Zimbabwe the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of 16 million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English and Ndebele the most used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade; the British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia; the state endured a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces. Zimbabwe joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then-government, from which it withdrew in December 2003; the sovereign state is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa.
It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity under the former Rhodesian administration. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator"; the country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état.
On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed. On 30 July 2018 Zimbabwe held its general elections, won by the ZANU-PF party led by Emmerson Mnangagwa. Nelson Chamisa, leading the main opposition party MDC Alliance contested the election results and filed a petition to the Constitution Court of Zimbabwe; the court confirmed Mnangagwa's victory. The name "Zimbabwe" stems from a Shona term for Great Zimbabwe, an ancient ruined city in the country's south-east whose remains are now a protected site. Two different theories address the origin of the word. Many sources hold that "Zimbabwe" derives from dzimba-dza-mabwe, translated from the Karanga dialect of Shona as "houses of stones"; the Karanga-speaking Shona people live around Great Zimbabwe in the modern-day province of Masvingo. Archaeologist Peter Garlake claims that "Zimbabwe" represents a contracted form of dzimba-hwe, which means "venerated houses" in the Zezuru dialect of Shona and references chiefs' houses or graves.
Zimbabwe was known as Southern Rhodesia and Zimbabwe Rhodesia. The first recorded use of "Zimbabwe" as a term of national reference dates from 1960 as a coinage by the black nationalist Michael Mawema, whose Zimbabwe National Party became the first to use the name in 1961; the term "Rhodesia"—derived from the surname of Cecil Rhodes, the primary instigator of British colonisation of the territory during the late 19th century—was perceived by African nationalists as inappropriate because of its colonial origin and connotations. According to Mawema, black nationalists held a meeting in 1960 to choose an alternative name for the country, proposing names such as "Matshobana" and "Monomotapa" before his suggestion, "Zimbabwe", prevailed. A further alternative, put forward by nationalists in Matabeleland, had been "Matopos", referring to the Matopos Hills to the south of Bulawayo, it was unclear how the chosen term was to be used—a letter written by Mawema in 1961 refers to "Zimbabweland" — but "Zimbabwe" was sufficiently established by 1962 to become the preferred term of the black nationalist movement.
In a 2001 interview, black nationalist Edson Zvobgo recalled that Mawema mentioned the name during a political rally, "and it caught hold, and, that". The black nationalist factions subsequently used the name during the Second Chimurenga campaigns against the Rhodesian government during the Rhodesian Bush War of 1964–1979. Major factions in this camp included the Zimbabwe African National Union, the Zimbabwe African People's Union. Archaeological records date human settlement of present-day Zimbabwe to at least 100,000 years ago; the earliest known inhabitants were San people, who left behind arrowheads and cave paintings. The first Bantu-speaking farmers arrived during the Bantu expansion around 2000 years ago. Societies speaking proto-Shona languages fir
Kariba is a town in Mashonaland West province, located close to the Kariba Dam at the north-western end of Lake Kariba, near the Zambian border. According to the 2012 Population Census, the town had a population of 26,451. Located in the Zambezi Valley, Kariba is hot all year round; the pre-colonial population of the area were Tonga. The town was established to house workers who were constructing the dam in the mid to late 1950s and was constructed by the contractor Costain. After the completion of the dam wall and the power station quite a few impressive monuments were built in the early 1960s i.e the Roman Catholic church located at the Kariba Heights and next to it the Pat McClean Theatre named after Patricia McClean a well known wealthy resident of Kariba Heights. Kariba was the childhood home of the local cult leader Emmanuel Sadiki, who preached in southern Zambia during the late 1980s. Kariba is located on Lake Kariba, a reservoir created by Kariba Dam on the Zambezi River. Kariba has three main suburbs: Mahombekombe, the older poorer lakeshore high density suburb, Nyamhunga the newer high density suburb and Kariba Heights, the wealthier hilltop suburb and location of the Operation Noah monument.
As the name suggests the heights overlook the surrounding region and offer impressive views of Lake Kariba and the opposite lakeshore to the south. The town has road links connecting it to the border of Zambia, it is serviced by Kariba Airport, has ferry service to Victoria Falls via Mlibizi Fishing camp. Kariba town is the centre of the tourist industry for the Lake Kariba region. Kariba town provides accommodation in various lodges. There are two casinos in the town. Many of the attractions in Kariba for the tourist are water-based. Fishing, game-viewing and house-boating are the most popular activities. Tourists visit the Kariba Dam wall and local crocodile farms; the Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority ZESA employs workers in the hydroelectric power station. Kapenta fishing is an important industry, though it was affected by the nation-wide fuel shortages, in the 2010s by drought. ZB Bank Limited, a commercial bank, maintains a branch in Kariba. In the twenthy-first century, the town of Kariba faced many of the nation-wide problems brought on by the depressed national economy, including lack of foreign currency.
The town had difficulty in revenue collection. As a result its fleet did not received proper maintenance nor replacements, true of its water and sewage system, which suffered chronic pump breakdowns. Kariba continued to have a large number of unoccupied housing units, left over from the construction boom, units which generated no income. Kariba Heights Primary School. Nyamhunga High School Nyanhewe Primary School Mahombekombe Secondary School
Lake Kariba is the world's largest man-made lake and reservoir by volume. It lies 1,300 kilometres upstream from the Indian Ocean, along the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe. Lake Kariba was filled between 1958 and 1963 following the completion of the Kariba Dam at its northeastern end, flooding the Kariba Gorge on the Zambezi River; the Zimbabwean town of Kariba was built for construction workers on the lake's dam, while some other settlements such as Binga village and Mlibizi in Zimbabwe and Siavonga and Sinazongwe in Zambia have grown up to house people displaced by the rising waters. Lake Kariba is over 223 kilometres up to 40 kilometres in width, it covers an area of 5,580 square kilometres mi) and its storage capacity is 185 cubic kilometres. The mean depth of the lake is 29 metres, it is the world's largest man-made reservoir by four times as large as the Three Gorges Dam. The enormous mass of water is believed to have caused induced seismicity in the seismically active region, including over 20 earthquakes of greater than 5 magnitude on the Richter scale.
The lake has several islands, including Maaze Island, Mashape Island, Chete Island, Sampa Karuma, Spurwing, Snake Island, Antelope Island, Bed Island, Chikanka. Before Lake Kariba was filled, the existing vegetation was burned, creating a thick layer of fertile soil on land that would become the lake bed; as a result, the ecology of Lake Kariba is vibrant. A number of fish species have been introduced to the lake, notably the sardine-like kapenta, which now supports a thriving commercial fishery. Other inhabitants of Lake Kariba include Nile hippopotami. Gamefish tigerfish, among the indigenous species of the Zambezi river system, now thrive on the kapenta, which in turn encourages tourism. Both Zambia and Zimbabwe are now attempting to develop the tourism industry along their respective coasts of Lake Kariba. Fish eagles and other water birds patrol the shorelines, as do large numbers of elephants and other big game species including Lion, Leopard, Buffalo and a myriad of smaller plains game species.
The southern Matusadona National Park was once a haven for Black and White Rhinoceros, but recent poaching activity has reduced their numbers. The portion of Lake Kariba which falls within Zimbabwe has been designated a Recreational Park within the Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife Estate. Nyaminyami Kariba Town Kariba Ferries Lake Volta, the largest reservoir by surface area in the world "Lake Kariba". Zambiatourism.com. Retrieved August 11, 2005. "Dam Statistics: Africa and the Middle East Regions". World Commission on Dams. Retrieved August 11, 2005. "Lake Profile: Kariba". LakeNet. Retrieved August 11, 2005. World Lakes Database entry for Lake Kariba Media related to Lake Kariba at Wikimedia Commons