The bullhead minnow is a species of freshwater demersal fish, native to the southern United States. The bullhead minnow was first described by Spencer Baird and Charles Girard in 1853; the bullhead minnow is cylindrical and small in size, with an average length of 5.7 cm and a maximum length of 9.2 cm. The males of the species are dark in color, olive, or tan, with two light colored vertical lines down their side, while the females are plain in comparison; the snout is rounded, no teeth are present. The tail is forked with rounded ends, the single dorsal fin contains eight rays and no spine, the anal fin contains seven rays with no spine, pelvic fins are abdominal and no adipose fin is present; the bullhead minnow is located in the southern United States, in the Gulf Coast of the United States and Mississippi River Basin. It can be found in less majority throughout the entire Mississippi River, as well as connected brooks, ponds and rivers, they are found more in waters that have little to no movement, such as in river pools.
It is one of the 324 fish species found in Tennessee. They have been introduced Osage River and Kansas River systems in Kansas, to the Missouri in Nebraska, the Rio Grande in New Mexico, Lake St Marys in Ohio, the James drainage in South Dakota, the Red River, Canadian River and Rio Grande in Texas and to the upper Fox River and the Menomonee River in Wisconsin, they were introduced to these areas as bait fish carried by anglers. It has been introduced to Utah where it occurs in two closed drainages within the Great Basin, that of the Sevier River and of Lake Utah, it seems to have been introduced here accidentally in releases of channel catfish imported from Texas in the 1950s; the spawning season extends from the middle of May through early September. They reproduce in an egg-clustering fashion. For a mating location, the males build a nest protected by rocks, tree roots or limbs, or boards, The female lays eggs in the nest, the male guards the eggs throughout spawning. There is no known age of maturation for this fish.
They live an average of three to five years. They are a bottom-living species, feed on organisms found in the mud covering the ground
Tachysurus fulvidraco, the yellowhead catfish or Korean bullhead, is a species of bagrid catfish found in eastern Asia from Siberia to China, Korea and Laos, where it can be found in lakes and river channels. It can reach a maximum length of 34.5 cm, weighing 3 kg, though it is much more found to a length of 8 cm. It is a minor component of commercial fisheries. A total of 11 species of helminthes, including six species of digeneans, three species of nematodes, a species of cestode, an acanthocephalan have been found in the stomach and intestines of T. fulvidraco:. Genarchopsis goppo Orientocreadium siluri Coitocoecum plagiorchis Echinoparyphium lingulatum Dollfustrema vaneyi Opisthorchis parasiluri Procamallanus fulvidraconis Spinitectus gigi Camallanus cotti Gangesia pseudobagri Hebsoma violentum
Bullhead City, Arizona
Bullhead City is a city located on the Colorado River in Mohave County, United States 90 mi south of Las Vegas and directly across the Colorado River from Laughlin, whose casinos and ancillary services supply much of the employment for Bullhead City. Bullhead City is located on the southern border of Lake Mohave. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 39,540; the nearby communities of Laughlin, California, Fort Mohave and Mohave Valley bring the Bullhead area's total population to about 100,000, making it the largest micropolitan area in Mohave County. With over 59 square miles, Bullhead City is the largest city in Mohave County in terms of total land area. In 2011, the Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport was named Airport of the Year by the Arizona Department of Transportation; the latest figures indicate that "...more than 115,000 people flew into Laughlin/Bullhead International Airport on casino-sponsored charters in 2010." In the 1980s the airport was home to the helicopters of the TV show Airwolf.
The earliest inhabitants of the Colorado River Valley were the Mojave people. The rich soil and plentiful water provided the valley's natives with the necessities to create a prosperous farming community. According to Mojave legend, life began on Spirit Mountain, the highest peak visible from the Bullhead City area; the first account of European contact was with Spanish explorer Melchor Díaz. He documented his travels in Northwestern Mohave County in 1540, he accounts of meeting a large population of natives who referred to themselves as the Pipa Aha Macav, meaning "People by the River". From "Aha Macav" came the shortened name "Mojave". While Mohave County uses the modern English spelling, the tribe retains the traditional Spanish spelling "Mojave". Both are correct, both are pronounced "Moh-hah-vee". Father Francisco Garces crossed the Colorado River in the Bullhead City area in 1774. In March 1864 the current site of Bullhead City was the location of a settlement called Hardyville, it was named for William Harrison Hardy.
A New York native and an entrepreneur, Hardy established, with the support of George Alonzo Johnson's steamboat company, a ferry service and a steamboat landing where the Mojave Road crossed the Colorado River. He built and owned the Hardyville - Prescott Road, a toll road from Hardyville to the new Arizona territorial capital of Prescott and raised Angora goats, he was a somewhat controversial figure. He was the town's first postmaster from January 17, 1865, is credited with the invention of the riveted mail sack, he was a Mohave County supervisor and a member of the Arizona Territorial Legislature. In 1864 his personal worth was over $40,000. From 1864 to 1883, steamboats made regular trips up the Colorado River from Port Isabel, Sonora and, after the arrival of the railroad from Yuma, stopping at Hardyville to deliver supplies to the mines of the surrounding mining districts and those to the east in the interior of Arizona and carry out their ore for processing and sale; these stern-wheeler riverboats played an important part in the early development of the areas bordering the Colorado River and Hardyville was considered the low water limit of navigation for the steamboats.
Steamboat travel above that point to places in like El Dorado Canyon and Rioville was possible only during the few months of the late spring to early summer flood caused by snow melt in the upper Colorado River watershed. Hardyville was the starting point for wagon roads and pack trails to the mines and other settlements in the upper region of the river, it was the port for flatboats that ascended the river as far as Callville in the extreme low water time of the year. In April 1866, Brevet Brigadier General James Fowler Rusling visited the settlement and described it: Hardyville received a boost in 1867, when it became the county seat of Mohave County and the mills at Eldorado Canyon began operating stimulating trade up river again. Hardyville had a population of 20 in 1870; the 1870s saw a population boom in Hardyville. With the end of hostilities with the Native Americans in Mohave County, mines in the interior boomed again and the small town grew with the addition of the construction of a general store, a saloon, a blacksmith shop, a billiard hall, a respectable public hall.
However, in 1873, the county seat was moved to the mining boomtown of Cerbat. In 1877, the Southern Pacific Railroad arrived at Yuma, it bought out Johnson's Colorado Steam Navigation Company, by 1878 had built rails into Maricopaville resulting in wagon traffic moving to that railhead, closer to the mines in the northern interior than Hardyville. Traffic on the road to the interior mines of the east from Hardyville waned except for that to Cerbat, Mineral Park, Chloride. In May 1881, Issac Polhamus, captain of one of the Southern Pacific-owned Colorado Steam Navigation Company steamboats, went into competition with Hardy for the trade to those mines establishing Polhamus Landing, a rival landing five miles up river, closer to the mines, taking away most of its river trade. Worse yet, the construction of the Atlantic and Pacific Railroad to its bridge crossing on the Colorado River near Needles, in May 1883, saw the remaining interior mining trade move away from the Colorado River and Hardyville.
The Hardyville post office was discontinued in favor of the one in Mohave City on February 19, 1883. As the silver price declined in the late 1880s and early 1890s, the Hardyville mill, its only remaining economic resource, became idle and the remaining population of the town left, leaving it to become a gho
Catfish are a diverse group of ray-finned fish. Named for their prominent barbels, which resemble a cat's whiskers, catfish range in size and behavior from the three largest species alive, the Mekong giant catfish from Southeast Asia, the wels catfish of Eurasia and the piraíba of South America, to detritivores, to a tiny parasitic species called the candiru, Vandellia cirrhosa. There are armour-plated types and there are naked types, neither having scales. Despite their name, not all catfish have prominent barbels. Members of the Siluriformes order are defined by features of the swimbladder. Catfish are of considerable commercial importance. Many of the smaller species the genus Corydoras, are important in the aquarium hobby. Many catfish are nocturnal. Extant catfish species live in coastal waters of every continent except Antarctica. Catfish have inhabited all continents at another. Catfish are most diverse in tropical South America and Africa with one family native to North America and one family in Europe.
More than half of all catfish species live in the Americas. They are the only ostariophysans that have entered freshwater habitats in Madagascar and New Guinea, they are found in freshwater environments. Representatives of at least eight families are hypogean with three families that are troglobitic. One such species is Phreatobius cisternarum, known to live underground in phreatic habitats. Numerous species from the families Ariidae and Plotosidae, a few species from among the Aspredinidae and Bagridae, are found in salt water. In the Southern United States, catfish species may be known by a variety of slang names, such as "mud cat", "polliwogs", or "chuckleheads"; these nicknames are not standardized, so one area may call a bullhead catfish by the nickname "chucklehead", while in another state or region, that nickname refers to the blue catfish. Representatives of the genus Ictalurus have been introduced into European waters in the hope of obtaining a sporting and food resource. However, the European stock of American catfishes has not achieved the dimensions of these fish in their native waters, have only increased the ecological pressure on native European fauna.
Walking catfish have been introduced in the freshwaters of Florida, with the voracious catfish becoming a major alien pest there. Flathead catfish, Pylodictis olivaris, is a North American pest on Atlantic slope drainages. Pterygoplichthys species, released by aquarium fishkeepers, have established feral populations in many warm waters around the world. Most catfish are bottom feeders. In general, they are negatively buoyant, which means that they will sink rather than float due to a reduced gas bladder and a heavy, bony head. Catfish have a variety of body shapes, though most have a cylindrical body with a flattened ventrum to allow for benthic feeding. A flattened head allows for digging through the substrate as well as serving as a hydrofoil; some contains no incisiform teeth. However, some families, notably Loricariidae and Astroblepidae, have a suckermouth that allows them to fasten themselves to objects in fast-moving water. Catfish have a maxilla reduced to a support for barbels. Catfish may have up to four pairs of barbels: nasal and two pairs of chin barbels though pairs of barbels may be absent depending on the species.
Catfish barbels always come as pairs. Many larger catfish have chemoreceptors across their entire bodies, which means they "taste" anything they touch and "smell" any chemicals in the water. "In catfish, gustation plays a primary role in the orientation and location of food". Because their barbels and chemoreception are more important in detecting food, the eyes on catfish are small. Like other ostariophysans, they are characterized by the presence of a Weberian apparatus, their well-developed Weberian apparatus and reduced gas bladder allow for improved hearing as well as sound production. Catfish do not have scales. In some species, the mucus-covered skin is used in cutaneous respiration, where the fish breathes through its skin. In some catfish, the skin is covered in bony plates called scutes. In loricarioids and in the Asian genus Sisor, the armor is made up of one or more rows of free dermal plates. Similar plates are found in large specimens of Lithodoras; these plates may be supported by vertebral processes, as in scoloplacids and in Sisor, but the processes never fuse to the plates or form any external armor.
By contrast, in the subfamily Doumeinae and in hoplomyzontines, the armor is formed by expanded vertebral processes that form plates. The lateral armor of doradids and hoplomyzontines consists of hypertrophied lateral line ossicles with dorsal and ventral lamina. All catfish, except members of Malapteruridae, possess a strong, bony leading spine-like ray on their dorsal and pectoral fins; as a defense, these spines may be locked into place so that they stick outwards, which can inflict severe wounds. In several species catfish can use these f
The brown bullhead is a fish of the Ictaluridae family, distributed in North America. It is similar to the black bullhead and yellow bullhead, it was described as Pimelodus nebulosus by Charles Alexandre Lesueur in 1819, is referred to as Ictalurus nebulosus. The brown bullhead is widely known as the "mud pout," "horned pout," "hornpout," or "mud cat," along with the other bullhead species; the brown bullhead is important as a clan symbol of the Ojibwe group of Native Americans. In their tradition, the bullhead or "wawaazisii" is one of six beings that came out of the sea to form the original clans; the brown bullhead grows to be 21 inches in length and is darker brown green dorsally growing lighter green and yellow towards the ventral surface. The belly is off white or cream, the fish has no scales. Additionally there are darker brown black speckles along the entire surface of the fish; the brown bullhead has two dorsal fins, a single adipose fin, abdominal pelvic fins, an anal fin with 21 to 24 rays.
The tail is only notched, having dorsal and ventral lobes angling inward. The fish has barbels on the pelvic spine; the barbels around the mouth are black to yellowish brown on the chin and saw-like on the pelvic spines. Juvenile brown bullheads are similar in appearance but are more to be of a single solid color; the brown bullhead's mouth is subterminal, with the upper jaw extending past the lower jaw. This position enables bottom feeding; the brown bullhead may be distinguished from similar species by its absence of a tooth patch on its upper jaw with the lateral backwards extensions. Adult brown bullheads range in size from 200mm to 500mm and weigh between 0.5 kg to 3.6 kg in extreme cases. Brown bullheads are ectothermic and bilaterally symmetrical. Brown bullheads can be distinguished from black and yellow bullheads with their yellow- black chin barbels, missing bar at the base of tail present in black bullheads, 21-24 anal fin rays; the native range of the brown bullhead is in the Gulf Slope drainages.
More it is found from Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to Mobile Bay, in the St. Lawrence- Great Lakes, Hudson Bay, Mississippi River basins. However, there is evidence that the brown bullhead was absent from the Gulf Coast west of Apalachicola and east of the Mississippi River; the species is abundant in many regions as a result of stocking for food and/or sport. These locations include Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Idaho, Kentucky, Maine, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon and Washington. Brown bullheads are a social non migratory species; the brown bullhead thrives in a variety of habitats, including lakes and slow moving streams with low oxygen and/or muddy conditions. In many areas of the United States, brown bullheads are opportunistic bottom feeders, it has few natural predators and is not popular with fishermen, so it has thrived. For native fish species, this predatory fish is a disaster. Catfish are found from lakes or murky ponds to drainage ditches, they are scarce during the day but come out at night to feed, searching the bottom of a lake or river for food.
They eat insects, snails, fish and many plants. They are known to eat corn, which can be used as bait. Similar to other catfish, they spawn only after the temperature of the water has reached 80 degrees Fahrenheit in June and July. Brown bullheads can withstand a wide range of low oxygen levels. Brown bullheads can survive waters with heavy pollution and dissolved oxygen values as low as 0.2ppm. Because of bullheads tolerance of low oxygen levels, they are less threatened by winter kill and capable of survival in extreme environments; this catfish is caught with natural bait such as worms and chicken livers. They have a scrappy but not unusually strong fight. Anglers catch them by fishing off the bottom; when caught in clear water when the flesh is firm and reddish to pinkish, the hornpout is quite edible and delicious. Its genial cousins such as the channel catfish and the blue catfish are better known for their consumption qualities. In most areas, they will not exceed two pounds in weight, with a current IGFA world's record of 7 lb 6oz, by Glenn Collacuro, Lake Mahopac NY, August 1, 2009.
Brown Bullheads live between six and eight years, spawn between April and June. During the duration of each breeding season, females will be monogamous; the females lay eggs in dark shallow locations like under rocks and inside logs, nests are created by the females. The fertilization is external and the fish face opposite one another during the process. There are no consistent behaviors of mate attraction; the eggs are protected by both the males and the females who additionally will guard their offspring for a while following their hatching. The eggs will hatch in 13 days but closer to six days. Additionally, following the hatching the parents will care for their offspring for five days. Adults and female, will reach sexual maturity around age three and in their lifetime can produce between 10 and 10,000 offspring. Brown bullheads have additionally been recorded eating their own eggs occasionally; the fish has been introduced into many Eu
The bullhead sharks are a small order of basal modern sharks. The nine living species are placed in Heterodontus, in the family Heterodontidae. All are small, with the largest species reaching just 1.65 metres in maximum length. They are bottom feeders in subtropical waters; the Heterodontiforms appear in the fossil record in the Early Jurassic, well before any of the other Galeomorphii, a group that includes all modern sharks except the dogfish and its relatives. However, they have never been common, their origin lies further back; the bullhead sharks are morphologically rather distinctive. The mouth is located anterior to the orbits. Labial cartilages are found in the most anterior part of the mouth. Nasoral grooves are present; the nasal capsules are well-separated from orbits. Circumnarial skin folds are present, but the rostral process of the neurocranium is absent, although a precerebral fossa is present; the braincase bears a supraorbital crest. The eyes lack a nictitating membrane. A spiracle is small.
The dorsal ends of the fourth and fifth branchial arches are attached, but not fused into a "pickaxe" as in lamniform sharks. Heterodontiforms have two dorsal fins, with fin spines, as well as an anal fin; the dorsal and anal fins contain basal cartilages, not just fin rays. Bullhead Sharks have distinctive small spikes on the front of their dorsal fins; these are rumoured to be poisonous, but no further scientific tests have been done to prove this rumor true or false. Nine living species of bullhead shark are described, with another potential undescribed species in Baja California: Heterodontus francisci Heterodontus galeatus Heterodontus japonicus Heterodontus mexicanus Heterodontus omanensis Heterodontus portusjacksoni Heterodontus quoyi Heterodontus ramalheira Heterodontus zebra Heterodontus sp. X J. I. Castro List of prehistoric cartilaginous fish Compagno, Leonard Sharks of the World: Bullhead and carpet sharks Volume 2, FAO Species Catalogue, Rome. ISBN 92-5-104543-7
The European bullhead is a freshwater fish, distributed in Europe in rivers. It is a member of a type of sculpin, it is known as the miller's thumb, freshwater sculpin, common bullhead and European bullhead. The European bullhead is a small demersal fish that lives both in cold, fast-flowing small streams and in middle-sized rivers, it occurs on gravelly shores of cold lakes. Further, it thrives in diluted brackish water of the Northern Baltic Sea; the bullhead has large fins and a rounded tail. The eyes are located near the top of the head. To the distinction from the other freshwater sculpin species found in Northern Europe, it can be told from the alpine bullhead Cottus poecilopus by the fact that the rays of its pelvic fins are of similar lengths while the first and last rays are longer in the alpine bullhead, it can be distinguished from the fourhorn sculpin by the fact that the dorsal and anal fins terminate close to the tail giving a short caudal peduncle. When it rests on the bottom, the pectoral fins flare out resembling wings.
The bullhead is about 6 to 8 cm long and is light brown mottled with darker colour. The pelvic fins lack the stripes of the alpine bullhead. Food items eaten by the bullhead include benthic insects and other invertebrates, it breeds in the spring. The male digs a shallow hollow, he guards the nest for the month or so that it takes for the eggs to hatch. The European bullhead, as treated above, is widespread over most of the subcontinent and in England, but absent from the southern peninsulae and from Northern Scandinavia, it is not a single uniform taxon, but composed of morphologically and genetically differentiated subunits. Some of those have been distinguished long time ago as separate subspecies or species with their own names, while in practice they have still been treated under the concept of Cottus gobio. In 2005, Freyhof et al. suggested subdivision of the European Cottus gobio into fourteen distinct species, of which six had been described earlier and eight were newly described and named.
Cottus aturi - France Cottus duranii - France Cottus gobio sensu stricto - Germany, Central Europe Cottus haemusi - Bulgaria Cottus hispaniolensis - France, Spain Cottus koshewnikowi - Northeast Europe Cottus metae - Danube drainage Cottus microstomus - East Central Europe: Poland, Ukraine etc