Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
The Turdetani were an ancient pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula, living in the valley of the Guadalquivir, in what was to become the Roman Province of Hispania Baetica. Strabo considers them to have been the successors to the people of Tartessos and to have spoken a language related to the Tartessian language; the Turdetani were in constant contact with their Carthaginian neighbors. Herodotus describes them as enjoying a civilized rule under a king, who welcomed Phocaean colonists in the fifth century BC; the Turdetani are said to have possessed a written legal code and to have employed Celtiberian mercenaries to carry on their wars against Rome. Strabo notes that the Turdetani were the most civilized peoples in Iberia, with the implication that their ordered, urbanized culture was most in accord with Greco-Roman models. After the end of the Second Punic War, the Turdetani rose against their Roman governor in 197 BC; when Cato the Elder became consul in 195 BC, he was given the command of the whole of Hispania.
Cato first put down the rebellion in the northeast marched south and put down the revolt by the Turdetani, "the least warlike of all the Hispanic tribes". Cato was able to return to Rome in 194. In Plautus' comedy The Captives, a reference to the Turdetani seems to show that their district in Hispania Baetica had become proverbially famous for the thrushes and small birds supplied for Roman tables. Turdus is the genus of the thrushes. Carpia Carissa Southwest Paleohispanic script Turduli Ángel Montenegro et alii, Historia de España 2 - colonizaciones y formación de los pueblos prerromanos, Editorial Gredos, Madrid ISBN 84-249-1386-8 Detailed map of the Pre-Roman Peoples of Iberia Livy, History of Rome book 34 34.17 and following sections
Lady of Cerro de los Santos
Lady of Cerro de los Santos known as Gran Dama Oferente, is an Iberian sculpture from the 2nd century BCE, now in National Archaeological Museum in Madrid. This limestone sculpture depicts a full-length standing female figure 1.3 metres high. It was found in 1870 in the sanctuary of Cerro de los Santos in Montealegre del Castillo in Albacete province, Spain; the statue is sometimes called the Gran Dama Oferente because she is holding a container in her two hands and appears to be offering it. She is richly clad in three overlapping robes clasped with a brooch, at the neck. Braided hair falls past her three necklaces, she is wearing fitted shoes. A rodete or wheel headgear appears on one side of her hair. Like another contemporary Phoenician-influenced Iberian female sculpture, the Lady of Baza, her drapery falls in a zigzag pattern. Carthaginian Iberia Lady of Elche Iberian sculpture Spain: A History, by Raymond Carr ISBN 0-19-280236-4 F. Gómez,: "Una réplica en barro de la Dama del Cerro de los Santos" in Homenaje a C.
Iberian sculpture, a subset of Iberian art, describes the various sculptural styles developed by the Iberians from the Bronze age up to the Roman conquest. For this reason it is sometimes described as Pre-Roman Iberian sculpture. All extant works of Iberian sculpture visibly reflect Greek and Phoenician influences, Assyrian and Egyptian influences from which those derived. Within this complex stylistic heritage, individual works can be placed within a spectrum of influences- some of more obvious Phoenician derivation, some so similar to Greek works that they could have been directly imported from that region. Overall the degree of influence is correlated to the work's region of origin, hence they are classified into groups on that basis; the sculptures that comprise the Levantine group were made between the 5th century B. C. and the period of Roman domination. The most famous among them is the bust known as The Lady of Elche, which displays evident Greek influence. Works in this style number over 670.
More visibly oriental references influenced by the Egyptian sphinx and the Assyrian Lamassu, are evident in the various stone sculptures in the form of sphinxes, bulls, or lions found in the area of Valencia and Albacete. They include: The Bicha of Balazote, or the man-bull The Sphinx of Agost, in Alicante, that of Salobral, which guards the Louvre Museum, though mutilated; the Lioness of Bocairente, in the Provincial Museum of Valencia The Lion of Coy in Murcia The Lions of Baena, which are similar to the previous ones The Deer of Caudete or the Lady of Caudete The numerous statues of bronze found in two places of the region of Sierra Morena in the province of Jaén can be considered to be more indigenous derivatives of the initial and oriental- influenced, Levantine sculptural style. In the period between the 5th century BC and the 5th century AD, sanctuaries like Montealegre used small bronze castings, rather than stone carvings, as votive offerings; these sculptures were cast from earthen molds in molten bronze in the technique of lost wax casting, but since the mold was rendered useless after only one casting, two identical works have yet to be found amongst these sculptures.
4,000 sculptures in this style have been excavated, depicting Iberian warriors, religious celebrants, small horses, body parts. A great deal of Greek and Punic statues and busts in Terra cotta, together with various amulets in ivory, metal or carved of thin stone, have been uncovered at the necropolis of Ibiza, La Palma, Formentera; the oldest have been dated to the 8th century B. C. and they most continued to be made up to the Roman domination. These include: The Lady of Ibiza Praying Terracotta Figurines Pieces considered to be of Phoenician or Punic origin but with Greek influence include the bronze heads of bulls found in Majorca. A early Phoenician piece from Galera depicts a seated female Astarte, flanked by sphinxes; the Lady of Galera The southern group is principally composed of sculptures found in sepulchers, other funeral monuments, in the Andalusian region. Most of them display heavy Phoenician influence, they are as follows: The sculptural set of Cerrillo Blanco the sculptural set of The Pajarillo The Punic stela of Villaricos, of conical form and with Phoenician inscription The Lady of Baza.
The plates and combs of ivory with reliefs of Carmona's necropolis. The anthropomorphic sarcophagus carved in marble with the figure of the deceased, of the Greek style, found in Cadiz The amulets with figurines of Egyptian style found in sepulchers of Cadiz and Málaga several other reliefs of the Phoenician or Iberian tradition but worked with Roman influence, discovered in Osuna The western group is composed of granite funeral stelae from Portugal and Galicia that represent foot soldiers dressed in tunics and armed with round shields; these sculptures are coarsely worked. Some of them bear Roman inscriptions, which were added long after the figures were carved. In the center of the Peninsula, between the rivers Douro and Tagus there are many granite sculptures carved in the form of bulls, or some other animal; some of these have Roman inscriptions, which again were added later. The most famous of these monuments are the four known as the Bulls of Guisando. Archeologists consider them to be works of the same culture that carved the sphinxes of the Levantine region.
South-Western Iberian Bronze Iberian schematic art VV. AA.. Escultura ibérica en el Museo Provincial de Jaén. Consejería de Cultura de la Junta de Andalucía. ISBN 84-86944-04-X
Seville is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain. It is situated on the plain of the river Guadalquivir; the inhabitants of the city are known as sevillanos or hispalenses, after the Roman name of the city, Hispalis. Seville has a municipal population of about 690,000 as of 2016, a metropolitan population of about 1.5 million, making it the fourth-largest city in Spain and the 30th most populous municipality in the European Union. Its Old Town, with an area of 4 square kilometres, contains three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Alcázar palace complex, the Cathedral and the General Archive of the Indies; the Seville harbour, located about 80 kilometres from the Atlantic Ocean, is the only river port in Spain. Seville is the hottest major metropolitan area in the geographical Southwestern Europe, with summer average high temperatures of above 35 °C. Seville was founded as the Roman city of Hispalis, it became known as Ishbiliyya after the Muslim conquest in 712.
During the Muslim rule in Spain, Seville came under the jurisdiction of the Caliphate of Córdoba before becoming the independent Taifa of Seville. After the discovery of the Americas, Seville became one of the economic centres of the Spanish Empire as its port monopolised the trans-oceanic trade and the Casa de Contratación wielded its power, opening a Golden Age of arts and literature. In 1519, Ferdinand Magellan departed from Seville for the first circumnavigation of the Earth. Coinciding with the Baroque period of European history, the 17th century in Seville represented the most brilliant flowering of the city's culture; the 20th century in Seville saw the tribulations of the Spanish Civil War, decisive cultural milestones such as the Ibero-American Exposition of 1929 and Expo'92, the city's election as the capital of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia. Hisbaal is the oldest name for Seville, it appears to have originated during the Phoenician colonisation of the Tartessian culture in south-western Iberia and it refers to the God Baal.
According to Manuel Pellicer Catalán, the ancient name was Spal, it meant "lowland" in the Phoenician language. During Roman rule, the name was Latinised as Hispal and as Hispalis. After the Umayyad invasion, this name was adapted into Arabic as Ishbiliyya: since p does not exist in Arabic, it was replaced by b. NO8DO is the official motto of Seville, popularly believed to be a rebus signifying the Spanish No me ha dejado, meaning "She has not abandoned me"; the phrase, pronounced with synalepha as, is spelled with an eight in the middle representing the word madeja "skein ". Legend states that the title was given by King Alfonso X, resident in the city's Alcázar and supported by the citizens when his son Sancho IV of Castile, tried to usurp the throne from him; the emblem is present on Seville's municipal flag, features on city property such as manhole covers, Christopher Columbus's tomb in the Cathedral. Seville is 2,200 years old; the passage of the various civilizations instrumental in its growth has left the city with a distinct personality, a large and well-preserved historical centre.
The mythological founder of the city is Hercules identified with the Phoenician god Melqart, who the myth says sailed through the Strait of Gibraltar to the Atlantic, founded trading posts at the current sites of Cádiz and of Seville. The original core of the city, in the neighbourhood of the present-day street, Cuesta del Rosario, dates to the 8th century BC, when Seville was on an island in the Guadalquivir. Archaeological excavations in 1999 found anthropic remains under the north wall of the Real Alcázar dating to the 8th–7th century BC; the town was called Hisbaal by the Phoenicians and by the Tartessians, the indigenous pre-Roman Iberian people of Tartessos, who controlled the Guadalquivir Valley at the time. The city was known from Roman times as Hispal and as Hispalis. Hispalis developed into one of the great market and industrial centres of Hispania, while the nearby Roman city of Italica remained a Roman residential city. Large-scale Roman archaeological remains can be seen there and at the nearby town of Carmona as well.
Existing Roman features in Seville itself include the remains exposed in situ in the underground Antiquarium of the Metropol Parasol building, the remnants of an aqueduct, three pillars of a temple in Mármoles Street, the columns of La Alameda de Hércules and the remains in the Patio de Banderas square near the Seville Cathedral. The walls surrounding the city were built during the rule of Julius Caesar, but their current course and design were the result of Moorish reconstructions. Following Roman rule, there were successive conquests of the Roman province of Hispania Baetica by the Vandals, the Suebi and the Visigoths during the 5th and 6th centuries. Seville was taken by the Moors, during the conquest of Hispalis in 712, it was the capital for the kings of the Umayyad Caliphate, the Almoravid dynasty first and
Lady of Guardamar
Lady of Guardamar, is a limestone female bust, 50 cm high, dated circa 400 BCE, discovered in fragments in the Phoenician archaeological site of Cabezo Lucero in Guardamar del Segura in Alicante province, Spain, on September 22, 1987. A large piece of a stone rodete was found first, at a shallow depth. There followed other fragments of the bust of an Iberian lady, one large piece included the headdress and neck, which were found to have similarities to the Iberian bust, Lady of Elche; the sculpture had been hammered to fragments and burnt in places. These fragments were taken to the laboratory of the Provincial Archaeological Museum of Alicante, where restorer Vincent Bernabeu began with washing and identifying the bits, first the chin the lips collar and chest pieces, many other fragments that did not fit together and were not part of the carved surface; the delicate and painstaking task of restoration began in October 1987 and was completed in June 1988. The restored sculpture is of fine-grained greyish limestone.
The Lady is wearing a tunic with a round neckline. A scalloped headband crosses the brow and connects the rodetes, which represent hollow wheels of thin metal, on each side. Above the headband and rodetes the Lady wears a mantle with finely carved drapery details; the necklaces the Lady wears are each different. Below it is another necklace that has larger bullae, some shaped like curved triangles and some semicircular at the bottom; the string of beads worn second from the neck has olive-shaped and flat beads, above it is a string of spherical beads with two plates at the center. In real life these beads would have been made of glassy paste, as such beads appeared in the Albufereta excavation. In style the Lady of Guardamar is a bit more archaic than the other contemporary Iberian sculptures Lady of Baza or the Lady of Elche, with features more Iberian; as nothing from the site is more recent than 300 BCE, the site flourished between 430 and 350 BCE, it seems that the Lady dates from 400 to 370 BCE.
Carthaginian Iberia Lady of Elche