Advertising is an audio or visual form of marketing communication that employs an openly sponsored, nonpersonal message to promote or sell a product, service or idea. Sponsors of advertising are often businesses who wish to promote their products or services, Advertising is differentiated from public relations in that an advertiser usually pays for and has control over the message. It is differentiated from personal selling in that the message is nonpersonal, the actual presentation of the message in a medium is referred to as an advertisement or ad. Commercial ads often seek to generate increased consumption of their products or services through branding, on the other hand, ads that intend to elicit an immediate sale are known as direct response advertising. Non-commercial advertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a product or service include political parties, interest groups, religious organizations. Non-profit organizations may use free modes of persuasion, such as a service announcement.
Advertising may be used to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful, in 2015, the world spent an estimate of US$592.43 billion on advertising. Its projected distribution for 2017 is 40. 4% on TV,33. 3% on digital, the largest advertising conglomerates are Interpublic, Publicis, and WPP. In Latin, ad vertere means to turn toward, egyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and political campaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and found advertising on papyrus was common in ancient Greece and ancient Rome. Wall or rock painting for commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to this day in many parts of Asia, the tradition of wall painting can be traced back to Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. In ancient China, the earliest advertising known was oral, as recorded in the Classic of Poetry of bamboo flutes played to sell candy, advertisement usually takes in the form of calligraphic signboards and inked papers.
Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons, the first compilation of such advertisements was gathered in Les Crieries de Paris, a thirteenth-century poem by Guillaume de la Villeneuve. In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in newspapers in England. However, false advertising and so-called quack advertisements became a problem, thomas J. Barratt from London has been called the father of modern advertising. Working for the Pears Soap company, Barratt created an advertising campaign for the company products. One of his slogans, Good morning, have you used Pears soap. was famous in its day and into the 20th century. Barratt introduced many of the ideas that lie behind successful advertising
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the worlds sixth-largest country by total area, the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australias capital is Canberra, and its largest urban area is Sydney, for about 50,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who spoke languages classifiable into roughly 250 groups. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored, on 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy comprising six states.
The population of 24 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard, Australia has the worlds 13th-largest economy and ninth-highest per capita income. With the second-highest human development index globally, the country highly in quality of life, education, economic freedom. The name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis a name used for putative lands in the southern hemisphere since ancient times, the Dutch adjectival form Australische was used in a Dutch book in Batavia in 1638, to refer to the newly discovered lands to the south. On 12 December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted, in 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. The first official published use of the term Australia came with the 1830 publication of The Australia Directory and these first inhabitants may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturists, the northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited sporadically by fishermen from Maritime Southeast Asia.
The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland, and the first recorded European landfall on the Australian continent, are attributed to the Dutch. The first ship and crew to chart the Australian coast and meet with Aboriginal people was the Duyfken captained by Dutch navigator, Willem Janszoon. He sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in early 1606, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines and named the island continent New Holland during the 17th century, but made no attempt at settlement. William Dampier, an English explorer and privateer, landed on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688, in 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. The first settlement led to the foundation of Sydney, and the exploration, a British settlement was established in Van Diemens Land, now known as Tasmania, in 1803, and it became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the part of Western Australia in 1828.
Separate colonies were carved from parts of New South Wales, South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, the Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia
The climax or turning point of a narrative work is its point of highest tension and drama, or it is the time when the action starts during which the solution is given. The climax of a story is a literary element. e. to construct a dramatization, in the play Hippolytus, by the famous Greek playwright, the climax arrives when Phaedra hears Hippolytus react badly because of her love for him. That is the moment that Aphrodites curse is fulfilled. An anticlimax is a situation in a plot in which something which would appear to be difficult to solve is solved through something trivial. Another example could involve the protagonist faced with insurmountable odds and ultimately being killed without accomplishing his goal, dramatic structure Literary element Climax as a rhetorical device
Alternatively, a gameshow can be a demonstrative program about a game. In the former, contestants may be invited from a pool of public applicants, on some shows, contestants compete against other players or another team, while other shows involve contestants playing alone for a reward or a high score. Game shows often reward players with prizes such as cash and goods and services provided by the shows sponsor prize suppliers, One of the reasons that television broadcasters make game shows is because they are substantially less costly than producing scripted drama shows. Some TV game shows fall under the category of reality television, Television game shows descended from similar programs on radio. The very first television show, Spelling Bee, was broadcast in 1938. Truth or Consequences was the first game show to air on commercially licensed television and its first episode aired in 1941 as an experimental broadcast. Over the course of the 1950s, as began to pervade the popular culture. Daytime game shows would be played for lower stakes to target stay-at-home housewives, higher-stakes programs would air in primetime.
During the late 1950s, high-stakes games such as Twenty One, the rise of quiz shows proved to be short-lived. In 1959, many of the higher stakes game shows were discovered to be rigged, an early variant of the game show, the panel game, survived the quiz show scandals. On shows like Whats My Line, ive Got A Secret and To Tell The Truth, panels of celebrities would interview a guest in an effort to determine some fact about them, in others, celebrities would answer questions. Panel games had success in primetime until the late 1960s, when they were dropped from television because of their perceived “low budget” nature. Panel games made a comeback in American daytime television in the 1970s through comedy-driven shows such as Match Game, mock the Week, QI and 8 Out of 10 Cats, all of which put a heavy emphasis on comedy, leaving the points as mere formalities. The focus on quick-witted comedians has resulted in ratings, which. Game shows remained a fixture of US daytime television through the 1960s after the quiz show scandals, lower-stakes games made a slight comeback in daytime in the early 1960s, examples include Jeopardy.
Which began in 1964 and the version of The Match Game first aired in 1962. Lets Make a Deal began in 1963 and the 1960s marked the debut of Hollywood Squares, The Dating Game, though CBS gave up on daytime game shows in 1968, the other networks did not follow suit. Color television was introduced to the game genre in the late 1960s on all three networks
A Trip to the Moon
A Trip to the Moon is a 1902 French silent film directed by Georges Méliès. The film was a popular success on its release, and was extensively pirated by other studios. An original hand-colored print was discovered in 1993 and restored in 2011, a Trip to the Moon was named one of the 100 greatest films of the 20th century by The Village Voice, ranked 84th. It is widely regarded as the earliest example of the fiction film genre and, more generally. At a meeting of the Astronomic Club, its president, Professor Barbenfouillis, after addressing some dissent, five other brave astronomers—Nostradamus, Omega and Parafaragaramus—agree to the plan. They build a space capsule in the shape of a bullet, the astronomers embark and their capsule is fired from the cannon with the help of marines, most of whom are played by a bevy of young women in sailors outfits. The Man in the Moon watches the capsule as it approaches, landing safely on the Moon, the astronomers get out of the capsule and watch the Earth rise in the distance.
Exhausted by their journey, they unroll their blankets and sleep, phoebe causes a snowfall that awakens the astronomers, and they seek shelter in a cavern where they discover giant mushrooms. One astronomer opens his umbrella, it promptly takes root and turns into a giant mushroom itself, at this point, a Selenite appears, but it is killed easily by an astronomer, as the creatures explode if they are hit with force. More Selenites appear and it increasingly difficult for the astronomers to destroy them as they are surrounded. The Selenites capture the astronomers and take them to the palace of their king, an astronomer lifts the Selenite King off his throne and throws him to the ground, causing him to explode. The astronomers run back to their capsule while continuing to hit the pursuing Selenites, the sixth astronomer, Barbenfouillis himself, uses a rope to tip the capsule over a ledge on the Moon and into space. A Selenite tries to seize the capsule at the last minute, astronomer and Selenite fall through space and land in an ocean on Earth, where they are rescued by a ship and towed ashore.
When A Trip to the Moon was made, film actors performed anonymously and no credits were given, the following cast details can be reconstructed from available evidence, Georges Méliès as Professor Barbenfouillis. His extensive involvement in all of his films as director, writer, technician, publicist and often actor makes him one of the first cinematic auteurs. Speaking about his late in life, Méliès commented, The greatest difficulty in realising my own ideas forced me to sometimes play the leading role in my films. I was a star without knowing I was one, since the term did not yet exist, all told, Méliès took an acting role in at least 300 of his 520 films. Méliès discovered Bernon in the 1890s, when she was performing as a singer at the cabaret LEnfer and she appeared in his 1899 adaption of Cinderella
Federal Communications Commission
The FCC works towards six goals in the areas of broadband, the spectrum, the media, public safety and homeland security, and modernizing itself. The FCC was formed by the Communications Act of 1934 to replace the radio regulation functions of the Federal Radio Commission, the FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission. The FCCs mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the FCC provides varied degrees of cooperation and leadership for similar communications bodies in other countries of North America. The FCC is funded entirely by regulatory fees and it has an estimated fiscal-2016 budget of US$388 million. Consistent with the objectives of the Act as well as the 1993 Government Performance and Results Act and these are, Broadband All Americans should have affordable access to robust and reliable broadband products and services. Competition Competition in the provision of services, both domestically and overseas, supports the Nations economy.
The competitive framework for communications services should foster innovation and offer consumers reliable, Media The Nations media regulations must promote competition and diversity and facilitate the transition to digital modes of delivery. Public Safety and Homeland Security Communications during emergencies and crisis must be available for public safety, defense, the Nations critical communications infrastructure must be reliable, interoperable and rapidly restorable. The FCC is directed by five appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms. The U. S. President designates one of the commissioners to serve as chairman, only three commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business, commissioners may continue serving until the appointment of their replacements, but may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration.
In practice, as of 2016 this means that commissioners may serve up to 1 1/2 years beyond the term expiration dates listed above if no replacement is appointed. The Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau develops and implements the FCCs consumer policies, CGB serves as the public face of the FCC through outreach and education, as well as through their Consumer Center, which is responsible for responding to consumer inquiries and complaints. CGB maintains partnerships with state and tribal governments in such areas as emergency preparedness. The Enforcement Bureau is responsible for enforcement of provisions of the Communications Act 1934, FCC rules, FCC orders, major areas of enforcement that are handled by the Enforcement Bureau are consumer protection, local competition, public safety, and homeland security. S. The International Bureau oversees FCC compliance with the international Radio Regulations, the Media Bureau handles post-licensing matters regarding direct broadcast satellite service.
The Wireless Telecommunications Bureau regulates domestic wireless telecommunications programs and policies, the Wireline Competition Bureau develops policy concerning wire line telecommunications. The Wireline Competition Bureaus main objective is to promote growth and economical investments in technology infrastructure, markets
Anime is Japanese hand-drawn or computer animation. The word is the pronunciation of animation in Japanese, where this term references all animation. Arguably, the abstract approach to the words meaning may open up the possibility of anime produced in countries other than Japan. For simplicity, many Westerners strictly view anime as a Japanese animation product, some scholars suggest defining anime as specifically or quintessentially Japanese may be related to a new form of orientalism. The earliest commercial Japanese animation dates to 1917, and Japanese anime production has continued to increase steadily. Anime is distributed theatrically, by way of television broadcasts, directly to home media and it is classified into numerous genres targeting diverse broad and niche audiences. Anime is an art form with distinctive production methods and techniques that have been adapted over time in response to emergent technologies. It consists of an ideal story-telling mechanism, combining art, cinematography.
The production of anime focuses less on the animation of movement and more on the realism of settings as well as the use of effects, including panning, zooming. Being hand-drawn, anime is separated from reality by a gap of fiction that provides an ideal path for escapism that audiences can immerse themselves into with relative ease. Diverse art styles are used and character proportions and features can be quite varied, the anime industry consists of over 430 production studios, including major names like Studio Ghibli and Toei Animation. Despite comprising only a fraction of Japans domestic film market, anime makes up a majority of Japanese DVD sales and it has seen international success after the rise of English-dubbed programming. This rise in popularity has resulted in non-Japanese productions using the anime art style. Anime is an art form, specifically animation, that all genres found in cinema. In Japanese, the term refers to all forms of animation from around the world. In English, anime is more used to denote a Japanese-style animated film or television entertainment or as a style of animation created in Japan.
The etymology of the anime is disputed. The English term animation is written in Japanese katakana as アニメーション and is アニメ in its shortened form, in English, anime—when used as a common noun—normally functions as a mass noun
A direct-broadcast satellite is a type of artificial satellite which usually broadcasts satellite television signals for home reception. The type of satellite television which uses direct-broadcast satellites is known as direct-broadcast satellite television or direct-to-home television and these services were to use the D-Mac and D2-Mac format and BSS frequencies with circular polarization from orbital positions allocated to each country. Before these DBS satellites, home satellite television in Europe was limited to a few channels, really intended for cable distribution, in 1977, the ITU adopted an international BSS Plan under which each country was allocated specific frequencies at specific orbital locations for domestic service. Over the years, this plan has been modified to, for example, accommodate new countries, increase coverage areas, at present, numerous countries have brought into use their BSS Plan allocations. By contrast, the term DTH can apply to similar services transmitted over a range of frequencies transmitted from satellites that are not part of any internationally planned band.
The term DBS is often used interchangeably with DTH to cover both analog and digital video and audio services received by relatively small dishes, a DBS service usually refers to either a commercial service, or a group of free channels available from one orbital position targeting one country. In certain regions of the world, especially in North America, DBS is used to refer to providers of subscription satellite packages, the second commercial DBS service, Sky Television plc, was launched in 1989. Sky TV started as a four-channel free-to-air analogue service on the Astra 1A satellite, by 1991, Sky had changed to a conditional access pay model, and it launched a digital service, Sky Digital, in 1998, with analogue transmission ceasing in 2001. Since the DBS nomenclature is used in the UK or Ireland. News Corporation has a 32% stake in BSkyB, PrimeStar began transmitting an analog service to North America in 1991, and was joined by DirecTV, in 1994. At the time, DirecTVs introduction was the most successful consumer electronics debut in American history, although PrimeStar transitioned to a digital system in 1994, it was ultimately unable to compete with DirecTV, which required a smaller satellite dish and could deliver more programming.
DirecTV purchased PrimeStar in 1999 and moved all of that subscribers to DirecTV equipment. In 2008, Liberty Media Corporation purchased News Corporations controlling interest in DirecTV, in 1996, EchoStars Dish Network went online in the United States and, as DirecTVs primary competitor, achieved similar success. AlphaStar started but soon went under, astro was started, using a direct broadcast satellite system. Dominion Video Satellite Inc. s Sky Angel launched on a platform in the United States in 1996, with its DBS service geared toward the faith. It grew from six to 36 television and radio channels of entertainment, Christian-inspirational programming. Dominion, under its corporate name Video Satellite Systems Inc. Sky Angel, although a separate and independent DBS service, used the satellites, transmission facilities
A soap opera, soap, or soapie, is a serial drama on television or radio that examines the lives of many characters, usually focusing on emotional relationships to the point of melodrama. The term soap opera originated from such dramas being typically sponsored by soap manufacturers in the past, the first serial considered to be a soap opera was Painted Dreams, which debuted on October 20,1930 on Chicago radio station WGN. The first nationally broadcast radio soap opera was Clara, Lu, and Em, a crucial element that defines the soap opera is the open-ended serial nature of the narrative, with stories spanning several episodes. One of the features that makes a television program a soap opera. While Spanish language telenovelas are sometimes called soap operas, telenovelas have conflicts that get resolved, but with soap operas each episode ends with a promise that the storyline is to be continued in another episode. You spend more time even with the characters, the apparent villains grow less apparently villainous.
Soap opera storylines run concurrently and lead into further developments, each episode may feature some of the shows current storylines, but not always all of them. Soap operas rarely bring all the current storylines to a conclusion at the same time, when one storyline ends, there are several other story threads at differing stages of development. Soap opera episodes typically end on some sort of cliffhanger, evening soap operas and those that air at a rate of one episode per week are more likely to feature the entire cast in each episode, and to represent all current storylines in each episode. Evening soap operas and serials that run for only part of the year tend to bring things to a dramatic end-of-season cliffhanger, the article explained that at that time, many prime time series lost money, while daytime serials earned profits several times more than their production costs. Fitting in with these characteristics, most soap operas follow the lives of a group of characters who live or work in a particular place, the storylines follow the day-to-day activities and personal relationships of these characters.
These elements may be found across the gamut of soap operas, Due to the prominence of English-language television, most soap-operas are completely English. In many soap operas, in particular daytime serials in the US, Soap operas from the United Kingdom and Australia tend to focus on more everyday characters and situations, and are frequently set in working class environments. Many of the soaps produced in two countries explore social realist storylines such as family discord, marriage breakdown or financial problems. This diverges from US soap operas where such comedy is rare, UK soap operas frequently make a claim to presenting reality or purport to have a realistic style. Romance, secret relationships, extramarital affairs, and genuine hate have been the basis for many soap opera storylines, in US daytime serials, the most popular soap opera characters, and the most popular storylines, often involved a romance of the sort presented in paperback romance novels. Crimes such as kidnapping and even murder may go unpunished if the perpetrator is to be retained in the ongoing story, Australian and UK soap operas feature a significant proportion of romance storylines.
In Russia, most popular serials explore the romantic quality of criminal and/or oligarch life, in soap opera storylines, previously unknown children and twins of established characters often emerge to upset and reinvigorate the set of relationships examined by the series
Media Prima Berhad is a fully integrated media company in Malaysia that has equity interests on television stations, radio stations, content creation and digital media. Television stations in which it has an interest include TV3, 8TV, ntv7, Media Prima owns 98 percent of The New Straits Times Press Berhad, which publishes New Straits Times, BH and Harian Metro. Radio stations include Fly FM, Hot FM, one FM, the group owns the production company Primeworks Studios Sdn Bhd, which produces television and film content, and a group of outdoor advertising companies under its out-of-home platform. Through its subsidiary Media Prima CJ O Shopping Sdn