechenegs in 1048 and 1078, by the Magyars and Serbs in 1183, by the Crusaders in 1095 and 1190. The rule of the Second Bulgarian Empire lasted from 1194 until its conquest by the Ottomans in 1382.. From 1520 to 1836, Sofia was the regional capital of Rumelia Eyalet, the Ottoman Empire's key province in Europe.
Bulgarian rule was restored in 1878. During World War II Sofia was bombarded by the UK and US Air Forces and at the end of the war, it was seized by the Soviet Army. Being Bulgaria's primate city, Sofia is a hometown of many of the major local universities, cultural institutions and commercial companies. Sofia is one of the top 10 best places for start-up businesses in the world in information technologies, according to Bulgarian National Television. Sofia was Europe's most affordable capital to visit in 2013; the population of Sofia declined down from 70,000 in the late 18th century, through 19,000 in 1870, to 11,649 in 1878 and began increasing. Sofia hosts some 1.23 million residents within a territory of 492 km2, a concentration of 17.5% of the country population within the 200th percentile of the country territory. The urban area of Sofia hosts some 1.54 million residents within 5723 km², which comprises Sofia City Province and parts of Sofia Province and Pernik Province, representing 5.16% of the country territory.
The metropolitan area of Sofia is based upon one hour of car travel time, stretches internationally and includes Dimitrovgrad in Serbia. Unlike most European metropolitan areas, it is not to be defined as a functional metropolitan area, but is of the type with "limited variety of functions"; the metropolitan region of Sofia is inhabited by a population of 1.68 million and is made up of the whole provinces Sofia City and Pernik, comprising more than 10,000 km². For the longest time the city possessed a Thracian name, derived from the tribe Serdi, who were either of Thracian, Celtic, or mixed Thracian-Celtic origin; the emperor Marcus Ulpius Traianus gave the city the combinative name of Ulpia Serdica. It seems that the first written mention of Serdica was made during his reign and the last mention was in the 19th century in a Bulgarian text. Other names given to Sofia, such as Serdonpolis and Triaditza, were mentioned by Byzantine Greek sources or coins; the Slavic name Sredets, related to "middle" and to the city's earliest name, first appeared on paper in an 11th-century text.
The city was called Atralisa by the Arab traveller Idrisi and Strelisa, Stralitsa or Stralitsion by the Crusaders. The name Sofia comes from the Saint Sofia Church, as opposed to the prevailing Slavic origin of Bulgarian cities and towns; the origin is in the Greek word sophia "wisdom", which may derive from the Egyptian word sbÅ "teach, learn or wise" provided b oftentimes turns into ph in Egyptian to Greek translations. The earliest works where this latest name is registered are the duplicate of the Gospel of Serdica, in a dialogue between two salesmen from Dubrovnik around 1359, in the 14th-century Vitosha Charter of Bulgarian tsar Ivan Shishman and in a Ragusan merchant's notes of 1376. In these documents the city is called Sofia, but at the same time the region and the city's inhabitants are still called Sredecheski, which continued until the 20th century; the city became somehow popular to the Ottomans by the name Sofya. In 1879 there was a dispute about what the name of the new Bulgarian capital should be, when the citizens created a committee of famous people, insisting for the Slavic name.
A compromise arose, officialisation of Sofia for the nationwide institutions, while legitimating the title Sredets for the administrative and church institutions, before the latter was abandoned through the years. The city's name is pronounced by Bulgarians with a stress on the'o', in contrast with the tendency of foreigners to place the stress on'i'; the female given name "Sofia" is pronounced by Bulgarians with a stress on the'i'. Sofia City Province has an area of 1344 km2. Sofia's development as a significant settlement owes much to its central position in the Balkans, it is situated in western Bulgaria, at the northern foot of the Vitosha mountain, in the Sofia Valley, surrounded by the Balkan mountains to the north. The valley has an average altitude of 550 metres. Unlike most European capitals, Sofia does not have any large rivers or bridges, but is surrounded by comparatively high mountains on all sides. Three mountain passes lead to the city, which have been key roads since antiquity, Vitosha being the watershed between Black and Aegean Seas.
A number of l
The European Parliament is the only parliamentary institution of the European Union, directly elected by EU citizens aged 18 or older. Together with the Council of the European Union, which should not be confused with the European Council and the Council of Europe, it exercises the legislative function of the EU; the Parliament is composed of 751 members, that will become 705 starting from the 2019–2024 legislature, who represent the second-largest democratic electorate in the world and the largest trans-national democratic electorate in the world. It has been directly elected by the European citizens every five years and by universal suffrage since 1979. However, voter turnout at European Parliament elections has fallen consecutively at each election since that date, has been under 50% since 1999. Voter turnout in 2014 stood at 42.54% of all European voters. Although the European Parliament has legislative power, as does the Council, it does not formally possess legislative initiative, as most national parliaments of European Union member states do.
The Parliament is the "first institution" of the EU, shares equal legislative and budgetary powers with the Council. It has equal control over the EU budget; the European Commission, the executive body of the EU, is accountable to Parliament. In particular, Parliament elects the President of the Commission, approves the appointment of the Commission as a whole, it can subsequently force the Commission as a body to resign by adopting a motion of censure. The President of the European Parliament is Antonio Tajani, elected in January 2017, he presides over a multi-party chamber, the two largest groups being the Group of the European People's Party and the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats. The last union-wide elections were the 2014 elections; the European Parliament has three places of work -- Luxembourg City and Strasbourg. Luxembourg City is home to the administrative offices. Meetings of the whole Parliament take place in Brussels. Committee meetings are held in Brussels; the Parliament, like the other institutions, was not designed in its current form when it first met on 10 September 1952.
One of the oldest common institutions, it began as the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community. It was a consultative assembly of 78 appointed parliamentarians drawn from the national parliaments of member states, having no legislative powers; the change since its foundation was highlighted by Professor David Farrell of the University of Manchester: "For much of its life, the European Parliament could have been justly labelled a'multi-lingual talking shop'."Its development since its foundation shows how the European Union's structures have evolved without a clear "master plan". Some, such as Tom Reid of the Washington Post, said of the union: "nobody would have deliberately designed a government as complex and as redundant as the EU"; the Parliament's two seats, which have switched several times, are a result of various agreements or lack of agreements. Although most MEPs would prefer to be based just in Brussels, at John Major's 1992 Edinburgh summit, France engineered a treaty amendment to maintain Parliament's plenary seat permanently at Strasbourg.
The body was not mentioned in the original Schuman Declaration. It was assumed or hoped that difficulties with the British would be resolved to allow the Council of Europe's Assembly to perform the task. A separate Assembly was introduced during negotiations on the Treaty as an institution which would counterbalance and monitor the executive while providing democratic legitimacy; the wording of the ECSC Treaty demonstrated the leaders' desire for more than a normal consultative assembly by using the term "representatives of the people" and allowed for direct election. Its early importance was highlighted when the Assembly was given the task of drawing up the draft treaty to establish a European Political Community. By this document, the Ad Hoc Assembly was established on 13 September 1952 with extra members, but after the failure of the proposed European Defence Community the project was dropped. Despite this, the European Economic Community and Euratom were established in 1958 by the Treaties of Rome.
The Common Assembly was shared by all three communities and it renamed itself the European Parliamentary Assembly. The first meeting was held on 19 March 1958 having been set up in Luxembourg City, it elected Schuman as its president and on 13 May it rearranged itself to sit according to political ideology rather than nationality; this is seen as the birth of the modern European Parliament, with Parliament's 50 years celebrations being held in March 2008 rather than 2002. The three communities merged their remaining organs as the European Communities in 1967, the body's name was changed to the current "European Parliament" in 1962. In 1970 the Parliament was granted power over areas of the Communities' budget, which were expanded to the whole budget in 1975. Under the Rome Treaties, the Parliament should have become elected. However, the Council was required to agree a uni
Green Party of Bulgaria
This article is about the authentic Bulgarian Green Party, the first established democratic party in Bulgaria. The Green Party is a centre-left political party, it was founded in 1989 in Sofia as the Green Party of Bulgaria. The initiator for the establishment of the party and its long-time chairman was Alexander Karakachanov. In 1997, at the 38th National Assembly, the Green Party ran "The law repealing the banking secrecy for people with bad credits", better known as "The law for the credit millionaires"; the uniqueness of this law is that it is the only document where are stated, black on white, the names of over three thousand individuals and legal entities who robbed the banking system. That's over one billion six hundred million dollars. Pressed by the law, part of the debtors returned to the state 547 billion non-dominated levs or 547 million in present value. There is no other party, like the Green Party. In July 2010, the Green Party through the national citizens' initiative, draft to the National Assembly "The law for restoring the swapped forests and lands".
Its goal is the reversal of these swaps at the seaside and mountain resorts, return the land and the forest area of over 70,000 hectares at cost about 6 billion levs to the state. All these lands were given for free to certain individuals; the ruling majority of GERB, in 41 National Assembly, in complete violation of the Constitution, did not allow to plenary meeting the proposed bill and thus protected the swaps. Not until September 2014, The European Commission has ordered Bulgaria to cancel part of the agreements for swaps of forest lands or reclaim the state aid provided to a number of companies. According to the Commission, there is a case of infringement of competition rules of the European Union; these are property swaps that took place in the period from January 2007 to January 2009. The Commission launched a thorough investigation on them in mid-2011 based on received complaints from the Green Party; the Commission concludes that the practice of swapping private forest estates with state-owned property at prices that are not updated and are not in line with the market situation is incompatible with EU rules on state aid.
The Green Party was established on December 28, 1989 by Alexander Karakachanov and activists of the largest dissident movement "Ecoglastnost" under the name of The Green Party in Bulgaria and recorded in court in 1990 under the new Law on Political Parties. Right after its formation, the Green party became a part of the Union of the Democratic forces in Bulgaria, a broad coalition of anti-totalitarian political parties and clubs. In the 7th Grand National Assembly the Green Party has 17 members of parliament and is represented by two MPs in the 38th ordinary National Assembly; the Green Party is the initiator and the submitter of the official proposal for the accession of Bulgaria into the European Union in the 7th Grand National Assembly. The Green Party laid foundations for the new legislation for protection of the environment at the beginning of the transition to democracy; the ideology of the party is based on the concept of sustainable development. The Green Party has initiated many environmental, anti-corruption and social initiatives - such as shale gas protests, protests against the GMOs, protests to protect Vitosha Mountain against building in the protected areas along the Black Sea coast such as Irakli and Karadere, many others.
The party is well known for its legislative initiatives to fight corruption, i.e. "The law for the credit millionaires", "The law for examining the assets of the officials", "The law for restoring the swapped forests and lands". Green Party stands at firm positions against Bulgaria's participation in military blocs and foreign military missions, it is a founding member of the European Green Party. Following the schism in the Congress of the Green Party in October 2000, a party faction has cleaved and established a new party under the name Party of the Greens. President of the new Party of the Greens is Hristo Portochanov, who promised to the mavericks, former members of the Green Party, great material and political benefits. In the first year, during the general elections in 2001, Portochanov lost interest and left the party. Now this party along with other green formations established exist only on paper and their only goal is to confuse the voters during elections; the Greens for example, who were founded in 2008, claim to be the "original" green party although they are the youngest green formation with ideology based on separating the green political space in Bulgaria.
They have written lots of denunciations for the genuine Green party of Bulgaria, sabotaged its website and Wikipedia page and publish falsehoods all over the media. This has reflected on the voters who have felt confused of so many green parties who do not work together; the Green Party has sent lots of letters and invites for collaboration but the replies were always no. A small party called Green Bulgaria merged into the Green Party in 2008 The Green Party was renamed to The Green Party - Bulgarian greens where Stoyan Dinkov was the chairman of the Political Council. President after the merger is Alexander Karakachanov and the vice-president is Trifon Grudev from the former "Green Bulgaria". Only a year it is clear that there are compelling fundamental differences and representatives of the former Green Bulgaria party leaved; the name has changed again to The Green Party. Since its establishment the party comes alone in elections but in coalition with left-wing and centre-left forces: 1989 - Founding member of the coalition UDF.
The Green Party has 17 MPs in the
In political and social sciences, communism is the philosophical, social and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes and the state. Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism and anarchism, as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; the two classes are the working class—who must work to survive and who make up the majority within society—and the capitalist class—a minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. The revolution will put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production, which according to this analysis is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism.
Critics of communism can be divided into those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century communist states and those concerning themselves with communist principles and theory. Marxism-Leninism and democratic socialism were the two dominant forms of socialism in the 20th century; the term "communism" was first coined and defined in its modern definition by the French philosopher and writer Victor d'Hupay. In his 1777 book Projet de communauté philosophe, d'Hupay pushes the philosophy of the Enlightenment to principles which he lived up to during most of his life in his bastide of Fuveau; this book can be seen as the cornerstone of communist philosophy as d'Hupay defines this lifestyle as a "commune" and advises to "share all economic and material products between inhabitants of the commune, so that all may benefit from everybody's work". According to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece; the 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, for criticizing the institution of private property and for striving to create an egalitarian society.
At one time or another, various small communist communities existed under the inspiration of Scripture. For example, in the medieval Christian Church some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. Communist thought has been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his treatise Utopia, More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a Puritan religious group known as the "Diggers" advocated the abolition of private ownership of land. In his 1895 Cromwell and Communism, Eduard Bernstein argued that several groups during the English Civil War espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals and that Oliver Cromwell's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and hostile. Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century through such thinkers as Jean Jacques Rousseau in France.
Following the upheaval of the French Revolution communism emerged as a political doctrine. In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. However, unlike many previous communist communities they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis. Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony in Indiana, as well as Charles Fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as Brook Farm. In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe; as the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the proletariat—a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were his associate Friedrich Engels. In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto; the 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks, the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position.
The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in which the Bolsheviks had a majority. The event generated a great deal of theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated; the moderate Mensheviks opposed Lenin's Bolshevik plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace and land" which tapp