Bundesstraße, abbreviated B, is the denotation for German and Austrian national highways. Germany's Bundesstraßen network has a total length of about 40,000 km. German Bundesstraßen are labelled with rectangular yellow signs with black numerals, as opposed to the white-on-blue markers of the Autobahn controlled-access highways. Bundesstraßen, like autobahns, are maintained by the federal agency of the Transport Ministry. In the German highway system they rank below autobahns, but above the Landesstraßen and Kreisstraßen maintained by the federal states and the districts respectively; the numbering was implemented by law in 1932 and has overall been retained up to today, except for those roads located in the former eastern territories of Germany. One distinguishing characteristic between German Bundesstraßen and Autobahnen is that there is a general 100 km/h speed limit on federal highways out of built-up areas, as opposed to the advisory speed limit of 130 km/h in unmarked sections of the autobahns.
However, a number of Bundesstraßen have been extended as expressways. Many of these have speed limits of 100–120 km/h, others have only an advisory speed limit like autobahns. Most sections of the federal highways are only single carriageway with one lane for each direction and no hard shoulder pull-out area; the closest equivalent in the United States would be the U. S. highway system. In contrast to Germany, according to a 2002 amendment of the Austrian federal road act, Bundesstraßen is the official term referring only to autobahns and limited-access roads; the administration of all other former federal highways has passed to the federal states. Therefore classified as Landesstraßen, they are still colloquially called Bundesstraßen and have retained their "B" designation, followed by the number and a name, they are per se priority roads. Before 2002 there has been a further category of Bundesstraßen with circular yellow sign and black number that shows that this road has no fixed priority. A few yellow signs lived longer than 2002.
List of federal highways in Germany Media related to Bundesstraßen at Wikimedia Commons
A rest area is a public facility, located next to a large thoroughfare such as a highway, expressway, or freeway, at which drivers and passengers can rest, eat, or refuel without exiting onto secondary roads. Other names include: motorway service area, travel plaza, rest stop, service area, service station and service area, service plaza, lay-by, service centre. Facilities may include park-like areas, fuel stations, public toilets, water fountains and dump and fill stations for recreational vehicles. A rest area with limited to no public facilities is scenic area, or scenic overlook. Along some highways and roads are rest stops known as wayside parks, roadside parks, or picnic areas; the most basic rest areas have no facilities: they consist of an exit from the highway that leads to a roadway with paved shoulders, where drivers can rest, look at their maps or nearby scenery, or use cell phones. The standards and upkeep of rest areas facilities vary by jurisdiction. Rest areas have parking areas allotted for cars, buses, tractor-trailer trucks, recreational vehicles.
Many government-run rest areas tend to be located in remote and rural areas where there are no fast food nor full-service restaurants, gas stations, motels, or other traveler services nearby. The locations of these remote rest areas are marked by signs on the highway. Driving information is available at these locations, such as posted maps and other local information, along with restrooms; some rest areas have visitor information centers or highway patrol or state trooper stations with staff on duty. There might be drinking fountains, vending machines, pay telephones, a gas station, a restaurant, or a convenience store at a rest area; some rest areas provide free coffee for travelers, paid for by donations from travelers and/or donations from local businesses, civic groups, churches. Some states provide Wi-Fi access at their state-owned rest areas or are considering doing so, including California, Florida Oregon and Washington, among others. Many rest areas have picnic areas. Rest areas tend to have traveler information in the form of so-called "exit guides", which contain basic maps and advertisements for local motels and nearby tourist attractions.
Privatized commercial rest areas may take a form of a truck stop complete with a filling station, arcade video games, recreation center and laundry facilities, fast food restaurant, cafeteria, or food court all under one roof adjacent to the freeway. Some offer business services, such as ATMs, fax machines, office cubicles, Internet access; some rest areas have the reputations of being unsafe with regard to crime at night, since they are situated in remote or rural areas. California's current policy is to maintain existing public rest areas but no longer build new ones, due to the cost and difficulty of keeping them safe, although many California rest stops now feature highway patrol quarters; some of this reputation may be exaggerated, since the advent in recent years of improved lighting and security cameras in many rest stops. Rest stops continue to warn visitors of possible theft and advise those who park to keep vehicle doors locked. In Malaysia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, rest areas have prayer rooms for Muslims travelling more than 90 kilometres.
In Iran it is called Esterāhatgāh meaning the rest rest place. In Malaysia, an overhead bridge restaurant, or overhead restaurant, is a special rest area with restaurants above the expressway. Unlike typical laybys and RSAs, which are only accessible in one-way direction only, an overhead restaurant is accessible from both directions of the expressway. In Japan, there are two grades of rest areas on Japan's tollways; these are part of the tollway system, allowing a person to stop without exiting the tollway, as exiting and reentering the tollway would lead to a higher overall toll for the trip. They are named after the "Motorway Services" offered in Britain; the larger rest area is called a "Service Area", or an SA. SAs are very large facilities with parking for hundreds of cars and many busses - offering toilets, smoking areas, convenience stores, pet relief areas, regional souvenir shops, a gas station, sometimes tourist attractions, such as a ferris wheel or a view of a famous location, they are spaced about one hour apart on the system, a planned stop for tour buses.
Two Service Areas have a motel. The other grade of rest stop is a "Parking Area", or a PA. PAs are much smaller, spaced 20 minutes apart on the system. Besides a small parking lot and drink vending machines are the only consistent amenities offered, while some larger parking areas have small shops, local goods, a gas station - but are much smaller than their larger Service Area counterparts; the precursor to the tollway rest areas were public and private "Road stations" along any trunk road - places to rest and shop for local goods on the traditional road system. Popular rural roads that lead to remote tourist locations still have popular road stations, but with the rise of the tollway system popular routes have been bypassed, leading to the decline or closure to once popular road stations all over Japan. In South Korea, a rest area includes a park and sells regional specialties. Korean rest areas are big and clean. Cellphone charging is free and WiFi is available in
Thuringia the Free State of Thuringia, is a state of Germany. Thuringia is located in central Germany covering an area of 16,171 square kilometres and a population of 2.15 million inhabitants, making it the sixth smallest German state by area and the fifth smallest by population. Erfurt is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Jena and Weimar. Thuringia is surrounded by the states of Bavaria, Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony. Most of Thuringia is within the watershed of the Saale, a left tributary of the Elbe, has been known as "the green heart of Germany" from the late 19th century due to the dense forest covering the land. Thuringia is home to the Rennsteig, Germany's most well-known hiking trail, the winter resort of Oberhof, making it a well-known winter sports destination with half of Germany's 136 Winter Olympic gold medals won through 2014 having been won by Thuringian athletes. Thuringia is home to prominent German intellectuals and creative artists, including Johann Sebastian Bach, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Friedrich Schiller, is location of the University of Jena, the Ilmenau University of Technology, the University of Erfurt, the Bauhaus University of Weimar.
Thuringia was established in 1920 as a state of the Weimar Republic from a merger of the Ernestine duchies, except for Saxe-Coburg, but can trace its origins to the Frankish Duchy of Thuringia established around 631 AD by King Dagobert I. After World War II, Thuringia came under the Soviet occupation zone in Allied-occupied Germany, its borders altered to become contiguous. Thuringia became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1947, but was dissolved in 1952 during administrative reforms, its territory divided into the districts of Erfurt and Gera. Thuringia was re-established in 1990 following German reunification, with different borders, became one of the Federal Republic of Germany's new states; the name Thuringia or Thüringen derives from the Germanic tribe Thuringii, who emerged during the Migration Period. Their origin is unknown. An older theory claims that they were successors of the Hermunduri, but research rejected the idea. Other historians argue that the Thuringians were allies of the Huns, came to central Europe together with them, lived before in what is Galicia today.
Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus first mentioned the Thuringii around 400. The Thuringian Realm existed until after 531, the Landgraviate of Thuringia was the largest state in the region, persisting between 1131 and 1247. Afterwards the state known as Thuringia ceased to exist. After the Treaty of Leipzig, Thuringia had its own dynasty again, the Ernestine Wettins, their various lands formed the Free State of Thuringia, founded in 1920, together with some other small principalities. The Prussian territories around Erfurt, Mühlhausen and Nordhausen joined Thuringia in 1945; the coat of arms of Thuringia shows the lion of the Ludowingian Landgraves of 12th-century origin. The eight stars around it represent the eight former states; the flag of Thuringia is a white-red bicolor, derived from the white and red stripes of the Ludowingian lion. The coat of arms and flag of Hesse are quite similar to the Thuringian ones, because they are derived from the Ludowingian symbols. Symbols of Thuringia in popular culture are the Bratwurst and the Forest, because a large amount of the territory is forested.
Named after the Thuringii tribe who occupied it around AD 300, Thuringia came under Frankish domination in the 6th century. Thuringia became a landgraviate in 1130 AD. After the extinction of the reigning Ludowingian line of counts and landgraves in 1247 and the War of the Thuringian Succession, the western half became independent under the name of "Hesse", never to become a part of Thuringia again. Most of the remaining Thuringia came under the rule of the Wettin dynasty of the nearby Margraviate of Meissen, the nucleus of the Electorate and Kingdom of Saxony. With the division of the house of Wettin in 1485, Thuringia went to the senior Ernestine branch of the family, which subsequently subdivided the area into a number of smaller states, according to the Saxon tradition of dividing inheritance amongst male heirs; these were the "Saxon duchies", among others, of the states of Saxe-Weimar, Saxe-Eisenach, Saxe-Jena, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg, Saxe-Gotha. Thuringia accepted the Protestant Reformation, Roman Catholicism was suppressed as early as 1520.
In Mühlhausen and elsewhere, the Anabaptists found many adherents. Thomas Müntzer, a leader of some non-peaceful groups of this sect, was active in this city. Within the borders of modern Thuringia the Roman Catholic faith only survived in the Eichsfeld district, ruled by the Archbishop of Mainz, to a small degree in Erfurt and its immediate vicinity; the modern German black-red-gold tricolour flag's first appearance anywhere in a German-ethnicity sovereign state, within what today comprises Germany, occurred in 1778 as the state flag of the Principality of Reuss-Greiz, a principality whose lands were located within m
Alsdorf is a municipality in the district of Aachen, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Until the 21st century Alsdorf was a mining area, but now many service companies have established themselves in Alsdorf. Besides, Alsdorf has a cinema, a mining museum and a zoo. One of Alsdorf's famous sights is the old Castle. Alsdorf is located near the border triangle Germany/Belgium/Netherlands in the west of Germany. Communes bordering Alsdorf are Baesweiler, Eschweiler, Würselen, Herzogenrath and Übach-Palenberg. Alsdorf belongs to the district of Aachen. Begauer stream Broicher stream Hoengener stream Merzstream Schaufenberger stream Siefengraben Euchener stream Alsdorf pond Mariadorf pond Today´s city of Alsdorf is a complex mixture of different ingredients. A part of today's city was a part of the duchy of Limburg. In addition, Alsdorf consists of ancient settlements whose history dates back to medieval times, as well as settlements that arose because of the long coal mining tradition in Alsdorf; the old settlements are: Alsdorf, Hoengen, Schaufenberg and Zopp.
The name Alsdorf was mentioned for the first time in a document of the Catholic Church in the year 1191. But it might be much older than 800 years. During its history, Alsdorf changed its affiliation a few times. Along with the duchy of Brabant and the duchy of Limburg, it belonged to the duchy of Burgundy and fell to the Habsburgs in 1482. In 1555, it became part of the Spanish Netherlands under the Spanish Habsburgs. In 1714, it belonged again to Austrian Habsburgs until the French invasion. After that, pursuant to a judgement of the Congress of Vienna, Alsdorf belonged to Prussia. With the reconstruction of Germany after the Second World War, Prussia was eliminated, its western provinces are now the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. Until the middle of the 19th century, farming was the main industry. Only Alsdorf and Hoengen had more than 1,000 inhabitants. Population in the greater area of today's Alsdorf totalled 4,000 people. Today the population is more than ten times larger as a result of mining, which came to Alsdorf in the middle of the 19th century.
The mining industry needed many workers. First, it was possible to cover the demand with local workers but as the mine grew, the need for workers grew. To be an attractive employer, the mine company built new houses to offer its employees good working conditions. Between 1860 and 1960, a few bigger and smaller villages were founded; these villages are: Begau, Broicher Siedlung, Kellersberg, Neuweiler, Ofden and Zopp. In 1932, the villages Kellerberg, Ofden and Neuweiler were incorporated and the population grew from 11,500 to 19,711; the great tragedy on October 21, 1930, demonstrated the danger of mine work. In the Anna II Mine, 270 men and one woman were killed, it was the second largest mining accident in Germany history. The mine Maria closed in September 1962. Since this time, Alsdorf has changed its image away from a coal city to a modern business location. A few business parks have been founded. Alsdorf is divided in 16 districts: The situation in Alsdorf's council after the last election in 2009: Alsdorf Castle Mine Anna Water tower of mine Anna Ottenfeld Castle Alsdorf Civic Center.
Musicals like Gaudí and Just One World were played there. Alsdorf Zoo Water tower "CineTower Alsdorf" Blumenrather cross Secondary modern school Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi Blumenrath estate Kellersberger mill station Maria mine Church St. Mariae Empfängnis Middle school Marienschule Memorial Old major house Bus station Broicher mill Milestone For over a century, coal mining was the heart of Alsdorf's economy. Coal production started in 1849. In 1853, production started in the Anna coal mine of Alsdorf; this was the reason for an increase in production and workforce, this was measurable in mine Anna but not in mine Maria, closed by September 1962. The coal crisis has not spared Alsdorf, the last mine was closed in 1992. Alsdorf's biggest employer is the Cinram GmbH, with about 2,000 employees in district of Schaufenberg; this company produces up to 2 million Blu-rays and CDs daily, exported throughout Europe. The company was founded in 1975 by Warner Music and sold in 2003 to the Canadian stock corporation Cinram International.
Customers are well-known record labels and media companies like Warner Music, Twentieth Century Fox and Universal Pictures. Besides acquired companies, which either used the closeness to RWTH Aachen University or which saw the favourable location near the borders to Belgium and the Netherlands as advantage. Alsdorf is located in the heart of Europe, within 200 km of the most important economic centers of the European Union; the town lies in the center of the tri-border region of Germany / Netherlands / Belgium. The nearest airports are Cologne Bonn Airport and Düsseldorf Airport. Alsdorf has a direct connection to Bundesautobahn 4 and Bundesautobahn 44. Furthermore, Alsdorf provides a good bus system; every part of Alsdorf or Aachen is served by the buses of the local bus company. Since 2005, Alsdorf is connected to the regional train system; the railway network has extended steadily. Alsdorf has twin-city links with: Saint-Brieuc, France (1970
Aldenhoven is a municipality in the district of Düren in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located 5 km south-west of Jülich, 5 km north of Eschweiler and 20 km north-east of Aachen. Heinrich von der Mark, Bavarian lieutenant-general and minister of war Edmund Emundts Lord Mayor of Aachen Jürgen Fliege, television pastor, in the 1980s evangelical pastor in Aldenhoven Reinhold Yabo, German footballer Aldenhoven is twinned with the French town of Albert
Waldkappel is a small town in the Werra-Meißner-Kreis district in northern Hesse, Germany. Waldkappel is located between Hessisch Lichtenau in the west and Eschwege in the east in the North Hesse Upland between the Meißner-Kaufunger Wald Nature Park neighbouring it to the north and the Stölzinger Gebirge in the south, in the Wehre valley. Waldkappel borders in the north on the community of Meißner, in the east on the community of Wehretal, in the south on the town of Sontra, in the southwest on the community of Cornberg and the town of Rotenburg an der Fulda and in the west on the towns of Spangenberg and Hessisch Lichtenau. Waldkappel consists of 15 districts, namely its administrative centre Waldkappel as well as Bischhausen, Eltmannsee, Gehau, Hasselbach, Kirchhosbach, Mäckelsdorf, Rodebach and Stolzhausen. Waldkappel was first mentioned in 1226 and was granted town rights in 1414; the town experienced its economic heyday in the Late Middle Ages from lying on the old trade road durch die langen Hessen, which ran from the Wetterau to Thuringia and on to Leipzig.
Bearing witness to the town’s earlier, wealthier times is a Late Gothic church standing in the middle of the community. The Thirty Years' War put an abrupt end to Waldkappel’s prosperity. In the course of municipal reform, the communities of Waldkappel, Burghofen, Gehau, Kirchhosbach, Mäckelsdorf, Rechtebach and Schemmern from the former Eschwege district merged, they were joined by Harmuthsachsen and Hasselbach from the former Witzenhausen district, as well as by Stolzhausen from the Melsungen district. In 1974, the greater community reached its full extent with the amalgamation of Eltmannsee and Hetzerode; the municipal election held on 26 March 2006 yielded the following results: Carhaix, Finistère, France Rijnwoude, South Holland, Netherlands Through Waldkappel runs Bundesstraße 7. The Autobahn A 44 is under construction. Peter Griess, industrial chemist, born in Kirchhosbach Christian Schütz, Evangelical theologian
The kilometre, or kilometer is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres. It is now the measurement unit used for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world. K is used in some English-speaking countries as an alternative for the word kilometre in colloquial writing and speech. A slang term for the kilometre in the US and UK military is klick. There are two common pronunciations for the word; the former follows a pattern in English whereby metric units are pronounced with the stress on the first syllable and the pronunciation of the actual base unit does not change irrespective of the prefix. It is preferred by the British Broadcasting Corporation and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Many scientists and other users in countries where the metric system is not used, use the pronunciation with stress on the second syllable; the latter pronunciation follows the stress pattern used for the names of measuring instruments. The problem with this reasoning, however, is that the word meter in those usages refers to a measuring device, not a unit of length.
The contrast is more obvious in countries using the British rather than American spelling of the word metre. When Australia introduced the metric system in 1975, the first pronunciation was declared official by the government's Metric Conversion Board. However, the Australian prime minister at the time, Gough Whitlam, insisted that the second pronunciation was the correct one because of the Greek origins of the two parts of the word. By the 8 May 1790 decree, the Constituent assembly ordered the French Academy of Sciences to develop a new measurement system. In August 1793, the French National Convention decreed the metre as the sole length measurement system in the French Republic; the first name of the kilometre was "Millaire". Although the metre was formally defined in 1799, the myriametre was preferred to the "kilometre" for everyday use; the term "myriamètre" appeared a number of times in the text of Develey's book Physique d'Emile: ou, Principes de la science de la nature, while the term kilometre only appeared in an appendix.
French maps published in 1835 had scales showing myriametres and "lieues de Poste". The Dutch gave it the local name of the mijl, it was only in 1867 that the term "kilometer" became the only official unit of measure in the Netherlands to represent 1000 metres. Two German textbooks dated 1842 and 1848 give a snapshot of the use of the kilometre across Europe - the kilometre was in use in the Netherlands and in Italy and the myriametre was in use in France. In 1935, the International Committee for Weights and Measures abolished the prefix "myria-" and with it the "myriametre", leaving the kilometre as the recognised unit of length for measurements of that magnitude. In the United Kingdom, road signs show distances in miles and location marker posts that are used for reference purposes by road engineers and emergency services show distance references in unspecified units which are kilometre-based; the advent of the mobile phone has been instrumental in the British Department for Transport authorising the use of driver location signs to convey the distance reference information of location marker posts to road users should they need to contact the emergency services.
In the US, the National Highway System Designation Act of 1995 prohibits the use of federal-aid highway funds to convert existing signs or purchase new signs with metric units. The Executive Director of the US Federal Highway Administration, Jeffrey Paniati, wrote in a 2008 memo: "Section 205 of the National Highway System Designation Act of 1995 prohibited us from requiring any State DOT to use the metric system during project development activities. Although the State DOT's had the option of using metric measurements or dual units, all of them abandoned metric measurements and reverted to sole use of inch-pound values." The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices since 2000 is published in both metric and American Customary Units. Some sporting disciplines feature 1000 m races in major events, but in other disciplines though world records are catalogued, the one kilometre event remains a minority event; the world records for various sporting disciplines are: Conversion of units, for comparison with other units of length Cubic metre Metric prefix Mileage Odometer Orders of magnitude Square kilometre Media related to Distance indicators at Wikimedia Commons