The National (Abu Dhabi)
The National is a private English-language daily newspaper published in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. In November 2016, International Media Investments announced the acquisition of The National from Abu Dhabi Media and The National was relaunched on 1 July 2017, under the editorship of Mina Al-Oraibi; the National was first published on 17 April 2008 by Abu Dhabi Media. The government-owned media company ran the newspaper along with other publications, including Aletihad, Zahrat Al Khaleej and National Geographic Al Arabiya. In 2016, The National was acquired by International Media Investments, a subsidiary of the Abu Dhabi Media Investment Corporation, a private investment company owned by Mansour bin Zayed Al Nahyan, part-owner of Sky News Arabia; the National has had three previous editors-in-chief: Mohammed Al Otaiba served from February 2014 to October 2016. With its pledge to emulate Western newspaper standards and to "help society evolve", The National claims to be an anomaly in the Middle East, where most media are controlled by the government.
Before The National moved to private ownership there were several high-level resignations across the editorial team regarding spiked stories and the newspaper's impotency when covering stories on Abu Dhabi. However, a major goal in establishing the paper was to have respect from the international community on the part of the government. During the initial launch The National built its staff levels up to 200, recruiting from newspapers around the world, including the Wall Street Journal, the New York Times and The Daily Telegraph of Britain. Martin Newland was editor of the Daily Telegraph from 2003 to 2005, he took with him many former Telegraph employees, most notably Colin Randall, Sue Ryan and senior photographer Stephen Lock; the 2008 circulation of the paper was 60.000 copies. The paper is a single selection organised into five daily sections and a Weekend edition which comes out every Friday, it covers local and international news, sports and life, travel and motoring. In addition, The National publishes two magazines: Ultratravel and Luxury The target group of the paper can be described as 25+, affluent and about, business leaders, decision makers and key influencers.
In a 2012 article in the American Journalism Review, former foreign desk editor Tom O'Hara contended that coverage was skewed to favor the agenda of the government of the United Arab Emirates. He said that the newspaper had a "meticulous censorship process" that directly influenced coverage and word usage in the newspaper, such as prohibiting use of the term "Persian Gulf", he said that the newspaper engaged in self-censorship, suppressing coverage of subjects deemed as casting an unfavorable light on the UAE royal family. He said that, among other things, coverage of the Libyan uprising was suppressed, as were articles about Wikileaks and gay rights; the New Republic reported in February 2013 that The National had failed to live up to high expectations, raised when it was established. The magazine said that the newsroom has had a series of crises during the preceding five years, that "tensions over the management and direction of the paper have been simmering behind the scenes, with leadership changes, budget cuts and allegations of rampant self-censorship conspiring to trigger a series of defections that have depleted the paper of much of its marquee talent".
The article described examples of rampant self-censorship, said the newspaper's story was "a cautionary tale about pursuing journalism in a censored society". Today's The National front page at the Newseum website
Bulgaria the Republic of Bulgaria, is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north and North Macedonia to the west and Turkey to the south, the Black Sea to the east; the capital and largest city is Sofia. With a territory of 110,994 square kilometres, Bulgaria is Europe's 16th-largest country. One of the earliest societies in the lands of modern-day Bulgaria was the Neolithic Karanovo culture, which dates back to 6,500 BC. In the 6th to 3rd century BC the region was a battleground for Thracians, Persians and ancient Macedonians; the Eastern Roman, or Byzantine, Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century. The Bulgars founded the First Bulgarian Empire in AD 681, which dominated most of the Balkans and influenced Slavic cultures by developing the Cyrillic script; this state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire, which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II.
After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries. The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 resulted in the formation of the current Third Bulgarian State. Many ethnic Bulgarian populations were left outside its borders, which led to several conflicts with its neighbours and an alliance with Germany in both world wars. In 1946 Bulgaria became part of the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc; the ruling Communist Party gave up its monopoly on power after the revolutions of 1989 and allowed multi-party elections. Bulgaria transitioned into a democracy and a market-based economy. Since adopting a democratic constitution in 1991, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political and economic centralisation; the population of seven million lives in Sofia and the capital cities of the 27 provinces, the country has suffered significant demographic decline since the late 1980s.
Bulgaria is a member of the European Union, NATO, the Council of Europe. Its market economy is part of the European Single Market and relies on services, followed by industry—especially machine building and mining—and agriculture. Widespread corruption is a major socioeconomic issue; the name Bulgaria is derived from a tribe of Turkic origin that founded the country. Their name is not understood and difficult to trace back earlier than the 4th century AD, but it is derived from the Proto-Turkic word bulģha and its derivative bulgak; the meaning may be further extended to "rebel", "incite" or "produce a state of disorder", i.e. the "disturbers". Ethnic groups in Inner Asia with phonologically similar names were described in similar terms: during the 4th century, the Buluoji, a component of the "Five Barbarian" groups in Ancient China, were portrayed as both a "mixed race" and "troublemakers". Neanderthal remains dating to around 150,000 years ago, or the Middle Paleolithic, are some of the earliest traces of human activity in the lands of modern Bulgaria.
The Karanovo culture arose circa 6,500 BC and was one of several Neolithic societies in the region that thrived on agriculture. The Copper Age Varna culture is credited with inventing gold metallurgy; the associated Varna Necropolis treasure contains the oldest golden jewellery in the world with an approximate age of over 6,000 years. The treasure has been valuable for understanding social hierarchy and stratification in the earliest European societies; the Thracians, one of the three primary ancestral groups of modern Bulgarians, appeared on the Balkan Peninsula some time before the 12th century BC. The Thracians excelled in metallurgy and gave the Greeks the Orphean and Dionysian cults, but remained tribal and stateless; the Persian Achaemenid Empire conquered most of present-day Bulgaria in the 6th century BC and retained control over the region until 479 BC. The invasion became a catalyst for Thracian unity, the bulk of their tribes united under king Teres to form the Odrysian kingdom in the 470s BC.
It was weakened and vassalized by Philip II of Macedon in 341 BC, attacked by Celts in the 3rd century, became a province of the Roman Empire in AD 45. By the end of the 1st century AD, Roman governance was established over the entire Balkan Peninsula and Christianity began spreading in the region around the 4th century; the Gothic Bible—the first Germanic language book—was created by Gothic bishop Ulfilas in what is today northern Bulgaria around 381. The region came under Byzantine control after the fall of Rome in 476; the Byzantines were engaged in prolonged warfare against Persia and could not defend their Balkan territories from barbarian incursions. This enabled the Slavs to enter the Balkan Peninsula as marauders through an area between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains known as Moesia; the interior of the peninsula became a country of the South Slavs, who lived under a democracy. The Slavs assimilated the Hellenized and Gothicized Thracians in the rural areas. Not l
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Tobacco is a product prepared from the leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them. The plant is part of the genus Nicotiana and of the Solanaceae family. While more than 70 species of tobacco are known, the chief commercial crop is N. tabacum. The more potent variant N. rustica is used around the world. Tobacco contains the alkaloid nicotine, a stimulant, harmala alkaloids. Dried tobacco leaves are used for smoking in cigarettes, pipe tobacco, flavored shisha tobacco, they can be consumed as snuff, chewing tobacco, dipping tobacco and snus. Tobacco use is a risk factor for many diseases. In 2008, the World Health Organization named tobacco as the world's single greatest preventable cause of death; the English word "tobacco" originates from the Spanish and Portuguese word "tabaco". The precise origin of this word is disputed, but it is thought to have derived at least in part, from Taino, the Arawakan language of the Caribbean. In Taino, it was said to mean either a roll of tobacco leaves or to tabago, a kind of L-shaped pipe used for sniffing tobacco smoke.
However coincidentally, similar words in Spanish and Italian were used from 1410 to define medicinal herbs believed to have originated from the Arabic طُبّاق ṭubbāq, a word dating to the 9th century, as a name for various herbs. Tobacco has long been used in the Americas, with some cultivation sites in Mexico dating back to 1400–1000 BC. Many Native American tribes have traditionally used tobacco. Eastern North American tribes carried tobacco in pouches as a accepted trade item, as well as smoking it, both and ceremonially, such as to seal a peace treaty or trade agreement. In some populations, tobacco is seen as a gift from the Creator, with the ceremonial tobacco smoke carrying one's thoughts and prayers to the Creator. Following the arrival of the Europeans to the Americas, tobacco became popular as a trade item. Hernández de Boncalo, Spanish chronicler of the Indies, was the first European to bring tobacco seeds to the Old World in 1559 following orders of King Philip II of Spain; these seeds were planted in the outskirts of Toledo, more in an area known as "Los Cigarrales" named after the continuous plagues of cicadas.
Before the development of the lighter Virginia and white burley strains of tobacco, the smoke was too harsh to be inhaled. Small quantities were smoked at a time, using a pipe like the midwakh or kiseru or smoking newly invented waterpipes such as the bong or the hookah. Tobacco became so popular that the English colony of Jamestown used it as currency and began exporting it as a cash crop; the alleged benefits of tobacco account for its considerable success. The astronomer Thomas Harriot, who accompanied Sir Richard Grenville on his 1585 expedition to Roanoke Island, explains that the plant "openeth all the pores and passages of the body" so that the natives’ "bodies are notably preserved in health, know not many grievous diseases, wherewithal we in England are times afflicted." Tobacco smoking and snuffing became a major industry in Europe and its colonies by 1700. Tobacco has been a major cash crop in Cuba and in other parts of the Caribbean since the 18th century. Cuban cigars are world-famous.
In the late 19th century, cigarettes became popular. James Bonsack created a machine that automated cigarette production; this increase in production allowed tremendous growth in the tobacco industry until the health revelations of the late-20th century. Following the scientific revelations of the mid-20th century, tobacco became condemned as a health hazard, became encompassed as a cause for cancer, as well as other respiratory and circulatory diseases. In the United States, this led to the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, which settled the lawsuit in exchange for a combination of yearly payments to the states and voluntary restrictions on advertising and marketing of tobacco products. In the 1970s, Brown & Williamson cross-bred a strain of tobacco to produce Y1; this strain of tobacco contained an unusually high amount of nicotine, nearly doubling its content from 3.2-3.5% to 6.5%. In the 1990s, this prompted the Food and Drug Administration to use this strain as evidence that tobacco companies were intentionally manipulating the nicotine content of cigarettes.
In 2003, in response to growth of tobacco use in developing countries, the World Health Organization rallied 168 countries to sign the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. The convention is designed to push for effective legislation and its enforcement in all countries to reduce the harmful effects of tobacco; this led to the development of tobacco cessation products. Many species of tobacco are in the genus of herbs Nicotiana, it is part of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America, south west Africa, the South Pacific. Most nightshades contain varying amounts of a powerful neurotoxin to insects. However, tobaccos tend to contain a much higher concentration of nicotine than the others. Unlike many other Solanaceae species, they do not contain tropane alkaloids, which are poisonous to humans and other animals. Despite containing enough nicotine and other compounds such as germacrene and anabasine and other piperidine alkaloids to deter most herbivores, a number of such animals have evolved
The tobacco industry comprises those persons and companies engaged in the growth, preparation for sale, shipment and distribution of tobacco and tobacco-related products. It is a global industry. Tobacco, one of the most used addictive substances in the world, is a plant native to the Americas and one of the half-dozen most important crops grown by American farmers. More tobacco refers to any of various plants of the genus Nicotiana native to tropical America and cultivated for their leaves, which are dried and processed chiefly for smoking in pipes and cigars. From 1617 to 1793 tobacco was the most valuable staple export from the English American mainland colonies and the United States; until the 1960s, the United States not only grew but manufactured and exported more tobacco than any other country. Tobacco is an agricultural commodity product, similar in economic terms to agricultural foodstuffs: the price is in part determined by crop yields, which vary depending on local weather conditions.
The price varies by specific species or cultivar grown, the total quantity on the market ready for sale, the area where it is grown, the health of the plants, other characteristics individual to product quality. Since 1964 conclusive medical evidence of the deadly effects of tobacco consumption has led to a sharp decline in official support for producers and manufacturers of tobacco, although it contributes to the agricultural, fiscal and exporting sectors of the economy. Laws around the world now have some restrictions on smoking, but 6 trillion cigarettes are still produced each year, representing over a 12% increase since the year 2000. China accounts for over 40% of current world production. Tobacco is heavily taxed to gain revenues for governments and as an incentive for people not to smoke. For a history of how tobacco has been grown and marketed, see tobacco and articles on similar topics; the phrase "tobacco industry" refers to the companies involved in the manufacture of cigarettes, snuff, chewing tobacco and pipe tobacco.
China National Tobacco Co. has become the largest tobacco company in the world by volume. Following extensive merger and acquisition activity in the 1990s and 2000s, four firms dominate international markets - in alphabetical order: Altria Philip Morris Cos. British American Tobacco Imperial Tobacco Japan Tobacco Altria called the Philip Morris Cos. still owns the Philip Morris tobacco business in the United States, but Philip Morris International has been independent since 2008. In most countries these companies either have long-established dominance, or have purchased the major domestic producer or producers; until 2014 the United States had one other substantial independent firm, which Reynolds American, Inc. acquired. India has ITC Limited. A small number of state monopolies survive, as well as some small independent firms. Tobacco advertising is becoming restricted by the governments of countries around the world citing health issues as a reason to restrict tobaccos appeal The tobacco industry in the United States has suffered since the mid-1990s, when it was sued by several U.
S. states. The suits claimed that tobacco causes cancer, that companies in the industry knew this, that they deliberately understated the significance of their findings, contributing to the illness and death of many citizens in those states; the industry was found to have decades of internal memos confirming in detail that tobacco is both addictive and carcinogenic. The industry had long denied; the suit resulted in a large cash settlement being paid by a group of tobacco companies to the states that sued. Further, since the suit was settled, other individuals have come forth, in class action lawsuits, claiming individual damages. New suits of this nature will continue for a long time. Since the settlement is a heavy tax on the profits of the tobacco industry in the US, regressive against smokers, further settlements being made only add to the financial burden of these companies, it is debatable if the industry has a money-producing long term outlook; the tobacco industry has been successful in this litigation process, with the majority of cases being won by the industry.
During the first 42 years of tobacco litigation the industry maintained a clean record in litigation thanks to tactics described in a R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company internal memo as "the way we won these cases, to paraphrase Gen. Patton, is not by spending all of Reynolds' money, but by making the other son of a bitch spend all of his." Between 1995 and 2005 only 59% of cases were won by the tobacco industry either outright or on appeal in the US, but the continued success of the industry's efforts to win these cases is questionable. In Florida, the industry has lost 77 of the 116 "Engle progeny" cases; the U. S. Supreme Court has denied the industry's major grounds for appeal of Engle cases. In June 2009, U. S. President Barack Obama signed into law the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, called a "sweeping anti-smoking" bill. Among other restrictions, this Act banned the use of any constituent, herb or spice that adds a "characterizing
A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders. Each shareholder owns company stock in proportion, evidenced by their shares. Shareholders are able to transfer their shares to others without any effects to the continued existence of the company. In modern-day corporate law, the existence of a joint-stock company is synonymous with incorporation and limited liability. Therefore, joint-stock companies are known as corporations or limited companies; some jurisdictions still provide the possibility of registering joint-stock companies without limited liability. In the United Kingdom and other countries that have adopted its model of company law, they are known as unlimited companies. In the United States, they are known as joint-stock companies. Ownership refers to a large number of privileges; the company is managed on behalf of the shareholders by a board of directors, elected at an annual general meeting. The shareholders vote to accept or reject an annual report and audited set of accounts.
Individual shareholders can sometimes stand for directorships within the company if a vacancy occurs, but, uncommon. The shareholders are liable for any of the company debts that extend beyond the company's ability to pay up to the amount of them. Finding the earliest joint-stock company is a matter of definition; the earliest records of joint stock company can be found in China during the Song Dynasty. Around 1250 in France at Toulouse, 96 shares of the Société des Moulins du Bazacle, or Bazacle Milling Company were traded at a value that depended on the profitability of the mills the society owned, making it the first company of its kind in history; the Swedish company Stora has documented a stock transfer for an eighth of the company as early as 1288. In more recent history, the earliest joint-stock company recognized in England was the Company of Merchant Adventurers to New Lands, chartered in 1553 with 250 shareholders. Muscovy Company, which had a monopoly on trade between Moscow and London, was chartered soon after in 1555.
The much more famous and powerful English East India Company was granted an English Royal Charter by Elizabeth I on December 31, 1600, with the intention of favouring trade privileges in India. The Royal Charter gave the newly created Honourable East India Company a 15-year monopoly on all trade in the East Indies; the Company transformed from a commercial trading venture to one that ruled India and exploited its resources, as it acquired auxiliary governmental and military functions, until its dissolution. Soon afterwards, in 1602, the Dutch East India Company issued shares that were made tradable on the Amsterdam Stock Exchange; that invention enhanced the ability of joint-stock companies to attract capital from investors, as they could now dispose their shares. In 1612, it became the first'corporation' in intercontinental trade with'locked in' capital and limited liability. During the period of colonialism, Europeans the British, trading with the Near East for goods and calico for example, enjoyed spreading the risk of trade over multiple sea voyages.
The joint-stock company became a more viable financial structure than previous guilds or state-regulated companies. The first joint-stock companies to be implemented in the Americas were The London Company and The Plymouth Company. Transferable shares earned positive returns on equity, evidenced by investment in companies like the British East India Company, which used the financing model to manage trade in India. Joint-stock companies paid out divisions to their shareholders by dividing up the profits of the voyage in the proportion of shares held. Divisions were cash, but when working capital was low and detrimental to the survival of the company, divisions were either postponed or paid out in remaining cargo, which could be sold by shareholders for profit. However, in general, incorporation was possible by royal charter or private act, it was limited because of the government's jealous protection of the privileges and advantages thereby granted; as a result of the rapid expansion of capital-intensive enterprises in the course of the Industrial Revolution in Britain, many businesses came to be operated as unincorporated associations or extended partnerships, with large numbers of members.
Membership of such associations was for a short term so their nature was changing. Registration and incorporation of companies, without specific legislation, was introduced by the Joint Stock Companies Act 1844. Companies incorporated under this Act did not have limited liability, but it became common for companies to include a limited liability clause in their internal rules. In the case of Hallett v Dowdall, the English Court of the Exchequer held that such clauses bound people who have notice of them. Four years the Joint Stock Companies Act 1856 provided for limited liability for all joint-stock companies provided, among other things, that they included the word "limited" in their company name; the landmark case of Salomon v A Salomon & Co Ltd established that a company with legal liability, not being a partnership, had a distinct legal personality, separate from that of its individual shareholders. The existence of a corporation requires a special legal framework and body of law that grants the corporation legal personality, it ty
Hristo Ivanov (politician)
Hristo Lyubomirov Ivanov is a Bulgarian politician and lawyer, who served as Minister of Justice in the Second Borisov Cabinet before resigning on December 9, 2015. He served as deputy prime minister and justice minister in the transitional government of Georgi Bliznashki between August 6 and November 7, 2014. In early 2017 he founded the Yes, Bulgaria! Political party whose priorities include institutional reforms and fight against corruption. Ivanov has a Master of Laws degree from the University of Sofia, he has specialized in US National Security Law and Judicial Appointments Procedures at the American University's Washington College of Law through the Fulbright/Hubert Humphrey Fellowship Program. Between 1996 and 2002, he worked as a coordinator of legal and justice reform projects under the Initiative for Rule of Law at the American Bar Association. Between 2002 and 2006, he worked as an independent consultant for various international institutions and private clients on projects related to the evaluation of legislations and imposing the rule of law.
Between 2006 and 2014, Ivanov was Program Director at the Bulgarian Institute for Legal Initiatives, where he led projects related to the judicial reform, the prevention of corruption and imposing the rule of law. He was registered as a lawyer in 2002, but because of unpaid bar association fees he lost his license to practice law In December 2016, Ivanov announced his intention to create a new political party called "Yes, Bulgaria!" under the slogan "Let's get political!". In a bid to promote the new political entity, he initiated a series of meetings entitled "Is there a Bulgarian dream? Talks about Bulgaria". Hristo Ivanov was appointed Deputy Prime Minister for justice, internal affairs and security, as well as Justice Minister in the transitional government of Georgi Bliznashki. After the transitional cabinet's term expired, Ivanov was appointed as Justice Minister in the Second Borisov Cabinet on November 8, 2014, he resigned on December 9, 2015 after disagreements with Boyko Borisov over Ivanov's proposed justice reform plan.
Ivanov was worried about the excessive powers of Bulgaria's prosecution. Following his resignation from Borisov's government, Ivanov remained committed to the rule of law and continued to argue for reform in Bulgaria's Prosecution, his opinion was shared by the Venice Commission whose President emphasized that “The Soviet model of prosecution must be decisively turned down. It turns it into a source of corruption and blackmail and creates opportunities for its use for political aims.” In 2017, Ivanov argued that Bulgaria's Prosecutor General Sotir Tsatsarov should resign "without any doubt." Indeed, Tsatsarov was nominated for sanctions under the Magnitsky Act which allows the US Government to sanction foreign government officials who violate human rights to hide corruption. Ivanov has expressed discontent that all recent reports by the Turkish Anti-Smuggling and Organized Crime Department refer to cigarette smuggling by the Bulgarian company Bulgartabac, but the Bulgarian prosecution refuses to investigate.
Hristo Ivanov has two sons. He maintains an active Facebook page