The oystercatchers are a group of waders forming the family Haematopodidae, which has a single genus, Haematopus. They are found on coasts worldwide apart from the polar regions and some tropical regions of Africa and South East Asia; the exception to this is the Eurasian oystercatcher and the South Island oystercatcher, both of which breed inland, far inland in some cases. In the past there has been a great deal of confusion as to the species limits, with discrete populations of all black oystercatchers being afforded specific status but pied oystercatchers being considered one single species; the name oystercatcher was coined by Mark Catesby in 1731 as a common name for the North American species H. palliatus, described as eating oysters. Yarrell in 1843 established this as the preferred term, replacing the older name sea sea-pie; the genus name Haematopus comes from the Greek haima αἳμα blood, pous πούς foot. The different species of oystercatcher show little variation in appearance, they range from 39–50 cm in length and 72–91 cm in wingspan.
The Eurasian oystercatcher is the lightest on average, at 526 g, while the sooty oystercatcher is the heaviest, at 819 g. The plumage of all species is either all-black, or black on white underneath; the variable oystercatcher is exceptional in being either all-black or pied. They are large and noisy plover-like birds, with massive long orange or red bills used for smashing or prying open molluscs; the bill shape varies according to the diet. Those birds with blade-like bill tips pry open or smash mollusc shells, those with pointed bill tips tend to probe for annelid worms, they show sexual dimorphism, with females being longer-billed and heavier than males. The diet of oystercatchers varies with location. Species occurring inland feed upon earthworms and insect larvae; the diet of coastal oystercatchers is more varied, although dependent upon coast type. Other prey items include echinoderms and crabs. Nearly all species of oystercatcher are monogamous, although there are reports of polygamy in the Eurasian oystercatcher.
They are territorial during the breeding season. There is strong mate and site fidelity in the species that have been studied, with one record of a pair defending the same site for 20 years. A single nesting attempt is made per breeding season, timed over the summer months; the nests of oystercatchers are simple affairs, scrapes in the ground which may be lined, placed in a spot with good visibility. The eggs of oystercatchers are spotted and cryptic. Between one and four eggs are laid, with three being typical in the Northern Hemisphere and two in the south. Incubation is shared but not proportionally, females tend to take more incubation and males engage in more territory defence. Incubation varies by lasting between 24 -- 39 days. Oystercatchers are known to practice "egg dumping." Like the cuckoo, they sometimes lay their eggs in the nests of other species such as seagulls, abandoning them to be raised by those birds. The Canary Islands oystercatcher became extinct during the 20th century; the Chatham oystercatcher is endemic to the Chatham Islands of New Zealand but is listed as endangered by the IUCN, while both the African and Eurasian oystercatchers are considered near threatened.
There has been conflict with commercial shellfish farmers, but studies have found that the impact of oystercatchers is much smaller than that of shore crabs. One fossil species is known: Haematopus sulcatus from the early Pliocene of Florida. ARKive – images and movies of the oystercatcher Oystercatcher videos on the Internet Bird Collection LIVE webcam at the seashore in Namsos, Norway 2013
Otters are carnivorous mammals in the subfamily Lutrinae. The 13 extant otter species are all semiaquatic, aquatic or marine, with diets based on fish and invertebrates. Lutrinae is a branch of the weasel family Mustelidae, which includes badgers, honey badgers, minks and wolverines; the word otter derives from the Old English word oter. This, cognate words in other Indo-European languages stem from the Proto-Indo-European language root *wódr̥, which gave rise to the English word "water". An otter's den is called a couch. Male otters are called dogs or boars, females are called bitches or sows, their offspring are called pups; the collective nouns for otters are bevy, lodge, romp or, when in water, raft. The feces of otters are identified by their distinctive aroma, the smell of, described as ranging from freshly mown hay to putrefied fish; the gestation period in otters is about 60 to 86 days. The newborn pup is cared for by the bitch and older offspring. Bitch otters reach sexual maturity at two years of age and males at three years.
The holt is built under a rocky cairn, more common in Scotland. It is lined with moss and grass. After one month, the pup can leave the holt and after two months, it is able to swim; the pup lives with its family for one year. Otters live up to 16 years, its usual source of food is fish, further downriver, but it may sample frogs and birds. Otters have long, slim bodies and short limbs, their most striking anatomical features are the powerful webbed feet used to swim, their seal-like abilities holding breath underwater. Most have sharp claws on their feet and all except the sea otter have long, muscular tails; the 13 species range in adult size from 0.6 to 1 to 45 kg in weight. The Asian small-clawed otter is the smallest otter species and the giant otter and sea otter are the largest, they have soft, insulated underfur, protected by an outer layer of long guard hairs. This traps a layer of air which keeps them dry and somewhat buoyant under water. Several otter species have high metabolic rates to help keep them warm.
European otters must eat 15% of their body weight each day, sea otters 20 to 25%, depending on the temperature. In water as warm as 10 °C, an otter needs to catch 100 g of fish per hour to survive. Most species hunt for three to nursing mothers up to eight hours each day. For most otters, fish is the staple of their diet; this is supplemented by frogs and crabs. Some otters are experts at opening shellfish, others will feed on available small mammals or birds. Prey-dependence leaves otters vulnerable to prey depletion. Sea otters are hunters of sea urchins and other shelled creatures, they are notable for their ability to use stones to break open shellfish on their stomachs. This skill must be learned by the young. Otters are active hunters, chasing prey in the water or searching the beds of rivers, lakes or the seas. Most species live beside water, but river otters enter it only to hunt or travel, otherwise spending much of their time on land to prevent their fur becoming waterlogged. Sea otters are more aquatic and live in the ocean for most of their lives.
Otters are playful animals and appear to engage in various behaviors for sheer enjoyment, such as making waterslides and sliding on them into the water. They may find and play with small stones. Different species vary in their social structure, with some being solitary, while others live in groups – in a few species these groups may be large. Genus Lutra Eurasian otter Hairy-nosed otter Japanese otter† Lutra euxena† Lutra castiglionis† Lutra simplicidens† Lutra trinacriae†Genus Hydrictis Spotted-necked otter Genus Lutrogale Smooth-coated otter Lutrogale robusta†Genus Lontra North American river otter Southern river otter Neotropical river otter Marine otter Genus Pteronura Giant otter Genus Amblonyx Asian small-clawed otter Genus Aonyx African clawless otter Genus Enhydra Sea otter Enhydra reevei†Genus †Megalenhydris Genus †Sardolutra Genus †Algarolutra Genus †Cyrnaonyx Genus †Teruelictis Genus †Enhydriodon Genus †Enhydritherium Genus †Teruelictis Genus †Limnonyx Genus †Lutravus Genus †Sivaonyx Genus †Torolutra Genus †Tyrrhenolutra Genus †Vishnuonyx Genus †Siamogale The European otter called the Eurasian otter, inhabits Europe, most of Asia and parts of North Africa.
In the British Isles, they were common as as the 1950s, but became rare in many areas due to the use of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides, habitat loss and water pollution. Population levels are now recovering strongly; the UK Biodiversity Action Plan envisages the re-establishment of otters by 2010 in all the UK rivers and coastal areas they inhabited in 1960. Roadkill deaths have become one of the significant threats to the success of their re-establishment; the North American river otter became one of the major animals hunted and trapped for fur in North America after European contact. River otters eat a variety of fish and shellfish, as well as birds. They
The grey seal is found on both shores of the North Atlantic Ocean. It is a large seal of the family Phocidae which are referred to as "true seals" or "earless seals", it is the only species classified in the genus Halichoerus. Its name is spelled gray seal in the US. There are two recognized subspecies of this seal: Halichoerus grypus grypus, earlier known as H. g. macrorhynchus and H. g. balticus Halichoerus grypus atlantica The type specimen of H. g. grypus was rediscovered in 2016, a DNA test showed it belonged to a Baltic Sea specimen rather than from Greenland, as had been assumed. The name H. g. grypus was therefore transferred to the Baltic subspecies, the name H. g. atlantica resurrected for the Atlantic subspecies. Molecular studies have indicated that the eastern and western Atlantic populations have been genetically distinct for at least one million years, could be considered as separate subspecies, it is a large seal, with bulls in the eastern Atlantic populations reaching 2.5–3.3 m long and weighing 170–310 kg.
Individuals from the western Atlantic are much larger, with males reaching 400 kg and females weighing up to 250 kg. It is distinguished from the harbor seal by its straight head profile, nostrils set well apart, fewer spots on its body. Grey seals lack external ear characteristically have large snouts. Bull Greys have a less curved profile than common seal bulls. Males are darker than females, with lighter patches and scarring around the neck. Females are silver grey to brown with dark patches. In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the grey seal breeds in several colonies on and around the coasts. Notably large colonies are at Blakeney Point in Norfolk, Donna Nook in Lincolnshire, the Farne Islands off the Northumberland Coast and North Rona. off the north coast of Scotland, Lambay Island off the coast of Dublin and Ramsey Island off the coast of Pembrokeshire. In the German Bight, colonies exist on Heligoland. In the Western North Atlantic, the grey seal is found in large numbers in the coastal waters of Canada and south to Nantucket in the United States.
In Canada, it is seen in areas such as the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the Maritimes, Quebec; the largest colony in the world is at Sable Island, NS. In the United States it is found year-round off the coast of New England, in particular Maine and Massachusetts. Archaeological evidence confirms grey seals in southern New England with remains found on Block Island, Martha's Vineyard and near the mouth of the Quinnipiac River in New Haven, Connecticut, its natural range now extends much further south than recognized with confirmed sightings in North Carolina. There is a report by Farley Mowat of historic breeding colonies as far south as Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. An isolated population exists in the Baltic Sea. Besides these large colonies, many much smaller ones exist, some of which are well known as tourist attractions despite their small size; such colonies include one on the Carrack rocks in Cornwall. During the winter months grey seals can be seen hauled out on rocks and shoals not far from shore coming ashore to rest.
In the spring weaned pups and yearlings strand on beaches after becoming separated from their group. The grey seal feeds on a wide variety of fish benthic or demersal species, taken at depths down to 70 m or more. Sand eels are important in its diet in many localities. Cod and other gadids, herring and skates are important locally. However, it is clear that the grey seal will eat whatever is available, including octopus and lobsters; the average daily food requirement is estimated to be 5 kg, though the seal does not feed every day and it fasts during the breeding season. Recent observations and studies from Scotland, The Netherlands and Germany show that grey seals will prey and feed on large animals like harbour seals and harbour porpoises. In 2014, a male grey seal in the North Sea was documented and filmed killing and cannibalizing 11 pups of its own species over the course of a week. Similar wounds on the carcasses of pups found elsewhere in the region suggest that cannibalism and infanticide may not be uncommon in grey seals.
Male grey seals may engage in such behavior as a way of increasing reproductive success through access to easy prey without leaving prime territory. Grey seals are capital breeders, they give birth to a single pup every year, with females' reproductive years beginning as early as 4 years old and extending up to 30 years of age. All parental care is provided by the female. During breeding, males don't provide parental care but they defend females against other males for mating; the pups are born at around the mass of 14 kg. They are born in autumn in the eastern Atlantic and in winter in the west, with a dense, soft silky white fur; the milk can consist of up to 60% fat. Grey seal pups are precocial, with mothers returning to sea to forage once pu
The red deer is one of the largest deer species. The red deer inhabits most of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains region, Asia Minor, parts of western Asia, central Asia, it inhabits the Atlas Mountains region between Morocco and Tunisia in northwestern Africa, being the only species of deer to inhabit Africa. Red deer have been introduced to other areas, including Australia, New Zealand, United States, Peru, Uruguay and Argentina. In many parts of the world, the meat from red deer is used as a food source. Red deer are ruminants, characterized by a four-chambered stomach. Genetic evidence indicates the red deer as traditionally defined is a species group, rather than a single species, although it remains disputed as to how many species the group includes; the related and larger American elk or wapiti, native to North America and eastern parts of Asia, had been regarded as a subspecies of red deer, but it has been established as a distinct species. It is probable that the ancestor of all red deer, including wapiti, originated in central Asia and resembled sika deer.
Although at one time red deer were rare in parts of Europe, they were never close to extinction. Reintroduction and conservation efforts, such as in the United Kingdom and Portugal, have resulted in an increase of red deer populations, while other areas, such as North Africa, have continued to show a population decline; the red deer is the fourth-largest deer species behind moose and sambar deer. It is a ruminant, eating its food in two stages and having an number of toes on each hoof, like camels and cattle. European red deer have a long tail compared to their Asian and North American relatives. Subtle differences in appearance are noted between the various subspecies of red deer in size and antlers, with the smallest being the Corsican red deer found on the islands of Corsica and Sardinia and the largest being the Caspian red deer of Asia Minor and the Caucasus Region to the west of the Caspian Sea; the deer of central and western Europe vary in size, with some of the largest deer found in the Carpathian Mountains in Central Europe.
Western European red deer grew to large size given ample food supply, descendants of introduced populations living in New Zealand and Argentina have grown quite large in both body and antler size. Large red deer stags, like the Caspian red deer or those of the Carpathian Mountains, may rival the wapiti in size. Female red deer are much smaller than their male counterparts; the male red deer is 175 to 250 cm long and weighs 160 to 240 kg. The tail adds another 12 to 19 cm and shoulder height is about 95 to 130 cm. In Scotland, stags average 201 cm in head-and-body length and 122 cm high at the shoulder and females average 180 cm long and 114 cm tall. Size varies in different subspecies with the largest, the huge but small-antlered deer of the Carpathian Mountains, weighing up to 500 kg. At the other end of the scale, the Corsican red deer weighs about 80 to 100 kg, although red deer in poor habitats can weigh as little as 53 to 112 kg. European red deer tend to be reddish-brown in their summer coats.
The males of many subspecies grow a short neck mane during the autumn. The male deer of the British Isles and Norway tend to have most noticeable manes. Male Caspian red deer and Spanish red deer do not carry neck manes. Male deer of all subspecies, tend to have stronger and thicker neck muscles than female deer, which may give them an appearance of having neck manes. Red deer hinds do not have neck manes; the European red deer is adapted to a woodland environment. Only the stags have antlers, which start growing in the spring and are shed each year at the end of winter. Antlers measure 71 cm in total length and weigh 1 kg, although large ones can grow to 115 cm and weigh 5 kg. Antlers, which are made of bone, can grow at a rate of 2.5 cm a day. A soft covering known as velvet helps to protect newly forming antlers in the spring. European red deer antlers are distinctive in being rather straight and rugose, with the fourth and fifth tines forming a "crown" or "cup" in larger males. Any tines in excess of the fourth and fifth tine will grow radially from the cup, which are absent in the antlers of smaller red deer, such as Corsican red deer.
Western European red deer antlers feature "bez" tines that are either absent or smaller than the brow tines. However, bez tines occur in Norwegian red deer. Antlers of Caspian red deer carry large bez tines and form less-developed cups than western European red deer, their antlers are thus more like the "throw back" top tines of the wapiti, known as maraloid characteristics. A stag can have antlers with no tines, is known as a switch. A stag that does not grow antlers is a hummel; the antlers are testosterone-driven and as the stag's testosterone levels drop in the autumn, the velvet is shed and the antlers stop growing. With the approach of autumn, the antlers begin to calcify and the stags' testosterone production builds for the approaching rut. During the autumn, all red deer subspecies grow thicker coats of hair, which helps to insulate them during the winter. Autumn is when some of the stags grow their neck manes; the autumn/winter coat of most subspecies are most
Islay is the southernmost island of the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. Known as "The Queen of the Hebrides", it lies in Argyll just south west of Jura and around 40 kilometres north of the Northern Irish coast; the island's capital is Bowmore where the distinctive round Kilarrow Parish Church and a distillery are located. Port Ellen is the main port. Islay is the fifth-largest Scottish island and the eighth-largest island of the British Isles, with a total area of 620 square kilometres. There is ample evidence of the prehistoric settlement of Islay and the first written reference may have come in the 1st century AD; the island had become part of the Gaelic Kingdom of Dál Riata during the Early Middle Ages before being absorbed into the Norse Kingdom of the Isles. The medieval period marked a "cultural high point" with the transfer of the Hebrides to the Kingdom of Scotland and the emergence of the Clan Donald Lordship of the Isles centred at Finlaggan. During the 17th century the Clan Donald star waned, but improvements to agriculture and transport led to a rising population, which peaked in the mid-19th century.
This was followed by declining resident numbers. Today, it has over 3,000 inhabitants and the main commercial activities are agriculture, malt whisky distillation and tourism; the island has a long history of religious observance and Scottish Gaelic is spoken by about a quarter of the population. Its landscapes have been celebrated through various art forms and there is a growing interest in renewable energy. Islay is home to many bird species such as the wintering populations of Greenland white-fronted and barnacle goose, is a popular destination throughout the year for birdwatchers; the climate is ameliorated by the Gulf Stream. Islay was recorded by Ptolemy as Epidion, the use of the "p" suggesting a Brittonic or Pictish tribal name. In the seventh century Adomnán referred to the island as Ilea and the name occurs in early Irish records as Ile and as Íl in Old Norse; the root is not Gaelic and of unknown origin. In seventeenth century maps the spelling appears as "Yla" or "Ila", a form still used in the name of the whisky Caol Ila.
In poetic language Islay is known as Banrìgh Innse Gall, or Banrìgh nan Eilean translated as "Queen of the Hebrides" and Eilean uaine Ìle – the "green isle of Islay" A native of Islay is called an Ìleach, pronounced. The obliteration of pre-Norse names is total and place names on the island are a mixture of Norse and Gaelic and English influences. Port Askaig is from the Norse ask-vík, meaning "ash tree bay" and the common suffix -bus is from the Norse bólstaðr, meaning "farm". Gaelic names, or their anglicised versions such as Ardnave Point, from Àird an Naoimh, "height of the saint" are common. Several of the villages were developed in the 18th and 19th centuries and English is a stronger influence in their names as a result. Port Charlotte for example, was named after Lady Charlotte Campbell, daughter of the island's owner, Daniel Campbell of Shawfield. Islay is 40 kilometres long from north to south and 24 kilometres broad; the east coast is rugged and mountainous, rising steeply from the Sound of Islay, the highest peak being Beinn Bheigier, a Marilyn at 1,612 feet.
The western peninsulas are separated from the main bulk of the island by the waters of Loch Indaal to the south and Loch Gruinart to the north. The fertile and windswept southwestern arm is called The Rinns, Ardnave Point is a conspicuous promontory on the northwest coast; the south coast is sheltered from the prevailing winds and, as a result wooded. The fractal coast has numerous bays and sea lochs, including Loch an t-Sailein, Aros Bay and Claggain Bay. In the far southwest is a rocky and now uninhabited peninsula called The Oa, the closest point in the Hebrides to Ireland; the island's population is centred around the villages of Bowmore and Port Ellen. Other smaller villages include Bridgend, Port Charlotte and Port Askaig; the rest of the island is sparsely populated and agricultural. There are several small freshwater lochs in the interior including Loch Finlaggan, Loch Ballygrant, Loch Lossit and Loch Gorm, numerous burns throughout the island, many of which bear the name "river" despite their small size.
The most significant of these are the River Laggan which discharges into the sea at the north end of Laggan Bay, the River Sorn which, draining Loch Finlaggan, enters the head of Loch Indaal at Bridgend. There are numerous small uninhabited islands around the coasts, the largest of which are Eilean Mhic Coinnich and Orsay off the Rinns, Nave Island on the northwest coast, Am Fraoch Eilean in the Sound of Islay, Texa off the south coast; the underlying geology of Islay is intricate for such a small area. The deformed Palaeoproterozoic igneous rock of the Rhinns complex is dominated by a coarse-grained gneiss cut by large intrusions of deformed gabbro. Once thought to be part of the Lewisian complex, it lies beneath the Colonsay Group of metasedimentary rocks that forms the bedrock at the northern end of the Rinns, it is a quartz-rich metamorphic marine sandstone that may be unique to Scotland and, nearly 5,000 metres thick. South of Rubh' a' Mhail there are outcrops of quartzite, a strip of mica schist and limestone cuts across the centre of the island from The Oa to Port Askaig.
Further south is a band of metamorphic quartzite and granites, a continuation of the beds that underlie Jura. The geomorphology of these last two zones is dominated by a fold known as the Islay Anticline. To the south is a "shattered coastline" formed from mica schist and hornblende; the older Bowmor
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat
The Bunnahabhain Distillery was founded in 1881 near Port Askaig on Islay. The village of Bunnahabhain was founded to house its workers; the distillery is owned by Distell. The Bunnahabhain is one of the milder single malt Islay whiskies available and its taste varies from other spirits to be found on the island of Islay, off the west coast of Scotland; the name Bunnahabhain is an anglicisation of Bun na h-Abhainne, Scottish Gaelic for Mouth of the River. Bob Gordon - late 1970s Douglas Eccles - there in 1985 Hamish Proctor - until 1998 John MacLellan - 1998-2011 Andrew Brown - 2011-present Core products include: Bunnahabhain 12 Year Old Bunnahabhain 18 Year Old Bunnahabhain Toiteach Bunnahabhain 25 Year OldThere are several independent bottler releases from these brands, including That Boutique-y Whisky Company, Douglas Laing & Co, Duncan Taylor. List of distilleries in Scotland Bunnahabhain official website Black Bottle official website