Virginia the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U. S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna; the capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million. The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company established the Colony of Virginia as the first permanent New World English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy.
Virginia was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution. In the American Civil War, Virginia's Secession Convention resolved to join the Confederacy, Virginia's First Wheeling Convention resolved to remain in the Union. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia; the Virginia General Assembly is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World. The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008, it is unique in how it treats cities and counties manages local roads, prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley. S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency. Virginia has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles, including 3,180.13 square miles of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area. Virginia is bordered by Maryland and Washington, D.
C. to the north and east. Virginia's boundary with Maryland and Washington, D. C. extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River. The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes; the border with Tennessee was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U. S. Supreme Court; the Chesapeake Bay separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the James River. Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay; the Tidewater is a coastal plain between the fall line. It includes major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay; the Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic era. The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains around Charlottesville.
The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet. The Ridge and Valley region includes the Great Appalachian Valley; the region includes Massanutten Mountain. The Cumberland Plateau and the Cumberland Mountains are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, into the Ohio River basin; the Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg. A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia on August 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was felt as far away as Toronto and Florida. 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted. The resulting Chesapeake Bay impact crater may explain what earthquakes and subsidence the region does experience.
Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic basins. Over 64 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, sand, or gravel, were mined in Virginia in 2018; the state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism, including the popular Luray Caverns and Skyline Caverns. The climate of Virginia is humid subtropical and becomes warmer and more humid farther south and east. Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F in January to average highs of 86 °F in July; the Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summ
Opequon Creek is a 64.4-mile-long tributary stream of the Potomac River. It flows into the Potomac northeast of Martinsburg in Berkeley County, West Virginia, its source lies northwest of the community of Opequon at the foot of Great North Mountain in Frederick County, Virginia; the Opequon forms part of the boundary between Frederick and Clarke counties in Virginia and partially forms the boundary between Berkeley and Jefferson counties in West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle. Opequon is a name derived from an unidentified local Native American language. Streams are listed from south to the north. Stribling Run Hoge Run Wrights Run Buffalo Lick Run Sulphur Spring Run Isaac Run Abrams Creek Town Run Ash Hollow Run Redbud Run Dry Marsh Run Lick Run Littlers Run Ross Run Thomas Run Abrils Run Duncan Run Silver Spring Run Specks Run Turkey Run Mill Creek Torytown Run Sylvan Run Three Run Goose Creek Middle Creek Hopewell Run Dry Run Buzzard Run Sulphur Spring Branch Spa Run Cold Spring Run Evens Run Tuscarora Creek Eagle Run Hoke Run The Opequon Creek is home to many species of Crayfish and Minnow.
Many species of turtles inhabit the creek, most notably the Eastern box turtle. Snakes are common, with Copperheads and Garter snakes being the most numerous. Many species of mammals live near the biggest being the White-tailed deer. Plants types that live along the creek include grasses, water lilies, aquatic plants. Sycamore trees, Tulip Trees, Willow trees dig their roots along the creeks banks. Due to water runoff during rainfall, the water flow of the Opequon Creek varies. In the spring, the creek's output of water is high due to wet conditions during spring. In the summer, the water flow is normal, with Thunderstorms raising the water, short-term droughts lowering the water. In the fall, the water level is below-normal due to dry conditions and lower rainfall. During the winter however, the creek is at its highest because of low evaporation caused by cold temperatures and thick cloud covers; the creek freezes over, but sometimes stagnant water will freeze through. The water quality of Opequon Creek is mixed.
While the creek is in the North Mountain, its water quality is general good because of the low pollution and the low population of North Mountain. Its water quality drops once it joins the spring-fed streams because of agricultural run-off. Due to numerous dams though, this run-off doesn't always make it to the Potomac River; when it joins the Potomac, its water quality is good to moderate. Baker Heights Bartonsville Bedington Blairton Burnt Factory Leetown Martinsburg Middleway Opequon Parkins Mills Tarico Heights Wadesville Inwood Winchester List of West Virginia rivers List of Virginia rivers
Hedgesville, West Virginia
Hedgesville is a town in Berkeley County, West Virginia, in the state's Eastern Panhandle region. The population was 318 at the 2010 census. In addition to its legal definition, Hedgesville has come to be the common name for the large and sparsely inhabited area of West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle bordered by the Potomac River to the North and East, a southern border defined by an imaginary line from the city of Martinsburg to the tip of Virginia, Berkeley Springs to the West. Established by an act of the Virginia General Assembly on February 11, 1836, the Town of Hedgesville was laid out in 1832 along the old Warm Springs Road and named for the prominent local Hedges family. In 1854, Hedgesville was incorporated by the General Assembly; the act of incorporation provided for a town council consisting of seven trustees, but the act was amended in 1858 so that a mayor could be added to the council. Hedgesville is a National Register Historic District. Prior to that, in the 18th Century, it was home to the Tuscarora people.
On August 17, 2004, President George W. Bush made a re-election campaign stop and photo-op at Hedgesville High School. Hedgesville is located at 39°33′15″N 77°59′42″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.13 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 318 people, 119 households, 82 families residing in the town; the population density was 2,446.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 135 housing units at an average density of 1,038.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 90.3% White, 5.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 1.6% from other races, 2.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.1% of the population. There were 119 households, of which 46.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.9% were married couples living together, 21.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 31.1% were non-families. 16.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.07. The median age in the town was 31.2 years. 29.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 47.2% male and 52.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 240 people, 88 households, 65 families residing in the town; the population density was 772.2/km². There were 99 housing units at an average density of 816.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 92.08% White, 3.75% African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.42% Pacific Islander, 3.33% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.83% of the population. There were 88 households, of which 43.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.6% were married couples living together, 20.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.1% were non-families. 20.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.18.
In the town, the population was spread out with 34.6% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, 7.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 75.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.5 males. The median income for a household in the town was $49,375, the median income for a family was $46,563. Males had a median income of $31,042 versus $21,985 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,772. About 2.8% of families and 5.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.3% of those under the age of eighteen and 9.7% of those sixty five or over. Gale Catlett, American basketball player and coach David O'Brien Martin, former US Congressman Andy Boarman and Folk musician 4. Https://www.gutenberg.org/files/15263/15263-h/15263-h.htm The Underground Railroad, by William Still, digitized online. Corporation of Hedgesville Website
Morgan Chapel and Graveyard
Morgan Chapel and Graveyard — known as Christ Episcopal Church-Bunker Hill — is a historic church in Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, West Virginia. It is the oldest Episcopal church congregation in West Virginia. In 1741 Morgan Morgan, one of West Virginia's earliest settlers, built the original log church on this site, about halfway between his cabin and the mill. Soon a cemetery was established; the current Greek Revival building was constructed in 1851. Morgan Morgan I, II, III, IV are all buried in the church cemetery, although the historic marker for Morgan Morgan is over a mile away near the town center and mill. Morgan Morgan's descendants founded Morgantown, West Virginia. Buried in the graveyard is noted American portrait artist John Drinker, a Quaker who may have been a conductor on the Underground Railroad along with his wife Elizabeth and whose former house is on the National Register of Historic Places. During the American Civil War, both Union and Confederate troops encamped nearby and some in the chapel, as shown by uncovered graffiti.
The diocese is seeking funds for further restoration. The closest local Episcopal parish is now Zion Episcopal Church in Charles Town, West Virginia, several miles eastward on the Winchester Pike, which celebrated its 200th anniversary in 2015; until that parish had used this chapel for at least one worship service each year. Morgan Chapel was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1984, Morgan Morgan
Battle of Gettysburg
The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War. The battle involved the largest number of casualties of the entire war and is described as the war's turning point. Union Maj. Gen. George Meade's Army of the Potomac defeated attacks by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, halting Lee's invasion of the North. After his success at Chancellorsville in Virginia in May 1863, Lee led his army through the Shenandoah Valley to begin his second invasion of the North—the Gettysburg Campaign. With his army in high spirits, Lee intended to shift the focus of the summer campaign from war-ravaged northern Virginia and hoped to influence Northern politicians to give up their prosecution of the war by penetrating as far as Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, or Philadelphia. Prodded by President Abraham Lincoln, Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker moved his army in pursuit, but was relieved of command just three days before the battle and replaced by Meade.
Elements of the two armies collided at Gettysburg on July 1, 1863, as Lee urgently concentrated his forces there, his objective being to engage the Union army and destroy it. Low ridges to the northwest of town were defended by a Union cavalry division under Brig. Gen. John Buford, soon reinforced with two corps of Union infantry. However, two large Confederate corps assaulted them from the northwest and north, collapsing the hastily developed Union lines, sending the defenders retreating through the streets of the town to the hills just to the south. On the second day of battle, most of both armies had assembled; the Union line was laid out in a defensive formation resembling a fishhook. In the late afternoon of July 2, Lee launched a heavy assault on the Union left flank, fierce fighting raged at Little Round Top, the Wheatfield, Devil's Den, the Peach Orchard. On the Union right, Confederate demonstrations escalated into full-scale assaults on Culp's Hill and Cemetery Hill. All across the battlefield, despite significant losses, the Union defenders held their lines.
On the third day of battle, fighting resumed on Culp's Hill, cavalry battles raged to the east and south, but the main event was a dramatic infantry assault by 12,500 Confederates against the center of the Union line on Cemetery Ridge, known as Pickett's Charge. The charge was repulsed at great loss to the Confederate army. Lee led his army on a torturous retreat back to Virginia. Between 46,000 and 51,000 soldiers from both armies were casualties in the three-day battle, the most costly in US history. On November 19, President Lincoln used the dedication ceremony for the Gettysburg National Cemetery to honor the fallen Union soldiers and redefine the purpose of the war in his historic Gettysburg Address. Shortly after the Army of Northern Virginia won a major victory over the Army of the Potomac at the Battle of Chancellorsville, Robert E. Lee decided upon a second invasion of the North; such a move would upset U. S. plans for the summer campaigning season and reduce the pressure on the besieged Confederate garrison at Vicksburg.
The invasion would allow the Confederates to live off the bounty of the rich Northern farms while giving war-ravaged Virginia a much-needed rest. In addition, Lee's 72,000-man army could threaten Philadelphia and Washington, strengthen the growing peace movement in the North. Thus, on June 3, Lee's army began to shift northward from Virginia. Following the death of Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson, Lee reorganized his two large corps into three new corps, commanded by Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell, Lt. Gen. A. P. Hill; the Cavalry Division remained under the command of Maj. Gen. J. E. B. Stuart; the Union Army of the Potomac, under Maj. Gen. Joseph Hooker, consisted of seven infantry corps, a cavalry corps, an Artillery Reserve, for a combined strength of more than 100,000 men; the first major action of the campaign took place on June 9 between cavalry forces at Brandy Station, near Culpeper, Virginia. The 9,500 Confederate cavalrymen under Stuart were surprised by Maj. Gen. Alfred Pleasonton's combined arms force of two cavalry divisions and 3,000 infantry, but Stuart repulsed the Union attack.
The inconclusive battle, the largest predominantly cavalry engagement of the war, proved for the first time that the Union horse soldier was equal to his Southern counterpart. By mid-June, the Army of Northern Virginia was poised to enter Maryland. After defeating the Union garrisons at Winchester and Martinsburg, Ewell's Second Corps began crossing the river on June 15. Hill's and Longstreet's corps followed on June 24 and 25. Hooker's army pursued, keeping between the U. S. capital and Lee's army. The Union army crossed the Potomac from June 25 to 27. Lee gave strict orders for his army to minimize any negative impacts on the civilian population. Food and other supplies were not seized outright, although quartermasters reimbursing Northern farmers and merchants with Confederate money were not well received. Various towns, most notably York, were required to pay indemnities in lieu of supplies, under threat of destruction. During the invasion, the Confederates seized some 40 northern African Americans.
A few of them were escaped fugitive slaves.
Confederate States Army
The Confederate States Army was the military land force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War, fighting against the United States forces. On February 28, 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress established a provisional volunteer army and gave control over military operations and authority for mustering state forces and volunteers to the newly chosen Confederate president, Jefferson Davis. Davis was a graduate of the U. S. Military Academy, colonel of a volunteer regiment during the Mexican–American War, he had been a United States Senator from Mississippi and U. S. Secretary of War under President Franklin Pierce. On March 1, 1861, on behalf of the Confederate government, Davis assumed control of the military situation at Charleston, South Carolina, where South Carolina state militia besieged Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor, held by a small U. S. Army garrison. By March 1861, the Provisional Confederate Congress expanded the provisional forces and established a more permanent Confederate States Army.
An accurate count of the total number of individuals who served in the Confederate Army is not possible due to incomplete and destroyed Confederate records. This does not include an unknown number of slaves who were pressed into performing various tasks for the army, such as construction of fortifications and defenses or driving wagons. Since these figures include estimates of the total number of individual soldiers who served at any time during the war, they do not represent the size of the army at any given date; these numbers do not include men. Although most of the soldiers who fought in the American Civil War were volunteers, both sides by 1862 resorted to conscription as a means to force men to register and to volunteer. In the absence of exact records, estimates of the percentage of Confederate soldiers who were draftees are about double the 6 percent of United States soldiers who were conscripts. Confederate casualty figures are incomplete and unreliable; the best estimates of the number of deaths of Confederate soldiers are about 94,000 killed or mortally wounded in battle, 164,000 deaths from disease and between 26,000 and 31,000 deaths in United States prison camps.
One estimate of Confederate wounded, considered incomplete, is 194,026. These numbers do not include men who died from other causes such as accidents, which would add several thousand to the death toll; the main Confederate armies, the Army of Northern Virginia under General Robert E. Lee and the remnants of the Army of Tennessee and various other units under General Joseph E. Johnston, surrendered to the U. S. on April 9, 1865, April 18, 1865. Other Confederate forces surrendered between April 16, 1865 and June 28, 1865. By the end of the war, more than 100,000 Confederate soldiers had deserted, some estimates put the number as high as one third of Confederate soldiers; the Confederacy's government dissolved when it fled Richmond in April and exerted no control of the remaining armies. By the time Abraham Lincoln took office as President of the United States on March 4, 1861, the seven seceding slave states had formed the Confederate States; the Confederacy seized federal property, including nearly all U.
S. Army forts, within its borders. Lincoln was determined to hold the forts remaining under U. S. control when he took office Fort Sumter in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. By the time Lincoln was sworn in as president, the Provisional Confederate Congress had authorized the organization of a large Provisional Army of the Confederate States. Under orders from Confederate President Jefferson Davis, C. S. troops under the command of General P. G. T. Beauregard bombarded Fort Sumter on April 12–13, 1861, forcing its capitulation on April 14; the United States demanded war. It rallied behind Lincoln's call on April 15, for all the states to send troops to recapture the forts from the secessionists, to put down the rebellion and to preserve the United States intact. Four more slave states joined the Confederacy. Both the United States and the Confederate States began in earnest to raise large volunteer, armies with the objectives of putting down the rebellion and preserving the Union, on the one hand, or of establishing independence from the United States, on the other.
The Confederate Congress provided for a Confederate army patterned after the United States Army. It was to consist of a large provisional force to exist only in time of war and a small permanent regular army; the provisional, volunteer army was established by an act of the Provisional Confederate Congress passed on February 28, 1861, one week before the act which established the permanent regular army organization, passed on March 6. Although the two forces were to exist concurrently little was done to organize the Confederate regular army; the Provisional Army of the Confederate States began organizing on April 27. All regular and conscripted men preferred to enter this organization since officers could achieve a higher rank in the Provisional Army than they could in the Regular Army. If the war had ended for them, the Confederates intended that the PACS would be disbanded, leaving only the ACSA; the Army of the Confederate States of America was the regular army and was authorized to include 15,015 men, including 744 officers, but this level was never achieved.
The men serving in the highest rank as Confederate States generals, such as Samuel Cooper and Robert E. Lee, were enrolled in the ACSA to ensure that they outranked all
Mill Creek Historic District (Bunker Hill, West Virginia)
Mill Creek Historic District is a national historic district located at Bunker Hill, Berkeley County, West Virginia. It encompasses nine contributing buildings, eight contributing sites, three contributing objects that relate to an early industrial-commercial center in the county, they include: the Mill Creek Bridge, Henry Sherrard Mill, Robert Daniels House, John Gray House, Henshaw Log House, "Springhill", Henshaw Miller's House, "Springfield", Holliday Mill Sites, Bunker Hill Cumberland Valley Railroad Bridge, Stephenson's Tavern, Morgan Park including two State markers and monument to Morgan Morgan, Elisha Boyd Mill Sites, Joel Ward Mill ruins, Bunker Hill Mill Complex, Joel Ward House. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. Historic American Engineering Record No. WV-29, "Bunker Hill Mill, County Route 26, Bunker Hill vicinity, Berkeley County, WV", 38 photos, 1 color transparency, 21 data pages, 4 photo caption pages