Red Bud, Illinois
Red Bud is a city in Randolph County, Illinois, in the United States. The population was 3,698 at the 2010 census, it is the home of the Red Bud campus of Southwestern Illinois College. Red Bud is located at 38°12′37″N 89°59′47″W. According to the 2010 census, Red Bud has a total area of 2.453 square miles, of which 2.43 square miles is land and 0.023 square miles is water. Red Bud lies in the northwestern part of Randolph County and is bounded on the north and west by Monroe County, on the east by the Kaskaskia River, on the south by Ruma and Horse creeks, it was two-thirds rich rolling prairie, with good timber bordering the Kaskaskia. The city receives its name from a species of flora that grows in the area; the first development by a European settler within what is now the city limits was made by Preston Brickey in 1820. He constructed a log cabin near the current intersection of Main and Power streets, there cultivated a farm. In 1839, James Pollock placed a small stock of goods in the log cabin built by Henry Simmons, where he did business for about a year.
This was located. The next year he moved his stock of goods into a log building erected by John C. Crozier, he continued the business there about three years. In 1840, R. D. Dufree became the first permanent merchant in Red Bud. Two years he built a frame store house on the southeast corner of Main and Market streets; the first brick school house was erected in the east part of town. The village of Red Bud was organized on April 19, 1866, with officers as follows: John Brickey – president of board, Gerhard Boekhoff, William Schuck, Gerhard Ortgeisen, John Brunner. B. C. F. Janssen was appointed clerk, John Washbaugh constable, Boekhoff treasurer. Red Bud was chartered as a city on February 28, 1867. In April the city officer elections came out as follows: Mayor - Jacob Miller. City Treasurer was George Carl, City Attorney was Joseph Simpson, Police Magistrate was John Stoehr, Clerk was Fred Guker, City Marshal was J. Matt Smith; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,422 people, 4,370 households, 935 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,626.3 people per square mile. There were 1,462 housing units at an average density of 694.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.71% White, 0.32% Asian, 0.09% from other races, 0.88% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.88% of the population. There were 1,370 households out of which 31.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.0% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.7% were non-families. 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.2% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 25.9% from 25 to 44, 23.0% from 45 to 64, 19.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $40,300, the median income for a family was $50,280. Males had a median income of $36,049 versus $20,957 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,967. About 6.0% of families and 9.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.1% of those under age 18 and 13.0% of those age 65 or over. Conrad F. Becker, Illinois State Treasurer and Mayor of Red Bud, was born in Red Bud. Combined History of Randolph and Perry Counties, Illinois.. Philadelphia: J. L. McDonough & Co. "Deer Fest."" North County News November 5, 2009: page 1B "Holiday Happenings." North County News November 12, 2009: page 1B http://www.redbudchamber.com/festivals/deerfest: Retrieved on 2009-11-29. The Randolph County Herald Tribune - Local newspaper Red Bud Musketeers Football Contemporaneous newspaper account of 1892 tornado
The Ho-Chunk known as Hoocąągra or Winnebago, are a Siouan-speaking Native American people whose historic territory includes parts of Wisconsin, Minnesota and Illinois. Today, Ho-Chunk people are enrolled in two federally recognized tribes, the Ho-Chunk Nation of Wisconsin and the Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska; the Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska have an Indian reservation in Nebraska. While related, the two tribes are distinct federally recognized sovereign nations and peoples, each having its own constitutionally formed government, separate governing and business interests. Since the late 20th century, both tribal councils have authorized the development of casinos to generate revenue to support economic development, health care and education; the Ho-Chunk Nation has developed a Hoocąąk-language iOS app. Since 1988, it has pursued a claim to the Badger Army Ammunition Plant as traditional territory; the department supported the Ho-Chunk claim in 1998, but in 2011 refused to accept the property on their behalf.
In 1994, to build on its revenues from casinos, the Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska created an economic development corporation. With a number of subsidiaries, it employs more than 1400 people, it has contributed to housing construction on the reservation. Like more than 60% of federally recognized tribes, the Winnebago Tribe has legalized alcohol sales on the reservation to secure revenues that went to the state in retail taxes; the Ho-Chunk was the dominant tribe in its territory in the 16th century, with a population estimated at several thousand. Their traditions hold. Ethnologists have speculated that, like some other Siouan peoples, the Ho-Chunk originated along the East Coast and migrated west in ancient times. Nicolas Perrot wrote that the names given to them by neighboring Algonquian peoples may have referred to their origin near a salt water sea; the Ho-Chunk suffered severe population losses in the 17th century, to a low of as few as 500 individuals. This has been attributed to the loss of hundreds of warriors in a lake storm, epidemics of infectious disease, competition for resources from migrating Algonquian tribes.
By the early 1800s, their population had increased to 2,900, but they suffered further losses in the smallpox epidemic of 1836. In 1990 they numbered 7,000; the Ho-Chunk are a matrilineal indigenous tribe who speak a Siouan language, which they believe to be given to them by their creator, Waxopini Xete. The Hoocąągra were called various names by other tribes inspired by their fierceness in battle. At one point, they were called "Stinkards" due to living by water sources with large algae blooms, including Green Bay and Lake Winnebago; the term "Winnebago" is a term used by the Potawatomi, pronounced as "Winnipego." Their native name is Ho-Chąąnk, meaning "sacred voice". They refer to themselves as Hoocąąk-waazija-haa-chi meaning "sacred voice people of the Pines"; the Jesuit Relations of 1659-1660 said: He started, in the month of June of the year one thousand six hundred and fifty-eight, from the lake of the Ouinipegouek, only a large bay in lake Huron. It is called by others, the lake of the stinkards, not because it is salt like the water of the Sea -- which the Savages call Ouinipeg, or stinking water -- but because it is surrounded by sulphurous soil, whence issue several springs which convey into this lake the impurities absorbed by their waters in the places of their origin.
Nicolas Perrot was a 17th century French trader who believed that the Algonquian terms referred to salt-water seas, as these have a distinctive aroma compared with fresh-water lakes. An early Jesuit record says that the name refers to the origin of Le Puans near the salt water seas to the north. Algonquins called the Winnebago, "the people of the sea." When the explorers Jean Nicolet and Samuel de Champlain learned of the "sea" connection to the tribe's name, they were optimistic that it meant Les puans were from or had lived near the Pacific Ocean. They hoped. In recent studies, ethnologists have concluded that the Hoocąągra, like the other Siouan-speaking peoples, originated on the east coast of North America and migrated west. Several Hoocąąk elders have claimed that they originated in the Midwest and that they predated the last ice age; the early 20th-century researcher H. R. Holand claimed they originated in Mexico, where they had contact with the Spanish and gained a knowledge of horses.
David Lee contends. His evidence derived from a culture based on corn growing, civilization type, mound building; this followed the receding ice shield. However, Holand cites the records of Jonathan Carver, who lived with the Hoocąągra in 1766–1768. But, contact with the Spanish could have occurred along the Gulf of Mexico or the south Atlantic coast, where other Hoocąąk type tribes originated and lived for centuries. Others suggested that the Hoocąągra originated near saltwater, to explain how mid-western tribes had a knowledge of the Pacific Ocean, which they described as being located where the earth ends and the sun sets into the sea; the Hoocąągra claim that their people have always lived in what is now the north central United States. Linguistic and e
Bethalto is a village located in Madison County, United States. Bethalto, like the rest of Madison County, is part of the Illinois Metro East portion of the Greater St. Louis metropolitan area; the population of Bethalto was 9,521 at the 2010 census. Bethalto is located at 38°54′15″N 90°2′48″W. According to the 2010 census, Bethalto has a total area of 7.6 square miles, of which 7.52 square miles is land and 0.08 square miles is water. Bethalto was founded in 1834, incorporated April 19, 1869, under a special charter and again in 1873 under the State of Illinois' general law, it is governed by six trustees elected at large. The original name of Bethalto was Bethel. However, when the first post office was established, it was discovered that there was a Bethel, Illinois. There is a general consensus that the name "Bethalto" came from the first four letters of Bethel and the first four letters of nearby Alton; the Bethalto Village Hall is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,454 people, 3,810 households, 2,647 families residing in the village.
The population density was 1,437.3 people per square mile. There were 4,007 housing units at an average density of 609.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 97.84% White, 0.76% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.40% Asian, 0.33% from other races, 0.44% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.00% of the population. There were 3,810 households out of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.2% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.5% were non-families. 26.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 2.98. In the village, the population was spread out with 25.7% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, 14.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.3 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.0 males. The median income for a household in the village was $42,201, the median income for a family was $50,764. Males had a median income of $41,512 versus $22,981 for females; the per capita income for the village was $18,697. About 6.5% of families and 9.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.1% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over. As a bedroom community, Bethalto is home to a branch of RF Technologies, North America's largest independent service center for drive-through communication systems. Local restaurants include Geno's 140 Club, The Eagle's Nest, El Mezcal, Roma's Pizza. In late October 2006, the segment of four-lane, controlled-access Illinois Route 255 between Illinois Route 143 and Fosterburg Road was opened; this highway provides Bethalto residents with convenient access to the area's freeway system and provides greater through traffic to further economic development for the region. The main park in Bethalto consists of a stage amphitheater, lighted tennis courts, baseball fields, skateboard park, a newly re-modeled basketball court.
The Bethalto Homecoming is held at the park every year. The park is located in the center of town, directly adjacent to the village hall; the Bethalto Arboretum is an arboretum on the east end of town, developed in 1966 after the demise of the railroad era in Bethalto. It is one of the few arboretums in the area. A directory of trees and bushes contained in the arboretum may be viewed in the mayor and clerk's offices. There are many plaques, in memory of Bethalto's notable persons, placed next to many of the trees in the park; the park is centered on a road truck on top of a short slab of railroad track. The short piece of track remains in its original position as part of the old railroad tracks that existed to transport coal to and from the area. Known as Culp Lane Park until 2014, it is on the northwest end of town. Features include a fishing lake, a children's play area, walking paths, pavilions, a playground, stretches of attractive landscaping; the park was named for former mayor Steve Bryant, instrumental in transforming the town lagoon into a family park.
The Bethalto Sports Complex is located on the north side of town just off Culp Lane. The complex was completed in 2006 and is made up of two baseball fields, two softball fields, two soccer fields, a grandstand, a concession stand; the complex, maintained by the Village of Bethalto, replaced the old baseball and soccer fields located at Civic Memorial High School for varsity and junior varsity baseball and soccer teams. The Indians, the Bethalto Legion team calls the complex home; the Bethalto Khoury League Diamonds are located on the south side of town in the Chateaux residential area. The complex consists of four lighted diamonds with a concession stand in the center; the fields are set up to handle all of the local Boys & Girls Clubs of America youth baseball and softball games. The fields are home to a number of private and select league baseball teams that play there every summer. Bethalto Unit Schools are the largest employer in Bethalto and have the greatest impact in terms of land area and government spending.
The school district, Bethalto Unit School District 8, is made up o
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
The Peoria are a Native American people. Today they are enrolled in the federally recognized Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, they were part of the Illinois Confederation. Traditionally, the Peoria spoke a dialect of the Miami-Illinois language; the name "Peoria" derives from their autonym or name for themselves in the Illinois language, peewaareewa. It meant, "Comes carrying a pack on his back." No speakers of the Peoria language survive. Along with the Miami language, a smaller number of the Peoria tribe of Oklahoma once spoke Cahokia and Tamaroa; the Peoria Tribe of Oklahoma is headquartered in Miami and their tribal jurisdictional area is in Ottawa County. Of the 2,925 enrolled tribal members, only 777 live within the state of Oklahoma. Craig Harper is the tribe's elected Chief serving a four-year term; the Peoria operate their own housing authority. The tribe owns the Peoria Ridge Golf Course; the estimated annual economic impact of the tribe is $60 million. Tribal businesses, the Peoria Gaming Center, Buffalo Run Casino and Hotel, Joe's Outback are all located in Miami, Oklahoma.
The Peoria are Algonquian-speaking people, whose ancestors came from what is now Illinois, Michigan and Ohio. Once thought to be descendants of the Cahokia Mississippian culture of Moundbuilders, they are now believed to be related to Algonquian-speaking peoples of the Great Lakes and East Coast; the Peoria were one of the many Illinois tribes encountered by the explorers, Father Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet. French Jesuit missionaries converted tribal members to Roman Catholicism. Father Jacques Gravier, superior of the Illinois mission, compiled the most extensive dictionary of Kaskaskia Illinois-French terms, nearly 600 pages and 20,000 entries; the Peoria migrated southwest into Missouri Territory after 1763. In 1818, the Treaty of Edwardsville included the cession of Peoria lands in Illinois to the United States. By the 1832 Treaty of Lewisville, they ceded Missouri lands in exchange for land in Kansas, near the Osage River. Infectious disease, to which they had no natural immunity, intertribal wars drastically reduced the tribe's numbers.
In 1849, members of the Kaskaskia, Peoria and Wea tribes formed a confederacy under the Peoria name. The confederation included the last members and descendants of the Cahokia, Moingwena and Tamaroa tribes, who had become a part of the Peoria many year before, as well as the Pepikokia, who had joined the Wea and Piankashaw in the part of the 18th Century. In 1851, an Indian agent reported that the Peoria and the Kaskasia, along with their allies, had intermarried among themselves and among white people to such an extent that they had lost their identities. An 1854 treaty called these groups the Confederated Peoria; the treaty provided for opening the Peoria-Kskaskia and the Wea-Piankashaw reserves to settlement by non-Indians. After the Civil War, most of the confederated tribe signed the 1867 Omnibus Treaty. By this means, the U. S. government purchased land from the Quapaw tribe and relocated the majority of the Peoria tribe onto a 72,000 acres reservation in Indian Territory, part of present-day Ottawa County, Oklahoma.
Congress enacted a law to unite the Miami tribe of Kansas with the Confederated Peoria. The Peoria and Miami lands were allotted to the enrolled members in 1893. In 1907, any surplus land was turned over to Ottawa County. Under the Dawes Act and Curtis Act of 1898, the US government attempted to make individual allotments of land to heads of families, to allow separate ownership and cultivation of land, break up the common landholdings of the tribes, it was part of an effort to have the tribes assimilate to European-American ways. At the same time, they forced tribal governments to dismantle. In 1939, after passage of the Oklahoma Indian Welfare Act, the tribe reorganized and re-established its traditional form of council government. During the 1950s, the US government pursued a policy of Indian termination to end its special relationship with tribes, it dissolved the Peoria tribal government, which lost federal recognition in 1959. Tribal members objected and began the process to regain federal recognition, which they achieved in 1978.
The Miami tribe never lost its Federal recognition. The descendants of the Piankeshaw and Wea, all members of the Illinois Confederacy, are enrolled in the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma; the city of Peoria and the surrounding Peoria County are named after the tribe which lived in that area. The Peoria War occurred in this area but is named for the town, as the tribe had left for Missouri before this conflict occurred. Peoria and Paola, are named directly for the tribe. Many other places named Peoria and U. S. Navy ships were named after the town in Illinois. Ruthe Blalock Jones, Delaware-Shawnee-Peoria artist and educator Moscelyne Larkin, Peoria-Shawnee ballerina Charles Edwin Dagenett and leader of the Society of American Indians Sagamite Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, official website Tribes of the Illinois/Missouri Region at First Contact The Tribes of The Illinois Confederacy Inoca Ethnohistory Project: Eye Witness Descriptions of the Contact Generation, 1667–1700 Peoria Historical Society at Google Cultural Institute "Peoria Indians".
Catholic Encyclopedia. 1913. "Peoria. One of the five principal tribes of the Illinois Confederacy". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
A tornado is a rotating column of air, in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. The windstorm is referred to as a twister, whirlwind or cyclone, although the word cyclone is used in meteorology to name a weather system with a low-pressure area in the center around which winds blow counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, they are visible in the form of a condensation funnel originating from the base of a cumulonimbus cloud, with a cloud of rotating debris and dust beneath it. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour, are about 250 feet across, travel a few miles before dissipating; the most extreme tornadoes can attain wind speeds of more than 300 miles per hour, are more than two miles in diameter, stay on the ground for dozens of miles. Various types of tornadoes include the multiple vortex tornado and waterspout. Waterspouts are characterized by a spiraling funnel-shaped wind current, connecting to a large cumulus or cumulonimbus cloud.
They are classified as non-supercellular tornadoes that develop over bodies of water, but there is disagreement over whether to classify them as true tornadoes. These spiraling columns of air develop in tropical areas close to the equator and are less common at high latitudes. Other tornado-like phenomena that exist in nature include the gustnado, dust devil, fire whirl, steam devil. Tornadoes occur most in North America in central and southeastern regions of the United States colloquially known as tornado alley, as well as in Southern Africa and southeast Europe and southeastern Australia, New Zealand and adjacent eastern India, southeastern South America. Tornadoes can be detected before or as they occur through the use of Pulse-Doppler radar by recognizing patterns in velocity and reflectivity data, such as hook echoes or debris balls, as well as through the efforts of storm spotters. There are several scales for rating the strength of tornadoes; the Fujita scale rates tornadoes by damage caused and has been replaced in some countries by the updated Enhanced Fujita Scale.
An F0 or EF0 tornado, the weakest category, damages trees, but not substantial structures. An F5 or EF5 tornado, the strongest category, rips buildings off their foundations and can deform large skyscrapers; the similar TORRO scale ranges from a T0 for weak tornadoes to T11 for the most powerful known tornadoes. Doppler radar data and ground swirl patterns may be analyzed to determine intensity and assign a rating; the word tornado comes from the Spanish word tornado. Tornadoes opposite phenomena are the derechoes. A tornado is commonly referred to as a "twister", is sometimes referred to by the old-fashioned colloquial term cyclone; the term "cyclone" is used as a synonym for "tornado" in the often-aired 1939 film The Wizard of Oz. The term "twister" is used in that film, along with being the title of the 1996 tornado-related film Twister. A tornado is "a violently rotating column of air, in contact with the ground, either pendant from a cumuliform cloud or underneath a cumuliform cloud, visible as a funnel cloud".
For a vortex to be classified as a tornado, it must be in contact with both the ground and the cloud base. Scientists have not yet created a complete definition of the word. Tornado refers to the vortex of wind, not the condensation cloud. A tornado is not visible; this results in the formation of a visible funnel condensation funnel. There is some disagreement over the definition of a condensation funnel. According to the Glossary of Meteorology, a funnel cloud is any rotating cloud pendant from a cumulus or cumulonimbus, thus most tornadoes are included under this definition. Among many meteorologists, the'funnel cloud' term is defined as a rotating cloud, not associated with strong winds at the surface, condensation funnel is a broad term for any rotating cloud below a cumuliform cloud. Tornadoes begin as funnel clouds with no associated strong winds at the surface, not all funnel clouds evolve into tornadoes. Most tornadoes produce strong winds at the surface while the visible funnel is still above the ground, so it is difficult to discern the difference between a funnel cloud and a tornado from a distance.
A single storm will produce more than one tornado, either or in succession. Multiple tornadoes produced by the same storm cell are referred to as a "tornado family". Several tornadoes are sometimes spawned from the same large-scale storm system. If there is no break in activity, this is considered a tornado outbreak. A period of several successive days with tornado outbreaks in the same general area is a tornado outbreak sequence called an extended tornado outbreak. Most tornadoes take on the appearance of a narrow funnel, a few hundred yards across, with a small cloud of debris near the ground. Tornadoes may
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl