Erkelenz is a town in the Rhineland in western Germany that lies 15 kilometres southwest of Mönchengladbach on the northern edge of the Cologne Lowland, halfway between the Lower Rhine region and the Lower Meuse. It is the largest in the district of Heinsberg in North Rhine-Westphalia. Despite the town having more than 1,000 years of history and tradition, in 2006 the eastern part of the borough was cleared to make way for the Garzweiler II brown coal pit operated by RWE Power; this is planned to be in operation until 2045. Over five thousand people from ten villages have had to be resettled as a result. Since 2010, the inhabitants of the easternmost village of Pesch have left and most have moved to the new villages of Immerath and Borschemich in the areas of Kückhoven and Erkelenz-Nord; the area is characterised by the rolling to level countryside of the Jülich-Zülpich Börde, whose fertile loess soils are predominantly used for agriculture. Settlements and roads cover about 20 per cent of the area of the borough and only 2 per cent is wooded.
The Wahnenbusch, the largest contiguous wooded area, is located south of the town of Tenholt and covers 25 hectares. In the north the börde gives way to the forests and waterways of the Schwalm–Nette-Plateau, part of the Lower Rhine Plain. In the west on the far side of the town, lies the Rur depression, some 30 to 60 metres lower, its transition is part of the Baal Riedelland. Here, streams have created a richly varying landscape of valleys. In the east is the source region of the River Niers near Kuckum and Keyenberg. To the south the land climbs up towards the Jackerath loess ridge; the lowest point lies at 70 metres above sea level and the highest point is 110 metres above NN. The climate is influenced by the Atlantic Gulf Stream at the crossover between maritime and continental climates; the prevailing winds are from the southwest and there is precipitation all year round. Annual precipitation amounts to about 710 millimetres, whereby August is the wettest and September the driest month. Summers are winters mild.
In July the average temperature is 19 °C and, in January, 3 °C. The length of the cold season with a minimum temperature below 0 °C is less than 60 days, the number of summer's days with temperatures above 25 °C averages 30, with an additional eight "tropical" days with daytime temperatures of more than 30 °C and night temperatures over 20 °C, there are an average of 20 days of thunderstorms; the onset of spring, reckoned from the budding of cherry and pear trees, occurs between 29 April and 5 May. High summer, which begins with the harvest of winter rye, starts between 16 July; the Erkelenz Börde is the northernmost extent of the Jülich Börde and is formed from a loess plateau that has an average thickness of over eleven metres in this area. Beneath it are the gravels and sands of the main ice age terrace, laid down by the Rhine and the Meuse. Embedded in the loess in places are lenses of marl that were mined until the 20th century in order to obtain lime by driving shafts and galleries underground.
In the Tertiary period the Erkelenz horst was formed along geological fault lines. East of the horst runs the Venlo fault block, to the west is the Rur Scholle, to the south the Erft Scholle and the Jackerath Horst. A small section of the horst is part of the Wassenberg Horst. Thick seams of brown coal from the Tertiary and of black coal from the Carboniferous are located underground; the Erkelenz Horst is part of the Cologne Lowland Earthquake Region. The town's administrative territory, or borough, is 20 kilometres across from east to west and 11 km from north to south, its neighbouring administrative units, clockwise from the north, are: Town of Wegberg Independent town of Mönchengladbach, Municipality of Jüchen Municipality of Titz Town of Linnich Town of Hückelhoven Town of Wassenberg The town of Erkelenz emerged in its present configuration as a result of the Aachen land reform bill of 21 December 1971. According to this law inter alia the former districts of Erkelenz and Geilenkirchen-Heinsberg were to be merged on 1 January 1972.
Erkelenz lost its status as the county town to Heinsberg and was amalgamated with the municipalities of Borschemich, Golkrath, Holzweiler, Keyenberg, Kückhoven, Lövenich and Venrath, as well as the parishes of Geneiken and Kuckum. The area of its borough increased from 25.22 to 117.45 square kilometres. According to the law, the borough of Erkelenz is divided into nine districts with a total of 46 villages and hamlets: District 1: Erkelenz with the villages of Oestrich and Buscherhof as well as Borschemich, Borschemich and Oerath, a total of 20,173 inhabitants District 2: Gerderath with Fronderath, Gerderhahn and Vossem, a total of 5,179 inhabitants District 3: Schwanenberg with Geneiken, Genhof and Lentholt, a total of 2,265 inhabitants District 4: Golkrath with Houverath, Houverather Heide and Matzerath, a total of 2,039 inhabitants District 5: Granterath and Hetzerath with Commerden, Genehen and Tenholt, a total of 3,488 inhabitants District 6: Lövenich with Kat
A border checkpoint is a place between two countries, where travelers or goods are inspected. Authorization is required to enter a country through its borders. Access-controlled borders have a limited number of checkpoints where they can be crossed without legal sanctions. Arrangements or treaties may be formed to mandate less restrained crossings. Land border checkpoints can be contrasted with the customs and immigration facilities at seaports, international airports, other ports of entry. Checkpoints serve two purposes: To prevent entrance of individuals who are either undesirable or are unauthorized to enter. To prevent entrance of goods that are illegal or subject to restriction. Checkpoints are manned by a uniformed service. In some countries, there are border checkpoints when both entering and exiting the country, while in others, there are border checkpoints only when entering the country; the Schengen Borders Code, which forms part of the law of the European Union, defines some terms as follows: "Border crossing point" means any crossing point authorized by the competent authorities for the crossing of external borders.
"Second line check" means a further check which may be carried out in a special location away from the location at which all persons are checked These definitions mean that a place where a road crosses an internal Schengen border is not a "border crossing point". Alcabala Border Border control Border outpost Checkpoint Charlie and the Berlin Wall Customs Frontier Closed Area is the border area in Hong Kong with China Garitas in Mexico Israeli checkpoint Schengen Agreement The United States–Mexico border and Canada–United States border List of Canada–United States border crossings List of Mexico–United States border crossings
Bundesautobahn 45 is an autobahn in Germany, connecting Dortmund in the west with Aschaffenburg in the southwest. It is colloquially known as the Sauerlandlinie as it runs through the hilly, rural Sauerland region between Hagen and Siegen; the A45 has a large number of bridges to cross valleys, the highest of, the Sichter Valley bridge between Lüdenscheid and Meinerzhagen at 530 metres above mean sea level. It is two lanes each way with frequent climbing lanes between Dortmund-Hafen and the Gambacher Kreuz intersection. In March 2013 30 people were injured in a pile-up on the A45. During the 1960s and 1970s a southward extension was proposed as the „Odenwald-Neckar-Alb-Autobahn“, to pass through Groß-Umstadt, Schwaigern, Mundelsheim, Remshalden and Schlierbach, linking the ONAA to the A 8 near Kirchheim unter Teck, however the project was abandoned for ecological reasons in 1979 by the state government of Baden-Württemberg; the A 45 branches off the A 2 at the Dortmund Nord-West intersection, passes through the eastern Ruhr area and enters the Sauerland near Hagen.
It enters the Siegerland and the state of Hesse, where the A 45 is joined by the A 66 between the interchanges Hanauer Kreuz and Langenselbolder Dreieck. A short stretch of road, between junctions Alzenau and Mainhausen, is on Bavarian territory the A 45 merges with the A 3 at the interchange Seligenstädter Dreieck in the state of Hesse, just to the west of the Bavarian city of Aschaffenburg. Media related to Bundesautobahn 45 at Wikimedia Commons Bundesautobahn 45 – detailed route plan
Bundesstraße, abbreviated B, is the denotation for German and Austrian national highways. Germany's Bundesstraßen network has a total length of about 40,000 km. German Bundesstraßen are labelled with rectangular yellow signs with black numerals, as opposed to the white-on-blue markers of the Autobahn controlled-access highways. Bundesstraßen, like autobahns, are maintained by the federal agency of the Transport Ministry. In the German highway system they rank below autobahns, but above the Landesstraßen and Kreisstraßen maintained by the federal states and the districts respectively; the numbering was implemented by law in 1932 and has overall been retained up to today, except for those roads located in the former eastern territories of Germany. One distinguishing characteristic between German Bundesstraßen and Autobahnen is that there is a general 100 km/h speed limit on federal highways out of built-up areas, as opposed to the advisory speed limit of 130 km/h in unmarked sections of the autobahns.
However, a number of Bundesstraßen have been extended as expressways. Many of these have speed limits of 100–120 km/h, others have only an advisory speed limit like autobahns. Most sections of the federal highways are only single carriageway with one lane for each direction and no hard shoulder pull-out area; the closest equivalent in the United States would be the U. S. highway system. In contrast to Germany, according to a 2002 amendment of the Austrian federal road act, Bundesstraßen is the official term referring only to autobahns and limited-access roads; the administration of all other former federal highways has passed to the federal states. Therefore classified as Landesstraßen, they are still colloquially called Bundesstraßen and have retained their "B" designation, followed by the number and a name, they are per se priority roads. Before 2002 there has been a further category of Bundesstraßen with circular yellow sign and black number that shows that this road has no fixed priority. A few yellow signs lived longer than 2002.
List of federal highways in Germany Media related to Bundesstraßen at Wikimedia Commons
Bundesautobahn 61 is an autobahn in Germany that connects the border to the Netherlands near Venlo in the northwest to the interchange with A 6 near Hockenheim. In 1965, this required a redesign of the Hockenheimring; the autobahn runs parallel to the A 3 on the opposite side of the Rhine. Between Mönchengladbach and Bergheim in the north and Worms and Speyer in the south, it cuts through the landscapes of Eifel and Hunsrück, avoiding areas of dense population while still in proximity to Cologne, Bonn and Bingen; the A 61, built in the 1970s, is the most western connection from the Netherlands and Belgium to southern Germany so many trucks and tourists from these countries frequent the A 61. Between Kreuz Mönchengladbach and Wanlo, the speed limit is 120 km/h; the section between the junctions Wanlo and Jackerath was upgraded to three lanes in 2005. The speed limit there is 130 km/h, paid for by RWE Power that in return received permission to close a section of A 44 for their Garzweiler surface mining operation.
By 2017, the A 44 will be restored and the Wanlo-Jackerath-section of the A 61 will be closed instead. Between Dreieck Erfttal and Kreuz Bliesheim the A 1 and A 61 run concurrently; the motorway has a variable speed limit here. Since 4 April 2012, the A 61 continues into the Netherlands as A74; this short motorway connects the A 61 at the border with the Dutch A 73. All traffic had to go through the city of Venlo. Part of the A61 motorway near the village of Gelsdorf had been designed for use as a runway to service travel to the nearby Government bunker facility and in an emergency a section would have been dedicated for use as an airport with spacious aircraft parking spaces at both ends disguised as roadside car parks. Bundesautobahn 61 – detailed route plan
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Jüchen is a municipality in the Rhein-Kreis Neuss, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is situated 17 km southwest of Neuss and 10 km southeast of Mönchengladbach. Harald Zillikens was elected mayor in 2009 and reelected in 2015, he is the successor of Margarete Kranz. Heinrich Siegmund Blanckertz, founder of the German steel spring industry. Peter Bamm Curt Emmrich, German writer. Fritz von Ameln, Management consultant. From 1954 to 1966 he was a member of the Düsseldorf Landtag, he was a member of the Committee for Reconstruction and Chairman of the Sports Committee. Von Ameln received the Great Cross of Merit in 1967 by the Federal President. Dietrich Zillessen, Professor of Religious Education at the University of Cologne Willibert Kremer, German football coach and former football player. Willy Wimmer, German politician of the CDU, who belonged to the Bundestag is 33 years. Annette Schavan, politician, 2005-2013 Federal Minister for Education and Research