North Rhine-Westphalia is a state of Germany. North Rhine-Westphalia is located in western Germany covering an area of 34,084 square kilometres. With a population of 17.9 million, it is the most populous state in Germany. It is the most densely populated German state apart from the city-states of Berlin and Hamburg, the fourth-largest by area. Düsseldorf is the state capital and Cologne is the largest city. North Rhine-Westphalia features four of Germany's 10 largest cities: Düsseldorf, Cologne and Essen, the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area, the largest in Germany and the third-largest on the European continent. North Rhine-Westphalia was established in 1946 after World War II from the Prussian provinces of Westphalia and the northern part of Rhine Province, the Free State of Lippe by the British military administration in Allied-occupied Germany. North Rhine-Westphalia became a state of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949, the city of Bonn served as the federal capital until the reunification of Germany in 1990 and as the seat of government until 1999.
The first written account of the area was by its conqueror, Julius Caesar, the territories west of the Rhine were occupied by the Eburones and east of the Rhine he reported the Ubii and the Sugambri to their north. The Ubii and some other Germanic tribes such as the Cugerni were settled on the west side of the Rhine in the Roman province of Germania Inferior. Julius Caesar conquered the tribes on the left bank, Augustus established numerous fortified posts on the Rhine, but the Romans never succeeded in gaining a firm footing on the right bank, where the Sugambri neighboured several other tribes including the Tencteri and Usipetes. North of the Sigambri and the Rhine region were the Bructeri; as the power of the Roman empire declined, many of these tribes came to be seen collectively as Ripuarian Franks and they pushed forward along both banks of the Rhine, by the end of the fifth century had conquered all the lands, under Roman influence. By the eighth century, the Frankish dominion was established in western Germany and northern Gaul, but at the same time, to the north, Westphalia was being taken over by Saxons pushing south.
The Merovingian and Carolingian Franks built an empire which controlled first their Ripuarian kin, the Saxons. On the division of the Carolingian Empire at the Treaty of Verdun, the part of the province to the east of the river fell to East Francia, while that to the west remained with the kingdom of Lotharingia. By the time of Otto I, both banks of the Rhine had become part of the Holy Roman Empire, the Rhenish territory was divided between the duchies of Upper Lorraine on the Moselle and Lower Lorraine on the Meuse; the Ottonian dynasty had both Frankish ancestry. As the central power of the Holy Roman Emperor weakened, the Rhineland split into numerous small, separate vicissitudes and special chronicles; the old Lotharingian divisions became obsolete, although the name survives for example in Lorraine in France, throughout the Middle Ages and into modern times, the nobility of these areas sought to preserve the idea of a preeminent duke within Lotharingia, something claimed by the Dukes of Limburg, the Dukes of Brabant.
Such struggles as the War of the Limburg Succession therefore continued to create military and political links between what is now Rhineland-Westphalia and neighbouring Belgium and the Netherlands. In spite of its dismembered condition and the sufferings it underwent at the hands of its French neighbours in various periods of warfare, the Rhenish territory prospered and stood in the foremost rank of German culture and progress. Aachen was the place of coronation of the German emperors, the ecclesiastical principalities of the Rhine bulked in German history. Prussia first set foot on the Rhine in 1609 by the occupation of the Duchy of Cleves and about a century Upper Guelders and Moers became Prussian. At the peace of Basel in 1795, the whole of the left bank of the Rhine was resigned to France, in 1806, the Rhenish princes all joined the Confederation of the Rhine. After the Congress of Vienna, Prussia was awarded the entire Rhineland, which included the Grand Duchy of Berg, the ecclesiastic electorates of Trier and Cologne, the free cities of Aachen and Cologne, nearly a hundred small lordships and abbeys.
The Prussian Rhine province was formed in 1822 and Prussia had the tact to leave them in undisturbed possession of the liberal institutions to which they had become accustomed under the republican rule of the French. In 1920, the districts of Eupen and Malmedy were transferred to Belgium. Around AD 1, numerous incursions occurred through Westphalia and even some permanent Roman or Romanized settlements; the Battle of Teutoburg Forest took place near Osnabrück and some of the Germanic tribes who fought at this battle came from the area of Westphalia. Charlemagne is thought to have spent considerable time in nearby parts, his Saxon Wars partly took place in what is thought of as Westphalia today. Popular legends link his adversary Widukind to places near Detmold, Lemgo, Osnabrück, other places in Westphalia. Widukind was buried in Enger, a subject of a legend. Along with Eastphalia and Engern, Westphalia was a district of the Duchy of Saxony. In 1180, Westphalia was elevated to the rank of a duchy by Emperor Barbarossa.
The Duchy of Westphalia comprised only a small area
Leer is a town in the district of Leer, the northwestern part of Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated on the river Leda, a tributary of the river Ems, near the border with the Netherlands, it has a railway and autobahn connection to Groningen, Emden and the South. Leer had been a settlement; the city was situated at a meander near the mouth of the river Leda into the Ems, still the center of the town today. Though Leer is some 30 km away from the coast, it can be reached by large ships via the Ems. Leer lies close to the Dutch border. There are many traces of early settlements in the area, including crude flint tools that are dated back to 3200 BC. In 791 AD Saint Ludger built the first chapel in East Frisia at the western edge of the settlement Leer still named Hleri after feetlot, willow; this chapel is mentioned for the first time in a written document from 850 AD. During the 14th and 15th centuries, Leer was home town of the Ukena family, one most influential East-Frisian chieftain families of that time.
The town profited from the trade with the Hanse, a fortress Leerort was built. In 1508, Count Edzard obtained the official right to host a market, which started the tradition of the "Gallimarkt,", now an annual fair. In 1744 East Frisia fell to Prussia ruled by Frederick the Great. Town privileges were awarded in 1823 by King of Hanover. In 1854 Leer became connected to the "Hannoversche Westbahn" railway, which at that time connected Emden and Rheine in the Ruhr area. In 1856, the Westbahn was connected to the central German railway network. Unlike Emden, Leer only suffered little damage by Allied bombing in World War II; the city was occupied by Canadian troops on April 28, 1945. On 1 October 1955, Leer received the status of an independent city. Since 1964 the city's government has been led by the Social-Democratic Party SPD; the major opposition parties are the Christian Democratic Union Party CDU, the Green Party and the AWG, an independent local party. The mayor of Leer is Beatrix Kuhl; the town council consists of: SPD: 36.7% / 14 seats CDU: 27.9% / 11 seats AWG: 10.2% / 4 seats Grüne: 13.9% / 5 seats FDP: 3.0% / 1 seat The Left: 3.1% / 1 seat CDL: 3.5% / 1 seat BfL 1.3%: / 1 seat Haase 0.5%: / 0 seat Harderwykenburg Haneburg Evenburg Philippsburg Telecommunication tower "Leer-Nüttermoor" Leer is a traditional Protestant city and home to both the Lutheran and Reformed churches.
The German Reformed Church has its head office in Leer. Furthermore, Leer offers an unusually large variety of smaller religious communities Baptists, Methodists and Mormons. Though Eastern Frisia is a a Protestant region, there is a small Roman Catholic community in Leer. Two autobahns cross north of Leer, the A 28 and the A 31; the city itself has three junctions to the autobahns. Leer railway station is a relay station between Groningen and Bremen in the west–east direction and the South and Emden harbour in the north; the airfield Leer-Papenburg north of the city offers limited passenger flights to nearby airfields, most notably the East Frisian Islands. The closest international airport is Bremen International Airport. Leer is home to many German shipping companies — about 20 per cent of the German merchant fleet are registered in Leer; the Bünting group is one of the city's main employers. Although Bünting owns several German supermarket chains, the company is best known for their tea, available all over Germany.
Each year in autumn the Gallimarkt is held. Traditionally a cattle-market, the Gallimarkt is now one of the largest fairs in Northwest Germany. In Leer there are numerous secondary schools; the two gymnasiums, Telletta-Gross-Gymnasium and Ubbo-Emmius-Gymnasium, educate more than 1,500 pupils each and are two of the largest grammar schools in Lower Saxony. The Navigation School is now faculty of the Hochschule Emden - Leer; the town offers education at two vocational schools. Leer is twinned with: Elbląg, Poland Trowbridge, United Kingdom Focko Ukena, East Frisian chieftain Ubbo Emmius, historian from the University of Groningen Gustaaf Willem Baron van Imhoff, governor-general of Dutch East India Johann Ludwig Hinrichs, Co-founder of the German Baptists Onno Klopp and historian Wilhelmine Siefkes, author Bernhard Bavink, Natural philosopher and scientist Ernst Reuter and municipal scientist, mayor of West-Berlin 1948-1953, father of Daimler-Benz CEO Edzard Reuter Hermann Lange, blessed priest and Nazi victim Marron Curtis Fort, professor and curator of Low German and Frisian languages.
Karl Dall, presenter and comedian Friedel Grützmacher, politician of Alliance'90/The Greens H. P. Baxxter, frontman of the Techno-Band Scooter Garrelt Duin, Member of the German Bundestag 2005-2012, President of the SPD in Lower-Saxony 2005-2010, since 2012 Economic Minister of North Rhine-Westphalia Okka Rau, beach volleyball player Christina Hennings, world vice-champion in rowing Leer travel guide from Wikivoyage Official website Photo collections about Leer
Bundesstraße, abbreviated B, is the denotation for German and Austrian national highways. Germany's Bundesstraßen network has a total length of about 40,000 km. German Bundesstraßen are labelled with rectangular yellow signs with black numerals, as opposed to the white-on-blue markers of the Autobahn controlled-access highways. Bundesstraßen, like autobahns, are maintained by the federal agency of the Transport Ministry. In the German highway system they rank below autobahns, but above the Landesstraßen and Kreisstraßen maintained by the federal states and the districts respectively; the numbering was implemented by law in 1932 and has overall been retained up to today, except for those roads located in the former eastern territories of Germany. One distinguishing characteristic between German Bundesstraßen and Autobahnen is that there is a general 100 km/h speed limit on federal highways out of built-up areas, as opposed to the advisory speed limit of 130 km/h in unmarked sections of the autobahns.
However, a number of Bundesstraßen have been extended as expressways. Many of these have speed limits of 100–120 km/h, others have only an advisory speed limit like autobahns. Most sections of the federal highways are only single carriageway with one lane for each direction and no hard shoulder pull-out area; the closest equivalent in the United States would be the U. S. highway system. In contrast to Germany, according to a 2002 amendment of the Austrian federal road act, Bundesstraßen is the official term referring only to autobahns and limited-access roads; the administration of all other former federal highways has passed to the federal states. Therefore classified as Landesstraßen, they are still colloquially called Bundesstraßen and have retained their "B" designation, followed by the number and a name, they are per se priority roads. Before 2002 there has been a further category of Bundesstraßen with circular yellow sign and black number that shows that this road has no fixed priority. A few yellow signs lived longer than 2002.
List of federal highways in Germany Media related to Bundesstraßen at Wikimedia Commons
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
Landkreis Emsland is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany named after the river Ems. It is bounded by the districts of Leer and Osnabrück, the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, the district of Bentheim in Lower Saxony, the Netherlands. For a long time the region of the Emsland was sparsely populated, due to the fens on both sides of the river. Small villages were established on the Hümmling. In the 13th century the bishops of Münster gained control over the region, it came under rule of Prussia and Arenberg, but after the Napoleonic Wars the Congress of Vienna decided to hand the territory over to the Kingdom of Hanover. The Duchy of Arenberg continued to exist as a fief of the Hanoverian kings; when Hanover was annexed by Prussia, the dukes were deposed soon after. The now Prussian Province of Hanover was subdivided into districts in 1885; the districts were merged in 1977 to form the present district. During the Nazi period, labour camps known as the Emslandlager held thousands of political opponents of the Third Reich, located outside Börgermoor, now part of the commune Surwold, not far from Papenburg.
A memorial of these camps, the Dokumentations- und Informationszentrum Emslandlager, is located at Papenburg. The well known resistance song "Peat Bog Soldiers" was composed by political prisoners at one of these camps. In 1950 a governmental plan for the development of Emsland was adopted, its aim was to turn the region into an industrial location. This was accomplished by draining the fens and establishing projects like the test track of the maglev "Transrapid" and several large shipyards such as the Meyer-Werft in Papenburg. Although the Landkreis Emsland lost much of its original character, some areas retain their natural character, for example the Hümmling. 1977 district reforms in Lower Saxony unite the former districts of Lingen and Aschendorf-Hümmling in the district of Emsland, with Meppen as administrative seat. The Emsland remains a Roman Catholic region compared to other parts of Lower Saxony; the district is located on the Dutch border. It is named after the Ems river, it is an plain countryside, once full of fens.
The only elevations are in the Hümmling, a hilly forest area east of the Ems. Although the Emsland region is nowadays a county among many others in Lower Saxony, its locals have what could be called a distinct sense of regional pride which will unlikely be found elsewhere in this state; the coat of arms displays: a megalithic grave, typical for the Hümmling area the roses from the arms of the Duchy of Arenberg the anchor from the arms of the County of LingenThe wavy line symbolises the river Ems. Free municipalities and towns Emsbüren Geeste Haren, town Haselünne, town Lingen, town Meppen, town Papenburg, town Rhede Salzbergen Twist Samtgemeinden Dörpen Freren Herzlake Lathen Lengerich Nordhümmling Sögel Spelle Werlte Exhibition Centre for the Archaeology of the Emsland, Meppen Official website Emslandmarkt Businessguide tourist website
Landesstraßen are roads in Germany and Austria that are, as a rule, the responsibility of the respective German or Austrian federal state. The term may therefore be translated as "state road", they are roads that cross the boundary of a urban district. A Landesstraße is thus less important than a Bundesstraße or federal road, but more significant than a Kreisstraße or district road; the classification of a road as a Landesstraße is a legal matter. In the free states of Bavaria and Saxony – but not, however, in the Free State of Thuringia – Landesstraßen are known as Staatsstraßen; the abbreviation for a Landesstraße consists of a serial number. Staatsstraßen in Saxony are abbreviated using a capital S and the Staatsstraßen in Bavaria are prefixed with the letters St; the kilometrage is shown on white signs by the roadside with black letters, known as location signs, that replace the former kilometre stones. The beginning and end of a Landesstraße is specified using so-called hub numbers; that makes its location unambiguous, important for rapid assistance when there is an accident, for example.
The hub numbers are displayed on the upper part of the sign and indicate their direction. In the example in the photograph, therefore No. 6608 039 is left of the sign 6608 023 to the right. In the bottom right-hand corner of the sign can be seen the so-called Stationierungsrichtung or direction of signage, it runs in the example from right to left and indicates in which direction the road kilometres are counted. In Lower Saxony, this new system has been in place since 2007 and divides the Landestraßen into sections numbered 10, 20, etc; the location signs comprise two panels. The location panel displays the name of the state and county letters at the top, the road letter and number below; the classification panel shows the section number and direction of the start hub. The letters OD indicate a location post within a town or village and may be displayed in places other than on a white post. By the end of 2008 all the 8,000 kilometre posts on Lower Saxony's Landesstraßen had been replaced. In terms of their construction, Landesstraßen tend to be built to a lesser standard than Bundesstraßen and their cross-section is smaller.
In individual cases, the standard of construction may vary depending on when it was built and its importance as a route. However, Landesstraßen can be built as limited-access dual carriageways in densely populated areas. Due to the division of funding, the federal states try to get the more substantial Landesstraßen designated as Bundesstraßen, so that their subsequent improvement and maintenance is funded from the Federal budget; the Bundesstraßen are, intended as links between cities and radiate from them. It is not possible to have concentric roads, which link the satellite towns with one another, designated as Bundesstraßen, it is difficult to transfer responsibility for the short stub roads running from cities to nearby motorways to the Federal Authorities. Following German reunification the Bezirksstraßen of the GDR were classified as Landesstraßen without consideration for their condition; this leads to a wide range of road types falling within this category. On the one hand, there are inter-city roads.
On the other hand, due to the austere design of the country road network in the GDR there are today in the new federal states several unpaved roads and dirt tracks that are formally Landesstraßen. The upgrade of these roads is unlikely in view of the lack of their low importance. In Austria today all important roads, apart from autobahns and Schnellstraßen managed by the publicly owned ASFiNAG corporation, are called Landesstraßen. Since 2002 the former Bundesstraßen national highways are Landesstraßen, because they were placed under the responsibility of the federal states. Before 2002 there were two types of Bundesstraße: A white number an blue square sign identified the more common type that are at the same time priority roads, their vehicle users had the right of way by the blue sign. A black number on a yellow circular sign marks roads. Except in Vorarlberg, the former Bundesstraßen continue to be designated with the prefix B; the remaining Landesstraßen are prefixed with the letter L. On traffic signs the prefixes are not used, unlike the A and S.
Roads numbered with fewer digits are of more importance in the road network. The former designation of more important Landesstraßen in several states as Landeshauptstraßen is only seen now on road and street maps. Autobahn Bundesstraße Gemeindestraße Kreisstraße
The North Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between the United Kingdom, Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. An epeiric sea on the European continental shelf, it connects to the ocean through the English Channel in the south and the Norwegian Sea in the north, it is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres. The North Sea has long been the site of important European shipping lanes as well as a major fishery; the sea is a popular destination for recreation and tourism in bordering countries and more has developed into a rich source of energy resources including fossil fuels and early efforts in wave power. The North Sea has featured prominently in geopolitical and military affairs in Northern Europe, it was important globally through the power northern Europeans projected worldwide during much of the Middle Ages and into the modern era. The North Sea was the centre of the Vikings' rise. Subsequently, the Hanseatic League, the Netherlands, the British each sought to dominate the North Sea and thus access to the world's markets and resources.
As Germany's only outlet to the ocean, the North Sea continued to be strategically important through both World Wars. The coast of the North Sea presents a diversity of geographical features. In the north, deep fjords and sheer cliffs mark the Norwegian and Scottish coastlines, whereas in the south, the coast consists of sandy beaches and wide mudflats. Due to the dense population, heavy industrialization, intense use of the sea and area surrounding it, there have been various environmental issues affecting the sea's ecosystems. Adverse environmental issues – including overfishing and agricultural runoff and dumping, among others – have led to a number of efforts to prevent degradation of the sea while still making use of its economic potential; the North Sea is bounded by the Orkney Islands and east coast of Great Britain to the west and the northern and central European mainland to the east and south, including Norway, Germany, the Netherlands and France. In the southwest, beyond the Straits of Dover, the North Sea becomes the English Channel connecting to the Atlantic Ocean.
In the east, it connects to the Baltic Sea via the Skagerrak and Kattegat, narrow straits that separate Denmark from Norway and Sweden respectively. In the north it is bordered by the Shetland Islands, connects with the Norwegian Sea, which lies in the north-eastern part of the Atlantic; the North Sea is more than 970 kilometres long and 580 kilometres wide, with an area of 570,000 square kilometres and a volume of 54,000 cubic kilometres. Around the edges of the North Sea are sizeable islands and archipelagos, including Shetland and the Frisian Islands; the North Sea receives freshwater from a number of European continental watersheds, as well as the British Isles. A large part of the European drainage basin empties into the North Sea, including water from the Baltic Sea; the largest and most important rivers flowing into the North Sea are the Elbe and the Rhine – Meuse watershed. Around 185 million people live in the catchment area of the rivers discharging into the North Sea encompassing some industrialized areas.
For the most part, the sea lies on the European continental shelf with a mean depth of 90 metres. The only exception is the Norwegian trench, which extends parallel to the Norwegian shoreline from Oslo to an area north of Bergen, it has a maximum depth of 725 metres. The Dogger Bank, a vast moraine, or accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris, rises to a mere 15 to 30 m below the surface; this feature has produced the finest fishing location of the North Sea. The Long Forties and the Broad Fourteens are large areas with uniform depth in fathoms; these great banks and others make the North Sea hazardous to navigate, alleviated by the implementation of satellite navigation systems. The Devil's Hole lies 200 miles east of Scotland; the feature is a series of asymmetrical trenches between 20 and 30 kilometres long and two kilometres wide and up to 230 metres deep. Other areas which are less deep are Fisher Bank and Noordhinder Bank; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the North Sea as follows: On the Southwest.
A line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point. On the Northwest. From Dunnet Head in Scotland to Tor Ness in the Island of Hoy, thence through this island to the Kame of Hoy on to Breck Ness on Mainland through this island to Costa Head and to Inga Ness in Westray through Westray, to Bow Head, across to Mull Head and on to Seal Skerry and thence to Horse Island. On the North. From the North point of the Mainland of the Shetland Islands, across to Graveland Ness in the Island of Yell, through Yell to Gloup Ness and across to Spoo Ness in Unst island, through Unst to Herma Ness, on to the SW point of the Rumblings and to Muckle Flugga all these being included in the North Sea area.