Movement for Rights and Freedoms
The Movement for Rights and Freedoms is a centrist political party in Bulgaria. It is a member of the Liberal International and the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Party, is a liberal party, whose main goal are the interests of the Muslims Turks. However, its principal electorate are the Pomaks and the party relies on the biggest share of all the Romani voters 9 out of its 36 deputies are not of Muslim background. At the 2014 parliamentary elections, 3% of Bulgarian voters, 83% of Turkish voters and 44% of Romani voters voted for the movement, a record high share of Romani voters; the party won in Christian Romani villages and thus was alleged for trading with their vote. The party was established in 1990, but the official website of the party traces the roots of the foundation to 1983 when an illegal terrorist group Turkish National Freedom Movement was established, which committed over 50 fire-raisings, bomb attempts and murders on regular citizens until 1989 as a rebellion against the assimilation policies of Todor Zhivkov's communist regime.
After he had been set free out of the jail in 1989, Ahmed Dogan, a former member of the Bulgarian communist secret service, established the party. He headed it from its official establishment on 4 January 1990 until 19 January 2013, when a disgruntled Bulgarian Turk attacked him with a gas pistol. Ahmed Dogan has been recorded promoting changes of the international boundaries in accordance with the ethnic borders, clarifying that there are either peaceful and political means for this or military and aggressive; the ethnic or religious minority parties are not allowed according to Article 11, Paragraph 4 of the Constitution of Bulgaria, but the Constitutional Court denied to ban the party in 1992. On 19 January 2013, Lyutfi Mestan was elected as the second chairman of the Movement for Rights and Freedoms. Mestan was removed from power by the insistence of the founder Dogan because he had declared support for Turkey for the shot Russian airplane Erdoğan blacklisted Ahmed Dogan banning him from entering Turkey.
Mestan formed his own party, named Democrats for Responsibility and Tolerance. Starting in 1990 as the first political party of the Muslim minority participating in the parliamentary elections, in the first elections in 1990 after the end of the communist regime, which the Muslims had boycotted, the party won 6.0% of the popular vote and 24 out of 400 seats and became the fourth largest party in the parliament. In the parliamentary elections in 1991 it won 7.6% of the vote and remained with 24 seats in а 240-seater parliament. In the elections in 1994 it won 5.4% of the vote and its seats decreased to 15. In the elections in 1997 it won 19 out of 240 seats. From 2001 to 2009, the party was part of the government, first in a coalition with the National Movement Simeon II party and with the Bulgarian Socialist Party; the party had ministers in the Sakskoburggotski Government, Stanishev Government and Oresharski Government. It won in the elections in 21 out of 240 seats. Subsequently, for the first time the party joined a coalition government, led by the winner of the elections.
Under the control of the party were two out of the 17 Bulgarian ministries – the Ministry of Agriculture and Forests and the Minister without portfolio, the other 15 remained under the control of senior coalition partner NDSV. At the 2005 elections it increased to 12.8% of vote and 34 out of 240 seats and was kept in power as a part of the coalition led by the Bulgarian Socialist Party and National Movement Simeon II party. The ministries under the control of the Movement of Rights and Freedoms increased to three out of 18. At the 2009 elections it increased to 37 out of 240 seats. Following the election, the government was occupied by the decisive winner, the Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria party and the Movement for Rights and Freedoms was еxcluded from the government and remained in opposition after having been part of coalition governments for the two consecutive preceding terms between 2001 and 2009. At the 2009 European Parliament elections the party won 14.1% of the vote and three MEPs out of Bulgaria's total representation of 18.
Two of the MEPs are ethnic Turks and one is ethnic Bulgarian. In the Bulgarian parliamentary election in 2013, the Movement for Rights and Freedoms decreased to 11.3% of the vote. The DPS won the elections abroad with 41.3% and the most polling stations and voters in a foreign country were in Turkey. The DPS won four MEPs in the 2014 European Parliament elections. On 8 October 1991, ninety-three members of Bulgaria's National Assembly — all of them affiliated with the former Communist Party — asked the constitutional court to declare the DPS unconstitutional citing article 11.4 of the constitution which explicitly bans political parties "formed on ethnic and religious basis". On 21 April 1992, the court rejected the petition and affirmed the constitutionality of the DPS. Though the DPS has been a part of Bulgarian political life since some Bulgarian nationalists the far-right National Union Attack, continue to assert that it is anti-constitutional because it consists of ethnic Turks. However, the statute of the DPS states quite that it "is an independent public and political organization, founded with the purpose of contributing to the
National Assembly (Bulgaria)
The National Assembly is the unicameral parliament and legislative body of the Republic of Bulgaria. The National Assembly was established in 1879 with the Tarnovo Constitution; the National Assembly consists of 240 members elected for a four-year term elected by proportional representation in multi-seat constituencies. Political parties must garner a minimum of 4 % of the national vote. Bulgaria has a multi-party system; the Assembly is responsible for enactment of laws, approval of the budget, scheduling of presidential elections and dismissal of the Prime Minister and other ministers, declaration of war, concluding peace and deployment of troops outside Bulgaria, ratification of international treaties and agreements. It presided by the Chairperson of the National Assembly of Bulgaria; the Assembly administers the publication of Bulgaria's gazette of record. By the Constitution, the National Assembly is inaugurated by the eldest elected member of Parliament. On the first day of sitting, he or she presides over the election of two deputies.
Once elected, the Speakers retain their party allegiances, which means that they remain as MPs and are allowed to take part in debates and voting. 121 MPs must be present in order for any session to commence, 50%+1 of those present must vote "for" any point of order or bill to be approved. Ministers may be chosen from among the MPs or they may be experts outside Parliament. All MPs picked to be Cabinet ministers lose their MP status, other members from their party are called up to Parliament to fill the seats they vacate. Parliament sits Wednesday to Friday, sessions begin at 9 am. Parliamentary committees sit in the afternoons; the Chamber is made up of all facing the 5-seat speaker's bench in a 26 x 11 arrangement. In front of the Speaker facing the chamber, is the pulpit, in front of, the stenographers' desk. Parties sit in parliamentary groups, loosely following the rule that the political left sit to the Speaker's left and the political right to his right; the largest parties choose the left, right or centre wings of the chamber, with smaller blocks accommodating themselves wherever convenient.
Individual MPs will sometimes sit outside their block or stand, since compulsory electronic registration was implemented, may vote from any seat in the house. To the speaker's right facing the chamber, is a section with 17 seats reserved for the Cabinet, any of whom may or may not be present at any time during a parliamentary session. Any of them may, however, be called up by Parliament at any time. In addition to the ordinary National Assembly, a Grand National Assembly may be convened in order for matters of special jurisdiction, such as: 1) Adoption of a new Constitution. Before the World War II the Grand National Assembly was competent in electing the Regency of the Bulgarian Kingdom if the tzar had not come to age; the First and the Third Grand National Assemblies elected the first two Bulgarian monarchs after the liberation from Ottoman rule – Prince Alexander Battenberg and Prince Ferdinand Saxe Coburg-Gotha. As an organ, the Grand National Assembly was introduced with the Tarnovo Constitution of 1879, abolished in 1947 and reintroduced with the 1991 constitution.
In different constitutional provisions, it was constituted by a different number of representatives. According to the 1991 Constitution, it consists of 400 deputies; the 1991 Constitution was adopted by the Seventh Grand National Assembly and was composed of 200 members being elected by proportional representation and the other 200 under a first-past-the-post voting system. The Constitution provides that the elections for Grand National Assembly shall be conducted in the same manner as those for the Ordinary National Assembly. A qualified majority of 2/3 during three voting procedures on separate dates is required for a decision to be made; the Grand National Assembly can serve as an ordinary National Assembly, taking care of regular legislative activities, in urgent cases only. After it has concluded its work on the matter for which it was elected, the Grand National Assembly is dissolved ex lege and the President of the Republic shall appoint elections for an ordinary National Assembly. A total of seven Grand National Assemblies have been in operation in Bulgaria, the last one from 10 July 1990 to 12 July 1991 adopting the current constitution.
The National Assembly's main building has been proclaimed a monument of culture for its historic significance. Situated in downtown Sofia, it was designed in Neo-Renaissance style by Konstantin Jovanović. Due to insufficient space in the main building at Parliament Square, some administrative offices of the National Assembly are now housed by the former headquarters of the Bulgarian Communist Party, located at the Largo. There has been a proposal that the entire National Assembly be permanently moved to the old Party house building, with its inner courtyard being converted into an interior space for the plenary chamber. Politics of Bulgaria List of legislatures by country Народно събрание на Република България/ National Assembly of the Republic of Bulgaria, official website Bulgaria The National Assembly Historical photographs of the National Assembly
Rumen Georgiev Radev is a Bulgarian politician and former Major General, the current President of Bulgaria since January 22, 2017. Radev served as Commander of the Bulgarian Air Force, he won the 2016 presidential election, as an independent candidate supported by the Bulgarian Socialist Party, defeating GERB candidate Tsetska Tsacheva in the second round. Radev was born on June 1963 in Dimitrovgrad, Bulgaria, his family is from Slavyanovo in the Haskovo region. In 1982 he graduated from the Mathematical School in Haskovo with a gold medal, he graduated from the Georgi Benkovski Bulgarian Air Force University in 1987 as the top graduate. In 1992, he graduated from the US Air Force Squadron Officer School at Maxwell AFB. From 1994 to 1996, he studied at the Rakovski Defence and Staff College, where he was the top graduate, he holds a Doctor of Military Sciences degree in the field of improvement of tactical training of flight crews and simulation of air combat. In 2003 he graduated from Air War College at Maxwell AFB in the United States with a Master of Strategic Studies with honors.
1987 – 1989: Junior pilot in the 15th Fighter Aviation Regiment – Ravnets 1989 – 1992: Unit deputy commander at the 15th Fighter Aviation Regiment – Ravnets 1992 – 1997: Unit commander at the 15th Fighter Aviation Regiment – Ravnets 1997 – 1999: MiG-29 squadron commander at the Fifth Fighter Airbase – Ravnets 1999 – 2000: Deputy commander for flight preparation at the Fifth Fighter Airbase – Ravnets 2000: Deputy commander for flight training at the Third Fighter Airbase – Graf Ignatievo 2000 – Study of the Air defence of the Republic of Bulgaria – NATO, Brussels 2000 – 2002: Chief of Staff of the Third Fighter Airbase – Graf Ignatievo 2002 – 2004: Chief of Staff of the Third Fighter Airbase – Graf Ignatievo 2004 – 2009: Commander of the Third Fighter Airbase – Graf Ignatievo 2009 – 2014: Bulgarian Air Force deputy commander 2014 – 2017: Bulgarian Air Force commander Pilot 1st class. Flight experience of L-29, L-39 trainers and MiG-15UTI, MiG-17, MiG-21, MiG-29 fighter jets. Familiarization flights of the F-15, F-16, F/A-18 Hornet, Eurofighter Typhoon, SAAB Gripen, Dassault Rafale.
Flown over 1400 hours. In 2014, he organized aviation show "This we are!" and performed the "Bell" and "Pugachev's Cobra" manoeuvres on a MiG-29. 1987 – Lieutenant 1989 – Senior Lieutenant 1994 – Captain 1997 – Major 1999 – Lieutenant Colonel 2002 – Colonel 2007 – Brigadier General 2014 – Major General 2017 – General Rumen Radev was awarded numerous medals and prizes, including the sign "For loyal service under the flags" – III degree, Honorary sign of the Ministry of Defence "Saint George" – II degree. Bulgaria: Grand Master of the Order of Stara Planina Bulgaria: Grand Master of the Order of Saints Cyril and Methodius Bulgaria: Grand Master of the Order of Civil Merit Bulgaria: Grand Master of the Order of Military Merit Bulgaria: Grand Master of the Order of the Madara Horseman Greece: Grand cross of the Order of the Redeemer Malta: Companions of Honour of the National Order of Merit Portugal: Grand Cross of the Order of Aviz In August 2016, the opposition Bulgarian Socialist Party and the Alternative for Bulgarian Revival nominated Radev as a candidate for the November 2016 presidential election.
In the same month, ABR withdrew its presidential nomination of General Radev in favour of Ivaylo Kalfin. On the first round of the election, conducted on November 6, 2016, Radev came first with 25.44% of the vote. He faced GERB candidate Tsetska Tsacheva in the runoff the following Sunday, November 13, he defeated her. On 24 January 2018, Radev condemned the Turkish invasion of northern Syria aimed at ousting U. S.-backed Syrian Kurds from the enclave of Afrin, insisted that the European Union should intervene to stop it. Radev has two children from his first marriage to Ginka Radeva, which ended in a divorce in 2014: a daughter Darina, born in 2001 and a son Georgi, born in 2003, he married Desislava Gencheva, married to the BSP MP Georgi Svilenski. Apart from Bulgarian, Radev is fluent in Russian and English. Media related to Rumen Radev at Wikimedia Commons
2017 Bulgarian parliamentary election
Parliamentary elections were held in Bulgaria on 26 March 2017. They had been scheduled for 2018 at the end of the four-year term of the National Assembly. However, following the resignation of Prime Minister Boyko Borisov and the failure of Bulgarian parties to form a government, early elections were called. Borisov resigned following the defeat of Tsetska Tsacheva, the candidate of his GERB party, in the November 2016 presidential elections; the official election campaign began on 24 February. GERB won a plurality, with 95 of the 240 seats. Borisov was elected Prime Minister again after negotiating a governing coalition. During the 2016 presidential election campaign, Borisov promised to resign if his party's candidate, Chairperson of the National Assembly Tsetska Tsacheva, lost the election. On 6 November 2016 Tsacheva finished second in the first round to BSP-backed Major General Rumen Radev, receiving only 22% of the popular vote compared to Radev's 25.4%. Following the result, Borisov reiterated his promise to resign if his party's candidate lost the runoff election a week later.
On November 13, 2016, she finished a distant second with only 36.2% of the popular vote compared to Radev's 59.4%. Borisov, staying true to his campaign promise, subsequently resigned on 14 November. Two days the National Assembly voted 218–0 to accept it; the 240 members of the National Assembly are elected by closed list proportional representation from 31 multi-member constituencies ranging in size from 4 to 16 seats. The electoral threshold is 4%. Bulgarians abroad were able to vote in 371 voting sections in territories; some territories were excluded from this provision due to either security concerns or that few resident Bulgarian nationals resident in the country had submitted requests to be enabled to vote. The deadline for political parties to register for the election was 8 February 2017. Despite holding 15 seats in the Assembly, Reload Bulgaria chose not to compete in the election after being refused a name change, among other reasons; the list of registered parties is below. Percentages do not account for undecided voters.'Date' column signifies the last date of the survey in question, not the date of publication.
^ Combined result of the Patriotic Front and Attack. Five parties met the 4% threshold required to gain seats. GERB maintained their position as the largest party. Boyko Borisov appeared set to resume his tenure as Prime Minister with a coalition with the United Patriots, formed the Third Borisov Government with the United Patriots
President of Bulgaria
The President of the Republic of Bulgaria is the head of state of Bulgaria and the commander-in-chief of the Military of Bulgaria. The official residence of the President is at Sofia. After the completion of the second round of voting, candidate Rumen Radev was elected President of Bulgaria on 13 November 2016. 1. Vice President of Bulgaria 2. Chairman of the National Assembly There are three living former Bulgarian Presidents: Government of Bulgaria History of Bulgaria Politics of Bulgaria List of heads of state of Bulgaria List of Presidents of Bulgaria List of Bulgarian monarchs Prime Minister of Bulgaria List of Prime Ministers of Bulgaria Media related to Category:Presidents of Bulgaria at Wikimedia Commons President of the Republic of Bulgaria
Prime Minister of Bulgaria
The Prime Minister of Bulgaria is the head of government of Bulgaria. He or she is the leader of a political coalition in the Bulgarian parliament – known as the National Assembly of Bulgaria – and the leader of the cabinet; the current Prime Minister is Boyko Borisov. Government of Bulgaria History of Bulgaria Politics of Bulgaria List of Bulgarian monarchs List of heads of state of Bulgaria List of Presidents of Bulgaria
Vice President of Bulgaria
The Vice President of the Republic of Bulgaria is a position, established by the Constitution of Bulgaria, the only vice presidential office in the European Union. The vice president is elected in a popular vote, along with the president. Candidates for president and vice president run on their party ticket and are prohibited from serving in any other post upon election. According to the constitution the vice president shall be principal assistant to the president in his/her official duties. In the 1971–1990 period, the Chairmen of the State Council — Todor Zhivkov and Petar Mladenov — were the heads of state of Bulgaria; the First Deputy Chairmen of the State Council were deputy heads of state. The State Council was abolished on April 3, 1990. Below is a list of First Deputy Chairmen of the State Council and Vice-Presidents of the Republic of Bulgaria: Deputy Chairmen of State Council of People's Republic of Bulgaria The following vice presidents were elected by the parliament; the following vice-presidents were elected by the people.
History of Bulgaria Politics of Bulgaria List of First Deputy Chairmen of the State Council of Bulgaria List of heads of state of Bulgaria List of current Vice Presidents List of vice heads of state of Bulgaria by longevity