Kokoda Track campaign
The Kokoda Track campaign or Kokoda Trail campaign was part of the Pacific War of World War II. The campaign consisted of a series of battles fought between July and November 1942 in what was the Australian Territory of Papua, it was a land battle, between the Japanese South Seas Detachment under Major General Tomitarō Horii and Australian and Papuan land forces under command of New Guinea Force. The Japanese objective was to seize Port Moresby by an overland advance from the north coast, following the Kokoda Track over the mountains of the Owen Stanley Range, as part of a strategy to isolate Australia from the United States. Japanese forces landed and established beachheads near Gona and Buna on 21 July 1942. Opposed by Maroubra Force consisting of four platoons of the 39th Battalion and elements of the Papuan Infantry Battalion, they advanced and captured Kokoda and its strategically vital airfield on 29 July. Despite reinforcement, the Australian forces were continually pushed back; the veteran Second Australian Imperial Force 21st Brigade narrowly avoided capture in the Battle of Mission Ridge – Brigade Hill from 6 to 8 September.
In the Battle of Ioribaiwa from 13 to 16 September, the 25th Brigade under Brigadier Kenneth Eather fought the Japanese to a halt but ceded the field to the Japanese, withdrawing back to Imita Ridge. The Japanese withdrew on 26 September, they had outrun their supply line and had been ordered to withdraw in consequence of reverses suffered at Guadalcanal. The Australian pursuit encountered strong opposition from well-prepared positions around Templeton's Crossing and Eora Village from 11 to 28 October. Following the unopposed recapture of Kokoda, a major battle was fought around Oivi and Gorari from 4 to 11 November, resulting in a victory for the Australians. By 16 November, two brigades of the Australian 7th Division had crossed the Kumusi River at Wairopi, advanced on the Japanese beachheads in a joint Australian and United States operation; the Japanese forces at Buna–Gona held out until 22 January 1943. Australian reinforcement was hampered by the logistical problems of supporting a force in isolated, jungle terrain.
There were few planes available for aerial resupply, techniques for it were still primitive. Australian command considered that the Vickers machine gun and medium mortars were too heavy to carry and would be ineffective in the jungle terrain. Without artillery, mortars or medium machine guns, the Australians faced an opponent equipped with mountain guns and light howitzers, carried into the mountains and proved to be a decisive advantage. Australian forces were unprepared to conduct a campaign in the jungle environment of New Guinea; the lessons learned during the course of this campaign and the subsequent battle of Buna–Gona led to widespread changes in doctrine, training and structure, with a legacy that remains until the present day. In consequence of the rapid Japanese advance and the perceived failure to counterattack, a "crisis of command" resulted, in which manoeuvring by General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the South West Pacific Area, General Sir Thomas Blamey, commander of Allied Land Forces, resulted in the sackings of three high-ranking Australian officers.
The generalship of MacArthur and Blamey has been criticised for unreasonable and unrealistic perceptions of the terrain and conditions under which the campaign was fought—to the detriment of the troops committed to the fighting. The Kokoda Track campaign has been mythologised as Australia's Thermopylae and incorporated into the Anzac legend though the premise of a vastly numerically-superior enemy has since been shown to be incorrect. After the fall of Singapore, the Australian government and many Australians feared that Japan would invade the Australian mainland. Australia was ill-prepared to counter such an attack; the entire 8th Division, deployed to Malaya, Ambon and Rabaul, was lost or rendered ineffective as the Japanese advanced. The Royal Australian Air Force lacked modern aircraft and the Royal Australian Navy was too small to counter the Imperial Japanese Navy; the RAAF and RAN were expanded, though it took years for these services to build up to their peak strengths. The Militia was mobilised but, although a large force, it was inexperienced and lacked modern equipment.
In response to the threat, the Government appealed to the United States for assistance, the 6th and 7th Divisions of the Second Australian Imperial Force were brought back from the Middle East. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill attempted to divert them to Burma, but the Australian Prime Minister, John Curtin, refused to authorise this movement; as a compromise, two brigades of the 6th Division disembarked at Ceylon, where they formed part of the garrison until they returned to Australia in August 1942. The Japanese Imperial General Headquarters considered invading Australia in early 1942 but decided against doing so in February that year, as it was judged to be beyond the Japanese capabilities, no planning or preparations were undertaken. Instead, in March 1942 the Japanese military adopted a strategy of isolating Australia from the United States and preventing Allied offensive operations by capturing Port Moresby, the Solomon Islands, Fiji and New Caledonia. An attempt to capture Port Moresby by an amphibious assault was thwarted by the Battle of the Coral Sea in May 1942.
A month most of the Japanese carrier fleet was destroyed in the Battle of Midway, further reducing the possibility of major amphibious operations in the South Pacific. Following this, the Japanese began to consider an overland advance on Port Moresby. Meanwhile, the Allied Supreme Commande
Rabaul is a township in East New Britain province, on the island of New Britain, in the country of Papua New Guinea. It lies about 60 kilometres to the east of the island of New Guinea. Rabaul was the provincial capital and most important settlement in the province until it was destroyed in 1994 by falling ash of a volcanic eruption in its harbor. During the eruption, ash was sent thousands of metres into the air and the subsequent rain of ash caused 80% of the buildings in Rabaul to collapse. After the eruption the capital was moved to Kokopo, about 20 kilometres away. Rabaul is continually threatened by volcanic activity because it is on the edge of Rabaul caldera, a flooded caldera of a large pyroclastic shield. Rabaul was planned and built around the harbor area known as Simpsonhafen during the German New Guinea administration which controlled the region between 1884 and formally through 1919. From 1910 Rabaul was the headquarters of German New Guinea until captured by the British Empire during the early days of World War I.
It became the capital of the Australian mandated Territory of New Guinea until 1937 when it was first destroyed by a volcano. During World War II it was captured by Japan in 1942, became its main base of military and naval activity in the South Pacific. Settlements and military installations around the edge of the caldera are collectively called Rabaul, although the old town of Rabaul was reduced to practical insignificance by the volcanic eruption in 1937; as a tourist destination, Rabaul is popular for its volcanoes, scuba diving and for snorkeling sites, spectacular harbour and other scenery, World War II history and fauna, the cultural life of the Tolai people. Before the 1994 eruption, Rabaul was a popular commercial and recreational boating destination. Tourism is a major industry in East New Britain generally. Rabaul's proximity to its volcanoes has always been a source of concern. In 1878 before it was established as a town, an eruption formed a volcano in the harbour. For older eruptions, see Rabaul caldera.
In 1910 the German colonial government during the administration of Governor Albert Hahl moved offices, the district court, a hospital and customs and postal facilities from Herbertshöhe to Simpsonhafen. That settlement was thus enlarged with official buildings and housing and renamed Rabaul, meaning mangrove in Kuanua as the new town was built on a reclaimed mangrove swamp. At the outset of World War I, at the behest of Great Britain, Australia — as one of the Dominions of the British Empire — defeated the German military garrison in Rabaul and occupied the territory with the volunteer Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force. Following Germany's defeat at the end of the war, the occupied territory was delegated in 1920 to Australia as a League of Nations Mandate. Rabaul became the capital of the Territory of New Guinea. Visits to and stays in Rabaul during this period were amply described in books by many authors, including Margaret Mead. Gunantambu, the famous house of “Queen” Emma Forsayth and her husband, contained furniture owned by Robert Louis Stevenson and left to her family in Samoa.
Destroyed in the 1937 volcano eruption, its remains became a tourist attraction after World War II and remained so until the 1994 further volcanic destruction of Rabaul. "Rabaul volcano is one of the most active and most dangerous volcanoes in Papua New Guinea." Having erupted and destroyed Rabaul in 1937, five years before the occupation by Japan, "Rabaul exploded violently in 1994 and devastated the.... Since the young cone Tavurvur located inside the caldera has been the site of near persistent activity in form of strombolian to vulcanian ash eruptions; the caldera has an elliptical form and is surrounded by a steep volcanic ridge several hundred meters high."Under the Australian administration, Rabaul developed into a regional base. In 1937, catastrophic volcanic eruptions destroyed the town after the two volcanoes and Vulcan, exploded. 507 people were killed, there was widespread damage. Following this, the Australian administration for the Territory of New Guinea decided to move the territorial headquarters to the safer location of Lae.
All long-term steps to re-establish the territorial headquarters at Rabaul were forestalled during World War II. By the time the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor. So, by December 1941, women and children were evacuated. In January 1942 Rabaul was bombed, on 23 January the Battle of Rabaul began and Rabaul was captured shortly thereafter by thousands of Japanese naval landing forces. During their occupation the Japanese developed Rabaul into a much more powerful base than the Australians had planned after the 1937 volcanic eruptions, with long term consequences for the town in the post-war period; the Japanese army dug many kilometres of tunnels as shelter from Allied air attacks, such as the bombing of Rabaul. They expanded the facilities by constructing army barracks and support structures. By 1943 there were about 110,000 Japanese troops based in Rabaul. On 18 April 1943, the United States executed Operation Vengeance, in which Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, the architect of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, was shot down and killed by a United States P-38 Lightning over south Bougainville.
Yamamoto had taken off from Rabaul on an inspection tour, United States Navy cryptographers had intercepted and decrypted Japanese communications giving h
George Churchill Kenney was a United States Army Air Forces general during World War II. He is best known as the commander of the Allied Air Forces in the Southwest Pacific Area, a position he held between August 1942 and 1945. Kenney enlisted as a flying cadet in the Aviation Section, U. S. Signal Corps in 1917, served on the Western Front with the 91st Aero Squadron, he was awarded a Silver Star and the Distinguished Service Cross for actions in which he fought off German fighters and shot two down. After hostilities ended he participated in the Occupation of the Rhineland. Returning to the United States, he flew reconnaissance missions along the border between the US and Mexico during the Mexican Revolution. Commissioned into the Regular Army in 1920, he attended the Air Corps Tactical School, became an instructor there, he was responsible for the acceptance of Martin NBS-1 bombers built by Curtis, test flew them. He developed techniques for mounting.30 caliber machine guns on the wings of an Airco DH.4 aircraft.
In early 1940, Kenney became Assistant Military Attaché for Air in France. As a result of his observations of German and Allied air operations during the early stages of World War II, he recommended significant changes to Air Corps equipment and tactics. In July 1942, he assumed command of the Allied Air Forces and Fifth Air Force in General Douglas MacArthur's Southwest Pacific Area. Under Kenney's command, the Allied Air Forces developed innovative command structures and tactics that reflected Kenney's orientation towards attack aviation; the new weapons and tactics won his greatest victory, the Battle of the Bismarck Sea, in March 1943. In June 1944 he was appointed commander of the Far East Air Forces, which came to include the Fifth and Seventh Air Forces. In April 1946, Kenney became the first commander of the newly formed Strategic Air Command, but his performance in the role was criticized, he was shifted to become commander of the Air University, a position he held from October 1948 until his retirement from the Air Force in September 1951.
George Churchill Kenney was born in Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada, on 6 August 1889, during a summer vacation taken by his parents to avoid the humidity of the Boston area. The oldest of four children of carpenter Joseph Atwood Kenney and his wife Anne Louise Kenney, née Churchill, Kenney grew up in Brookline, Massachusetts, he graduated from Brookline High School in 1907 and that year he entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he pursued a course in civil engineering. After his father left his family, Kenney quit MIT and took various jobs before becoming a surveyor for the Quebec Saguenay Railroad, his mother died in 1913 and Kenney returned to Boston, where he took a job with Stone & Webster. In 1914 he joined the New York, New Haven and Hartford Railroad as a civil engineer, building a bridge in New London, Connecticut. After this was completed, he formed a partnership, the Beaver Contracting and Engineering Corporation, with a high school classmate, Gordon Glazier; the firm became involved in a number of projects, including the construction of a seawall at Winthrop, a bridge over the Squannacook River.
The United States entered World War I in April 1917, Kenney enlisted as a flying cadet in the Aviation Section, U. S. Signal Corps on 2 June 1917, he attended ground school at MIT in June and July, received primary flight training at Hazelhurst Field in Mineola, New York, from Bert Acosta. He was commissioned as a first lieutenant on 5 November 1917, departed for France soon after. There, he received further flight training at Issoudun; this ended in February 1918. The 91st Aero Squadron flew a reconnaissance biplane. Kenney crashed one on takeoff on 22 March 1918, he broke an ankle and a hand, earned himself the nickname "Bust'em up George". His injuries soon healed, he recorded his first mission on 3 June. Kenney flew one of four aircraft on a mission near Gorze on 15 September 1918, attacked by six German Pfalz D. III scouts, his observer William T. Badham shot one of them down, Kenney was credited with his first aerial victory. For this he was awarded a Silver Star. A second victory followed in similar circumstances on 9 October while he was flying near Jametz in support of the Meuse-Argonne Offensive.
Once again, the formation he was flying with was attacked by German fighters. This time he was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, presented by Brigadier General Billy Mitchell on 10 January 1919. Kenney's citation read: For extraordinary heroism in action near Jametz, October 9, 1918; this officer gave proof of his bravery and devotion to duty when he was attacked by a superior number of aircraft. He destroyed one plane and drove the others off. Notwithstanding that the enemy returned and attacked again in strong numbers, he continued his mission and enabled his observer to secure information of great military value. Kenney remained for a time with the Allied occupation forces in Germany, was promoted to captain on 18 March 1919, he returned to the United States in June 1919. He was the co-author in 1919 of "History of the 91st Aero Squadron" He was sent to Kelly Field, near San Antonio, to McAllen, Texas; as commander of the 8th Aero Squadron, he flew reconnaissance missions along the border with Mexico during the Mexican Revolution.
Poor aircraft maintenance, rough landing strips and bad weather led to the squadron losing 22 of its 24 Airco DH.4 aircraft in just one year. Kenney applied for one of a number of Regular Army commissions offered to reservists after the war, was commissioned as a captain in the Air
Battle of Buna–Gona
The Battle of Buna–Gona was part of the New Guinea campaign in the Pacific Theatre during World War II. It followed the conclusion of the Kokoda Track campaign and lasted from 16 November 1942 until 22 January 1943; the battle was conducted by Australian and United States forces against the Japanese beachheads at Buna and Gona. From these, the Japanese had launched an overland attack on Port Moresby. In light of developments in the Solomon Islands campaign, Japanese forces approaching Port Moresby were ordered to withdraw to and secure these bases on the northern coast. Australian forces maintained contact; the Allied objective was to eject the Japanese forces from these positions and deny them their further use. The Japanese forces were well prepared and resolute in their defence, they had developed a strong network of well-concealed defences. Operations in Papua and New Guinea were hampered by terrain, climate and the lack of infrastructure. During the Kokoda Track campaign, these factors applied more-or-less to both belligerents but favoured the defender in attacks against well-fortified positions.
The battlefield and logistical constraints limited the applicability of conventional Allied doctrine of manoeuvre and firepower. During the opening stages of the offensive, the Allies faced a severe shortage of food and ammunition; this problem was never resolved. The battle exposed critical problems with the suitability and performance of Allied equipment; the combat effectiveness of US forces the US 32nd Division, has been criticised. These factors were compounded by repeated demands from General Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific Area, for a rapid conclusion to the battle; the demands were more to politically secure MacArthur's command than for any strategic need. In consequence, troops were hastily committed to battle on repeated occasions, increasing Allied losses and lengthening the battle. Allied air power interrupted the Japanese capacity to reinforce and resupply the beachheads from Rabaul; this made the Japanese position untenable. There was widespread evidence of the Japanese defenders cannibalising the dead.
In the closing stages of the battle, significant numbers of the defenders were withdrawn by sea or escaped overland toward the west and the Japanese base around Salamaua and Lae. The remaining garrison fought to the death to the man; the resolve and tenacity of the Japanese in defence was unprecedented and had not been encountered. It was to mark the desperate nature of fighting that characterised battles for the remainder of the Pacific war. For the Allies, there were a number of costly lessons in the conduct of jungle warfare. Allied losses in the battle were at a rate higher than that experienced at Guadalcanal. For the first time, the American public was confronted with the images of dead American troops. Japan's entry into World War II and the war in the Pacific commenced with the attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941, coordinated with coinciding attacks on Thailand, the Philippines, the American bases on Guam and Wake Island, the British possessions of Malaya and Hong Kong. Japanese forces secured territory in South-East Asia, the East Indies, the Central and South-West Pacific.
Australia had been shocked by the fall of Singapore. With the fall, nearly 15,000 Australian soldiers became prisoners of war along with the rest of the garrison of some 85,000. US President Franklin Roosevelt ordered General Douglas MacArthur in the Philippines to formulate a Pacific defence plan with Australia in March 1942; the Australian Prime Minister, John Curtin, agreed to place Australian forces under the command of MacArthur, who became Supreme Commander, Southwest Pacific Area. MacArthur moved his headquarters to Melbourne in March 1942; the Japanese assaulted Rabaul on 23 January 1942. Rabaul became the forward base for the Japanese campaigns in mainland New Guinea. Japanese forces first landed on the mainland of New Guinea on 8 March 1942 when they invaded Lae and Salamaua to secure bases for the defence of the important base they were developing at Rabaul; the Japanese 17th Army under Lieutenant General Harukichi Hyakutake was a corps-sized command involved in the New Guinea and Solomon Islands campaigns.
The Japanese 8th Area Army, under General Hitoshi Imamura, was mobilised to take overall command in the areas from 16 November 1942. It was responsible for both the New Solomon Islands campaigns. Imamura was based at Rabaul; the Japanese 18th Army, under Lieutenant General Hatazō Adachi, was formed to take over responsibilities for Japanese operations on mainland New Guinea, leaving the 17th Army responsible for the Solomon Islands. Despite Australian fears, the Japanese never intended to invade the Australian mainland. While an invasion was considered by the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters in February 1942, it was judged to be beyond the capability of the Japanese military and no planning or other preparations were undertaken. Instead, in March 1942 the Japanese adopted a strategy of isolating Australia from the United States; the first part of this plan, codenamed Operation Mo, was an amphibious landing to capture Port Moresby, capital of the Australian Territory of Papua. This was frustrated by the Japanese defeat in the Battle of the Coral Sea and postponed indefinitely after the Battle of Midway.
Fifth Air Force
The Fifth Air Force is a numbered air force of the United States Air Force Pacific Air Forces. It is headquartered at Japan, it is the U. S. Air Force's oldest continuously serving Numbered Air Force; the organization has provided 70 years of continuous air power to the Pacific since its establishment in September 1941. Fifth Air Force is the Headquarters Pacific Air Forces forward element in Japan, maximizes partnership capabilities and promotes bilateral defense cooperation. In addition, 5 AF is the air component to United States Forces Japan, its mission is three-fold. First, it plans, conducts and coordinates air operations assigned by the PACAF Commander. Fifth Air Force maintains a level of readiness necessary for successful completion of directed military operations, and last, but not least, Fifth Air Force assists in the mutual defense of Japan and enhances regional stability by planning and executing joint air operations in partnership with Japan. To achieve this mission, Fifth Air Force maintains its deterrent force posture to protect both U.
S. and Japanese interests, conducts appropriate air operations should deterrence fail. Fifth Air Force is commanded by Lieutenant General Kevin B. Schneider. With its origins going back over a century to 1912, the command was established on 6 May 1941 as the Philippine Department Air Force at Nichols Field, Philippines. Fifth Air Force was a United States Army Air Forces combat air force in the Pacific Theater of World War II, engaging in combat operations in the Southwest Pacific AOR. During World War II, Fifth Air Force units first engaged the Japanese during the Philippines Campaign afterward withdrawing to Australia after the Japanese conquest of the islands. Rearmed, it engaged the Japanese in New Guinea, the Dutch East Indies and as part of the liberating forces in the Philippines Campaign. In the postwar era, Fifth Air Force was the primary USAF occupation force in Japan. During the Korean War, Fifth Air Force was the primary command and control organization for USAF forces engaged in combat operations over Korea, during the Cold War was the main USAF defense force in Japan.
The United States Army Philippine Department was established on 11 January 1911 in the Unincorporated Philippine Territory. Fifth Air Force traces its roots to the Philippines with the activation of the Air Office of the Philippine Department in March 1912; the First Company, 2d Aero Squadron, was activated at Fort William McKinley, Luzon, on 3 February 1916. This unit was a training school, operating Martin S Hydro seaplanes, first produced in the United States in 1915; the unit operated under the Air Office until 15 October 1917, when it was inactivated when the early aviators returned to the United States as a result of the American entry into World War I. In 1917 outside Fort Stotsenburg, construction began on a half-mile long dirt runway and other support facilities to bring the local army units into the air age. Construction was completed in 1919. A permanent Army Air Service presence in the Philippines began in December 1919 with the activation of the 3d Aero Squadron at the facility; the unit was equipped with de Havilland DH-4 medium bombers.
The next year it moved to the new Clark Field on 15 October 1920 where, combined with some support units, the 1st Observation Group was formed. Clark Field became the Army Air Corps headquarters overseas, was the only American air base west of Hawaii. In 1923 the Air Service withdrew all of the DH-4s, along with Liberty motors and spare parts sent to the Philippines to be stored as a reserve, came back to the United States for conversion to DH-4Bs; when workmen at Rockwell Field outside San Diego, California opened one of the crates, they found a motor with a remarkable history. Built in Detroit, it went to France, back to the United States to the Philippines, now to Rockwell-without being used. In 1922, a second unit, the 28th Bombardment Squadron, was activated at Clark Field with DH-4s. in 1923, the 3d Aero Squadron was re designated the 3d Pursuit Squadron and received new Boeing Thomas-Morse MB-3 fighters. With that, the 1st Observation Group at Clark was re-designated as the 4th Observation.
The 4th Composite would be the mainstay of United States air power in the Philippines until 1941, under the nominal command of the Air Officer of the Philippine Department. In addition to Clark Field, additional airfields at Kindley Field on Corregidor in Manila Bay, one at Camp Nichols were constructed; the 3d Pursuit and 28th Bombardment moved from field to field during the 1920s, with the 4th Composite Group having its headquarters at Nichols until World War II. Over time, various aircraft were sent to the Philippines, the Martin NBS-1 night bomber in 1924. Beginning in 1930, the 3d Pursuit Squadron received Boeing P-12E fighters; the 3d Pursuit squadron received some Douglas O-2 and Thomas-Morse O-19 observation aircraft. These would be the last new aircraft received in the Philippines until 1937 due to funding shortages caused by the Great Depression. In 1935, the Philippine Army Air Corps was established as part of the gradual decision by the United States to establish the Philippines as an independent nation.
Its Army counterpart, the Philippine Scouts, had been established in 1901. In 1937, the 4th Composite Group began receiving Boeing P-26 Peashooter fighters and Martin B-10 bombers, its older aircraft being transferred to the Philippine AAC. By 1940, the corps had around 40 aircraft and
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Time in Australia
Australia uses three main time zones: Australian Western Standard Time, Australian Central Standard Time, Australian Eastern Standard Time. Time is regulated by the individual state governments. Australia's external territories observe different time zones. Standard time was introduced in the 1890s. Before the switch to standard time zones, each local city or town was free to determine its local time, called local mean time. Now, Western Australia uses Western Standard Time. Daylight saving time is used in states in the south and south-east - South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and the ACT, it is not used in Western Australia, the Northern Territory or Queensland. The standardisation of time in Australia began in 1892, when surveyors from the six colonies in Australia met in Melbourne for the Intercolonial Conference of Surveyors; the delegates accepted the recommendation of the 1884 International Meridian Conference to adopt Greenwich Mean Time as the basis for standard time. The colonies enacted time zone legislation, which took effect in February 1895.
The clocks were set ahead of GMT by 8 hours in Western Australia. The three time zones became known as Western Standard Time, Central Standard Time, Eastern Standard Time. Broken Hill in the far west of New South Wales adopted Central Standard Time due to it being connected by rail to Adelaide but not Sydney at the time. On 1 May 1899 at 12:00AM local time, South Australia advanced Central Standard Time by thirty minutes after lobbying by businesses who wanted to be closer to Melbourne time and cricketers and footballers who wanted more daylight to practice in the evenings disregarding the common international practice of setting one-hour intervals between adjacent time zones. Attempts to correct these oddities in 1986 and 1994 were rejected; when the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and placed under the jurisdiction of the Federal Government, that Territory kept Central Standard Time. When the ACT was broken off from New South Wales, it retained Eastern Standard Time. Since 1899, the only major changes in Australian time zones have been the setting of clocks to one-half hour earlier than Eastern time on the territory of Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island changing from UTC+11:30 to UTC+11:00 on 4 October 2015.
When abbreviating "Australian Central Time" and "Australian Eastern Time", in domestic contexts the leading "Australian" may be omitted. Though the governments of the states and territories have the power to legislate variations in time, the standard time within each of these is set related to Coordinated Universal Time as determined by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures and set by section 8AA of the National Measurement Act of 1960 of the Commonwealth. Australia has kept a version of the UTC atomic time scale since the 1990s, but Greenwich Mean Time remained the formal basis for the standard times of all of the states until 2005. In November 2004, the state and territory attorneys-general endorsed a proposal from the Australian National Measurement Institute to adopt UTC as the standard of all Australian standard times, thereby eliminating the effects of slight variations in the rate of rotation of the Earth that are inherent in mean solar time. All states have adopted the UTC standard, starting on 1 September 2005.
In Victoria, South Australia and the ACT, the starting and ending dates of daylight saving times are determined by proclamations, declarations, or regulation made by the State Governor or by the responsible minister. Such instruments may be valid for only the current year, so this section only refers to the legislation. In New South Wales and Western Australia, the starting and ending dates, if any, are to be set by legislation. Western Standard Time – UTC+08:00 Western Australia – Standard Time Act 2005Central Standard Time – UTC+09:30 South Australia – Standard Time Act 2009 and the Daylight Saving Act 1971 Northern Territory – Standard Time Act 2005Eastern Standard Time – UTC+10:00 Queensland – Standard Time Act 1894 New South Wales – Standard Time Act 1987 No 149 Australian Capital Territory – Standard Time and Summer Time Act 1972 Victoria – Summer Time Act 1972 Tasmania – Standard Time Act 1895 and the Daylight Saving Act 2007 The choice of whether to use DST is a matter for the governments of the individual states and territories.
However, during World War I and World War II all states and territories used daylight saving time. In 1968 Tasmania became the first state in peacetime to use DST, followed in 1971 by New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, the Australian Capital Territory. Western Australia and the Northern Territory did not adopt it. Queensland abandoned DST in 1972. Queensland and Western Australia have used DST during the past 40 years during trial periods; the main DST zones are the following: Central Daylight Saving Time – UTC+10:30, in South Australia Eastern Daylight Saving Time – UTC+11:00, in New South Wales, the ACT, TasmaniaDuring the usual