The Eishockey-Bundesliga was formed in 1958 as the elite hockey competition in the Federal Republic of Germany, replacing the Oberliga in this position. From the 1994-95 season, it was in turn replaced by the Deutsche Eishockey Liga, which now carries the name 1st Bundesliga in its logo; the DEL administrated by the DEB, the German Ice Hockey Federation, became an independent league in 1997. With the German reunion, the Bundesliga became a nationwide league including two teams from the former East Germany. Ice hockey was first played in Germany in 1887, in Berlin, it was there that the first ice hockey department of a sports club was formed, as part of the Berliner SC; the history of the German ice hockey championship began in 1912 when the Berliner SC won the first edition of the competition. The BSC was to become the most dominating side in German ice hockey before the Second World War, winning 17 out of a possible 21 editions until 1937, with its best run of six consecutive championships between 1928 and 1933.
The MTV München, SC Riessersee and Brandenburg Berlin were the only other clubs to earn some honours in this era. From 1938 onwards, the national championship featured Austrian clubs as well and twice the title went to Vienna after this; the war disrupted the championship and between 1941 and 1947 only one season was played, in 1944. In this era, teams came from all over Germany, including areas that would not be part of Germany any more after 1945. Ice hockey restarted in the occupied Germany in 1947 and began with two regional leagues and south, of which the two champions played a national final, won by SC Riessersee, which marked the beginning of a Bavarian dominance in the sport in Germany. In the following year, the Eishockey-Oberliga was formed, consisting of six clubs, those being the SC Riessersee, EV Füssen, HC Augsburg, Preußen Krefeld, Krefelder EV and VfL Bad Nauheim; the EV Füssen soon became the dominating side of this era, winning seven titles in twelve seasons, six of those in series from 1953 to 1958.
Apart from Füssen, the Oberliga proved an inconsistent league, with members fluctuating season-by-season and in 1958, the decision was made to form a Bundesliga, the first league in Germany to carry that name. In autumn 1958, the new Ice hockey Bundesliga started with eight clubs in its first season. Apart from Riessersee, Füssen and the two teams from Krefeld, the EC Bad Tölz, Mannheimer ERC, Düsseldorfer EG and the SG Weßling/Starnberg were part of this first season; the league was played in a home-and-away format, 14 games per team, with no play-offs at the end, which were only introduced in 1980. The top placed team in the league won the championship, the EV Füssen, while the teams placed seventh and eighth were relegated, the DEG and Weßling/Starnberg, and while the champions only lost one game all season Weßling/Starnberg managed to only win one, with the club promptly dissolved at the end. In its second season, the Bundesliga saw the end of EV Füssen's series of seven championships in a row, with the title going to SC Riessersee instead after a championship-clinching game at Garmisch-Partenkirchen in front of 12,000 that saw SCR win 6–4.
Riessersee only lost one game all season, away against EVF, drew once, the first 0-all draw in Bundesliga history. In a league with an unchanged modus, the two new clubs, VfL Bad Nauheim and ESV Kaufbeuren, finished last. Only one team was relegated however; the season saw the leagues biggest score and highest defeat when Bad Tölz beat Kaufbeuren 28–0. In its third season, 1960–61, the league remained at a strength of eight clubs but doubled the number of season games to 28 per team. Füssen rectified the slip-up of the previous year, winning the league again, Bad Nauheim was relegated and new team Eintracht Dortmund survived in seventh place; the 1961–62 modus was different again from the previous year. After 14 games each the league was split into top- and bottom eight, with each group playing another home-and-away series just against the teams in its group; the reason for this was the large gap between top and bottom clubs which resulted in one-sided games. The EC Bad Tölz became the third different champion in four seasons while newly promoted club ESV Kaufbeuren finished fifth and Eintracht Dortmund last.
Direct relegation was however abolished and Dortmund had the chance to hold the league in a promotion-relegation round, which it completed successfully. The following year Dortmund last in an unchanged modus; this time however the club from Westphalia could not hold the league and EV Landshut was promoted instead. EV Füssen took out the next two championships, 1963–64 and 1964–65, while Preußen Krefeld and Eintracht Dortmund were the relegated teams. In between, in June 1963, the DEB was formed, ice hockey having been part of the Deutsche Eissport-Verband; the 1965–66 season saw the league expanded to ten teams, with the Düsseldorfer EG, Preußen Krefeld and VfL Bad Nauheim all making a return. After a home-and-away season of 18 games each, which the EV Füssen won with an eleven-point advantage, the league was split again between top and bottom, now two groups of five. Unlike in the past however, points from the first part of the season could not be transferred and EC Bad Tölz was crowned champions with a two-point advantage despite having earned nine points less than EVF.
At the bottom of the league, the VfL Bad Nauheim dropped out again and was replaced by the former champions Berliner SC. The 1966–67 season, in retrospect, marked a turning point of German ice hockey not an instantaneous one, the shift from the dominance of small-town Bavarian teams to the clubs from
World League eSport Bundesliga
The World League eSport Bundesliga was a German professional electronic sports league featuring the Counter-Strike, Counter-Strike: Source and FIFA 06 series. It has its own TV-show, broadcast by the German television channel Deutsches Sportfernsehen. Jana Ina and Giovanni Zarrella are the hosts of the show; the only game, played at the season World League eSport Bundesliga was FIFA 06. The competitors fought for prize money of €50,000. From December 2005 until May 2006 there was a postseason, in which prize money of €45,825 was paid out; the structure of the World League eSport Bundesliga is based on the German Bundesliga. Each league consists of 18 players and all games of the first Bundesliga are played at the CineStar IMAX it the Sony Center in Berlin. Besides the five leagues there is the ESBL Trophy, similar to the DFB-Pokal. All Contesters of the 1. Bundesliga, 2. Bundesliga, 3. Bundesliga and Oberliga take part in this tournament. At the Quarterfinals and above the matches are played in the so-called eSportstadium at the CineStar IMAX it the Sony Center in Berlin.
ESBL Masters: Team 64 AMD 1. Bundesliga: mousesports ESBL Trophy: ID Gaming 1. Bundesliga: Team Dignitas 1. Bundesliga: SK Gaming|hero ESBL Trophy: SK Gaming|sty!a World League eSport Bundesliga World League eSport
Austrian Football Bundesliga
The Austrian Football Bundesliga is the highest-ranking national league club competition in Austrian football. It is the competition which decides the Austrian national football champions, as well the country's entrants for the various European cups run by UEFA. Since Austria stayed in sixteenth place in the UEFA association coefficient rankings at the end of the 2015–16 season, the league gained its first spot for the UEFA Champions League; the Austrian Bundesliga, which began in the 1974–75 season, has been a separate registered association since 1 December 1991. It has been most won by the two Viennese giants Austria Wien, who were national champions 21 times, Rapid Wien, who won the national title 32 times. Rapid’s Last title was in the 2007-08 Season; the current champions are Red Bull Salzburg. Hans Rinner is president of the Austrian Bundesliga; the Austrian Football Bundesliga is known as tipico Bundesliga for sponsorship reasons. Football has been played in Austria since around 1890. Around the turn of the twentieth century two attempts were made to start a national championship.
From 1900 onwards, a cup competition was played in the Neues Wiener Tagblatt Pokal. This cup was played in league format; the efforts to create a football league succeeded in 1911, with the introduction of the first Austrian football championship. The competition for this championship, the 1. Klasse, was created and organized by the Niederösterreichischer Fußball-Verband, the participants played for the title of Niederösterreichische Landesmeister. From 1924, the league was considered professional and changed its name to I. Liga. In 1929, an all-Austrian amateur championship was first played, won by Grazer AK. Clubs from the professional league in Vienna were not part of this competition. Teams from the other states of Austria were first allowed to join the highest division with the introduction of the Nationalliga in the season of 1937–38. Austria's annexation by Germany in 1938 brought the Austrian Nationalliga to an early end. Numerous teams were disbanded and some players fled out of the country.
The Austrian Nationalliga was integrated into the system of the NSRL, the Sports office of the Third Reich as the Gau XVII section under Gaufachwart Hans Janisch. Despised by Nazis as unworthy of a true German, professionalism in sports was outlawed in May 1938. "Innovations" like the Hitler salute were introduced as compulsory after every game. Teams, like Hakoah Wien were banned and others, like Austria Wien were first closed and renamed; the operation of the junior teams was handed over to the local Hitlerjugend units. The new highest league in what had been Austria, the Gauliga Ostmark, was an amateur league and covered the whole of the former country except Tyrol and Vorarlberg, which were added to the Bavarian league system; the league champions now qualified for the German football championship, which Rapid Wien won in 1941. From 1941, the league was renamed Gauliga Donau-Alpenland to further eradicate the memory of Austria as an independent country. Following Nazi Germany's defeat in World War II and the disbandment of the NSRL, Austria's teams were excluded again from the German league.
The league returned to a Vienna-only format in 1945 named 1. Klasse once more before changing to just Liga in 1946. Only upon the introduction of the all-Austrian Staatsliga A in 1949 did teams from the whole federal territory play for the Austrian Championship. However, the road to organising the Staatsliga proved difficult. A conflict between the representatives of the amateur and the professional aspects of the sport led to the separation of the Viennese league from the football federation, to the establishment of its own competition on 30 June 1949. At the statutory Presidential Election Council of the Austrian Football Association only a few days a surprising turn took place – upon the request of Lower Austria, the introduction of the Staatsliga was and unanimously confirmed; the organization was in the hands of the Fußballstaatsliga Österreich, created for this purpose. A Staatsliga B, the second division of national league football, was formed in 1950; this league, was disbanded again in 1959, whereby the Staatsliga A dropped the A from its name, the need for differentiating having been gone.
In 1965, the Austrian Football Association again took over the organization of the top division, with the introduction of the Nationalliga. On 21 April 1974, against the vote of the Vorarlberg association, the introduction of the Bundesliga was decided; the Nationalliga remained for now. In the 1974–75 season the Bundesliga was introduced which, still led by the Austrian Football Association, aligned both of the highest divisions in Austria. In 1976, the Nationalliga was renamed to Bundesliga – Second Division while the Bundesliga was now called Bundesliga – First Division. From 1974 to 1982 the league operated with ten clubs with each club playing the other four times during the season. From 1982 to 1985 it played with sixteen clubs with each club playing the others twice; the league's modus was changed in 1985 to a twelve team league which played a home -and away round in autumn. The top eight clubs advanced to the championship round who again played each other twice; the bottom four of the autumn round played the top four of the First League to determine the four teams to play in the Bundesliga in the following season.
This modus was used for the next eight seasons until 1993 when the league returned to
The Handball-Bundesliga is the top German professional handball league. The league has been sponsored by Toyota since 2007 and therefore the league was called the Toyota Handball-Bundesliga. Since 2012 it is sponsorsed by the Deutsche Kreditbank AG and therefore the name has changed into DKB Handball-Bundesliga; the winners of the Handball-Bundesliga are recognised as the German handball champions. The HBL headquarters are in Dortmund; the Bundesliga was introduced with the 1966/67 season and operated with two regional sections and South. Since 1977 the Bundesliga has operated with a single section first division composed of eighteen clubs. In 1981 a 2. Bundesliga was introduced as a new second division, supplanting the Regionalliga which became the third tier; the 2. Bundesliga used to consist of two sections south for thirty years. Starting with the 2011/12 season the 2. Bundesliga is run in a single section consisting of twenty teams; the season is played as a Round-robin tournament without playoffs or a final.
The season ends in May. The first and third placed teams are entitled to play in the EHF Champions League the following season; the fourth and fifth placed teams additionally play in the EHF Cup. The seedings are subject to change, in case a German team wins the Champions League, the EHF Cup or the EHF Cup Winner's Cup because each winner of those tournaments is granted an automatic start in next years tournament without taking one of the leagues spots, it can change if the DHB-Pokal Champion has one of the league spots for the Champions League or the EHF Cup. Until 2011, the two last placed teams would be relegated to the 2. Handball-Bundesliga for the next season, either in its northern or the southern section; the sixteenth placed team used to play in a home and away decider against the winner of the decider between the two second placed teams of the northern and the southern section of the 2. Bundesliga; the champions of the second divisions received a spot for the Bundesliga automatically.
Since the 2017/18 season, the bottom two teams of the Bundesliga will directly be relegated to the 2. Bundesliga, while the top two teams of the 2. Bundesliga will be directly promoted to the Bundesliga; the complete list of the German handball champions since 1950. The following data indicates German coefficient rankings between European handball leagues. Official website of the HBL Statistics of the HBL
Austrian Football League
The Austrian Football League is the elite league of American football in Austria. The league was founded in 1984 and plays by the rules of the NCAA; the AFL was founded in 1984 by Vienna Ramblocks. The AFL is considered as one of the best American football leagues in Europe. In the period from 2004 to 2011, when the EFL was won seven of eight times by an AFL team. In 2010, the Prague Panthers from the Czech Republic joined the league as first team outside of Austria; the Panthers were member of the AFL until the 2016 season. In 2016, the Ljubljana Silverhawks from Slovenia and in 2018, the Bratislava Monarchs from Slovakia entered the AFL; the regular season consists of ten games and starts in mid March and the playoffs continue through July. The final game is called the Austrian Bowl and was held for the first time in 1984 in Salzburg, Austria. In 2019, the AFL consisted of: Vienna Vikings Graz Giants Swarco Raiders Tirol Danube Dragons Prague Black Panthers AFC Rangers Amstetten Thunder Steelsharks Traun ^ 1: Formerly known as Klosterneuburg Mercenaries Official website
Carom billiards, sometimes called carambole billiards or carambole, is the overarching title of a family of cue sports played on cloth-covered, 1.5-by-3.0-metre pocketless tables, which feature heated slate beds. In its simplest form, the object of the game is to score points or "counts" by caroming one's own cue ball off both the opponent's cue ball and the object ball on a single shot; the invention as well as the exact date of origin of carom billiards is somewhat obscure but is thought to be traceable to 18th-century France. There is a large array of carom billiards disciplines; some of the more prevalent today and are: straight rail, cushion caroms, three-cushion billiards and artistic billiards. There are many other carom billiards games, predominantly intermediary or offshoot games combining elements of those listed, such as the champion's game, an intermediary game between straight rail and balkline, as well as games which are hybrids of carom billiards and pocket billiards, such as English billiards played on a snooker table and its descendant games, American four-ball billiards, cowboy pool.
Carom billiards is considered obscure in the United States, but are more popular in Europe France, where it originated. It is popular in Asian countries, including Japan, the Philippines, South Korea and Vietnam; the word carom, which means any strike and rebound, was in use in reference to billiards by at least 1779, sometimes spelled "carrom". Sources differ on the origin, it has been pegged variously as a shortening of the Spanish and Portuguese word carambola, or the French word carambole, which are used to describe the red object ball. Some etymologists have suggested that carambola, in turn, was derived from a yellow-to-orange, tropical Asian fruit known in Portuguese as a carambola known as star fruit, but this may be folk etymology, as the fruit bears no resemblance to a billiard ball, there is no direct evidence for such a derivation. In modern French, the word carambolage means'successive collision' used in reference to carom or cannon shots in billiards, to multiple-vehicle car crashes.
Cloth has been used to cover billiards tables since the 15th century. The predecessor company of the most famous maker of billiard cloth, Iwan Simonis, was formed in 1453. Most cloth made for carom billiards tables is a type of baize, dyed green, is made from 100% worsted wool, which provides a fast surface allowing the balls to travel with little resistance across the table bed; the green color of cloth was chosen to emulate the look of grass, has been so colored since the 16th century. However, as in green eyeshades, the color serves a useful function: Humans have a higher light sensitivity to green than to any other color, so green cloth permits play for longer periods of time without eye strain. Modern billiard balls are made from resilient plastics with a typical diameter of 61.5 millimetres. They are larger and heavier than their pocket billiards counterparts, ranging between 205 and 220 grams with a typical weight of 210 g. While UMB, the International Olympic Committee-recognized world carom billiards authority, technically permits balls as small as 61 mm, no major manufacturer produces such balls any longer, the de facto standard is 61.5 mm.
The three standard balls in most carom billiards games consist of a white cue ball, a second cue ball with a red or black dot on it, a third, red ball. In some sets of balls, the second cue ball is solid yellow. Both types of ball sets are permitted in tournament play. Billiard balls have been made from many different materials throughout the history of the game, including clay, ivory and steel; the dominant material from 1627 until the early- to mid-20th century was ivory. The search for a substitute for ivory use was not for environmental concerns but based on economic motivation and fear of danger for elephant hunters, it was in part spurred on by a New York billiard table manufacturer who announced a prize of $10,000 for a substitute material. The first viable substitute was celluloid billiard balls, invented by John Wesley Hyatt in 1868, but the material was volatile and inflammable, sometimes exploding during manufacture. Carom billiard cues have specialized refinements making them different from the typical pool cue with which many people are more familiar.
Such cues tend to be shorter and lighter overall, with a shorter ferrule, a thicker butt and joint, a wooden joint pin and collarless wood-to-wood joint, a fast, conical taper, a smaller tip diameter as compared with pool cues. Typical cues are 140–140 cm in length and 470–520 g in weight—lighter for straight rail, heavier for three-cushion—with a tip 11–12 mm in diameter; the specialization makes the cue stiffer, which aids in handling the larger and heavier billiard balls as compared with pool cues. It acts to reduce deflection, which may be defined as displacement of the cue ball's path away from the parallel line formed by the cue stick's direction of travel, it is a factor that occurs every
The Bundesliga is a professional association football league in Germany and the football league with the highest average stadium attendance worldwide. At the top of the German football league system, the Bundesliga is Germany's primary football competition; the Bundesliga comprises 18 teams and operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the 2. Bundesliga. Seasons run from August to May. Most games are played with a few games played on weekdays. All of the Bundesliga clubs qualify for the DFB-Pokal; the winner of the Bundesliga qualifies for the DFL-Supercup. 54 clubs have competed in the Bundesliga since its founding. Bayern Munich has won the Bundesliga the most, winning the title 27 times. However, the Bundesliga has seen other champions with Borussia Dortmund, Hamburger SV, Werder Bremen, Borussia Mönchengladbach and VfB Stuttgart most prominent among them; the Bundesliga is one of the top national leagues, ranked fourth in Europe according to UEFA's league coefficient ranking for the 2017–18 season, based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons.
The Bundesliga is the number-one football league in the world in terms of average attendance. The Bundesliga is broadcast on television in over 200 countries; the Bundesliga was founded in 1962 in Dortmund and the first season started in 1963. The structure and organisation of the Bundesliga along with Germany's other football leagues have undergone frequent changes; the Bundesliga was founded by the Deutscher Fußball-Bund, but is now operated by the Deutsche Fußball Liga. The Bundesliga is composed of two divisions: the 1. Bundesliga, below that, the 2. Bundesliga, the second tier of German football since 1974; the Bundesligen are professional leagues. Since 2008, the 3. Liga in Germany has been a professional league, but may not be called Bundesliga because the league is run by the German Football Association and not, as are the two Bundesligen, by the German Football League. Below the level of the 3. Liga, leagues are subdivided on a regional basis. For example, the Regionalligen are made up of Nord, Nordost, Süd, Südwest and West divisions.
Below this are thirteen parallel divisions, most of which are called Oberligen which represent federal states or large urban and geographical areas. The levels below the Oberligen differ between the local areas; the league structure has changed and reflects the degree of participation in the sport in various parts of the country. In the early 1990s, changes were driven by the reunification of Germany and the subsequent integration of the national league of East Germany; every team in the two Bundesligen must have a licence to play in the league, or else they are relegated into the regional leagues. To obtain a licence, teams must be financially healthy and meet certain standards of conduct as organisations; as in other national leagues, there are significant benefits to being in the top division: A greater share of television broadcast licence revenues goes to 1. Bundesliga sides. 1. Bundesliga teams draw greater levels of fan support. Average attendance in the first league is 42,673 per game — more than twice the average of the 2.
Bundesliga. Greater exposure through television and higher attendance levels helps 1. Bundesliga teams attract the most lucrative sponsorships. 1. Bundesliga teams develop substantial financial muscle through the combination of television and gate revenues and marketing of their team brands; this allows them to attract and retain skilled players from domestic and international sources and to construct first-class stadium facilities. The 1. Bundesliga is financially strong, the 2. Bundesliga has begun to evolve in a similar direction, becoming more stable organizationally and financially, reflecting an higher standard of professional play. Internationally, the most well-known German clubs include Bayern Munich, Borussia Dortmund, Schalke 04, Hamburger SV, VfB Stuttgart, Borussia Mönchengladbach, Werder Bremen and Bayer Leverkusen. Hamburger SV was the only club to have played continuously in the Bundesliga since its foundation until 12 May 2018, when the club was relegated for the first time. In the 2008–09 season, the Bundesliga reinstated an earlier German system of promotion and relegation, in use from 1981 until 1991: The bottom two finishers in the Bundesliga are automatically relegated to the 2.
Bundesliga, with the top two finishers in the 2. Bundesliga taking their places; the third-from-bottom club in the Bundesliga will play a two-legged tie with the third-place team from the 2. Bundesliga, with the winner taking up the final place in the following season's Bundesliga. From 1992 until 2008, a different system had been used in which the bottom three finishers of the Bundesliga had been automatically relegated, to be replaced by the top three finishers in the 2. Bundesliga. From 1963 until 1981 two, or three, teams had been relegated from the Bundesliga automatically, while promotion had been decided either or in promotion play-offs; the season starts in early August and lasts until late May, with a winter break of six weeks (mid-December through to the end of