Thomas Lawton was an English football player and manager. A strong centre-forward with excellent all-round attacking skills, he was able to head with the ball with tremendous power and accuracy. Born in Farnworth and raised in Bolton, he played amateur football at Rossendale United, before he turned professional at Burnley on his 17th birthday, he played cricket for Burnley Cricket Club, before his potential as a footballer won him a £6,500 move to Everton in January 1937. He went on to finish as the First Division's top-scorer in 1938 and 1939, helping Everton to finish as champions of the Football League in the latter campaign. League football was suspended for seven full seasons due to the outbreak of war in Europe, during which time he scored 24 goals in 23 appearances for England whilst guesting for Everton and a number of other clubs. In November 1945, he moved to Chelsea for £14,000, scored a club record 26 goals in 34 league games in the 1946–47 season. In November 1947, he made a surprise move to Third Division South club Notts County for a British record transfer fee of £20,000.
He helped the club to win promotion as champions in 1949–50, before he moved on to Brentford in March 1952 for a club record £16,000. In January 1953, Brentford appointed him player-manager, though he would only remain in charge for nine months, he joined Arsenal as a player in November 1953 for £10,000, where he saw out the remainder of his playing career. Despite losing much of his best years to World War II, he scored 260 goals in 433 league and cup competitions in 14 full seasons in the Football League, he had a promising start to his managerial career by leading Kettering Town to the Southern League title in 1956–57, but only had two more seasons as manager, getting relegated with Notts County in 1957–58 and relegated with Kettering Town in 1963–64. During the 1970s he struggled with debt and related legal problems, which were reported in the media as an example of a celebrated person having fallen from grace, he scored 22 goals in his 23 England appearances over a ten-year international career from 1938 to 1948, including four against Portugal in May 1947.
He helped England to win two British Home Championship titles outright, to share the Championship in 1938–39. He fell out of international contention at the age of 28 due to his contempt for manager Walter Winterbottom, his decision to drop out of the First Division, the emergence of Jackie Milburn and Nat Lofthouse; as well as his England caps, he represented The Football League XI and played in a special Great Britain game against Europe in 1947. He married twice, had two children and one step-child, his ashes are held in the National Football Museum, he was inducted into the English Football Hall of Fame in 2003. Thomas Lawton was born on 6 October 1919 to Elizabeth Riley and Thomas Lawton senior in Farnworth, Lancashire, his father was a railway signalman, his mother worked as a weaver at Harrowby Mill. His father left the family 18 months after Lawton was born, Elizabeth moved back into her parents' home in Bolton. Elizabeth's father, James Hugh "Jim" Riley, became Lawton's surrogate father.
Lawton's natural footballing ability earned him a place on the Bolton Town Schools team in 1930. He was picked by Lancashire Schools at the age of 13. Despite scoring a hat-trick in a trial game for England Schoolboys, he never earned a full England Schoolboy cap. At the age of 14 he began playing for Hayes Athletic in the Bolton Senior League, went on to score 570 goals in three seasons; the FA's rules meant he was unable to turn professional at a club until he was 17, Lawton's grandfather rejected Bolton Wanderers's offer for Lawton to work as a delivery driver for two years before turning professional at the club. Lawton instead played as an amateur for Rossendale United in the Lancashire Combination, scoring a hat-trick on his debut against Bacup, he took up temporary work at a tannery, joined Burnley as assistant groundsman after his mother rejected an offer from Sheffield Wednesday as she objected to him travelling to Sheffield on a daily basis. Lawton played his first game for Burnley Reserves against Manchester City Reserves in September 1935, though he struggled in this game he went on to become a regular Reserve team player by the age of 16.
After a poor run of form from Cecil Smith, Lawton was selected ahead of Smith for the Second Division game against Doncaster Rovers at Turf Moor on 28 March 1936. Rovers centre-half Syd Bycroft making his league debut, marked Lawton out of the game, which ended in a 1–1 draw. Burnley had played poorly, though Lawton was praised for his "keen and fearless" performance by the Express & News newspaper, he retained his place for the following game, scored two goals in a 3–1 victory over Swansea Town at Vetch Field. He picked up a groin strain in his third appearance which caused him to miss two fixtures, before he returned to the first team for the final four games of the 1935–36 season. Lawton continued to train his heading skills intensely in the summer of 1936, played cricket for Burnley Cricket Club as a batsman in the Lancashire League, he scored a six against both Learie Amar Singh. He scored 369 runs in 15 completed innings for an average of 24.06. He turned professional at Burnley at the age of 17 on wages of £7 a week.
His grandfather attempted to negotiate a £500 signing-on fee on his behalf but was rebuffed after the club alerted Charles Sutcliffe, Secretary of the Football League, who informed them that any attempt to circumvent the league's maximum wag
John Gilbert Cock MM MID was an English footballer who played for various English club sides as a centre forward. He had the distinction of being the first Cornishman to play for the England national team, a decorated World War I soldier, an actor, his younger brothers, Donald Cock and Herbert Cock played professional football. Born in Hayle, he started his football career with amateur clubs West Kensington United, Forest Gate and Old Kingstonians, he played three Southern League Division Two matches in March 1914 as an amateur for Brentford, scoring one goal, before signing professional forms with Yorkshire side Huddersfield Town that year, though the First World War broke out shortly afterwards. He served in the British Army during the conflict, rising to the rank of Acting Sergeant-Major and earning the Military Medal for "Bravery in the Field" and a Mentioned in Despatches for "gallantry", he was reported as ` presumed dead' at one point during the war. During his breaks from military service, he turned out for London sides Brentford and Croydon Common.
While with Brentford, Cock scored a wartime record he shares with Len Townsend. Cock played for England in the Victory International in 1919. With the resumption of league football in 1919, he moved back to Huddersfield who, at the time, were in severe financial trouble. Cock was sold to David Calderhead's Chelsea for a record £2,500 in October that year. A skilful, nimble striker with a powerful shot, he had a fanatical dedication to fitness staying behind to train long after his teammates had gone home, he scored twice on his Chelsea debut against Bradford and hit 22 more that season in 30 league games, a key factor in the club finishing third in the League and reaching the FA Cup semi-finals. Cock's first season with the Stamford Bridge club proved to be his most successful, thereafter his goalscoring record was never as prolific, though he was still top scorer at the club in 1920–21 and 1921–22. After scoring one goal in 11 appearances in 1922–23, he was transferred to Everton in February 1923.
He ended his Chelsea career with a nonetheless impressive 53 goals from 110 games. Cock remained on Merseyside for two years, before signing for Plymouth Argyle in March 1925, where he scored 72 League goals in just 90 games, including a club record 32 goals in 39 League games in 1926–27. However, the club finished 2nd in the Third Division South in each of his three seasons there and thus missed out on promotion, his playing career ended on a high note, when he moved to Millwall and scored 92 goals in 135 appearances, helping the club win the Division Three South title in 1927–28. His 77 League goals there remained a club record until 1973, he is Millwall's fourth all-time leading scorer, with 83 goals in all competitions. Cock ended his first class playing career with 234 Football League goals from 391 matches, he wound down playing for non-league sides such as Walton & Hersham. He managed Millwall between 1944 and 1948, leading them to the War Cup South final at Wembley in 1945, where they lost to his old side Chelsea.
The club's playing squad was hit hard by World War II and they were relegated at the end of the 1947–48 season. He made his England debut against Ireland in 1919, opened the scoring after 30 seconds, the third-fastest timed England goal of all time, he won a second cap against Scotland in 1920, again scoring. Owing to his good looks and a tenor voice, Cock appeared on the music hall stage numerous times, he starred in several films, including "The Winning Goal" and "The Great Game". He ran a pub in New Cross, he died in Kensington on 19 April 1966, at the age of 72. Brentford London Combination: 1918–19
Forward (association football)
Forwards are the players on an association football team who play nearest to the opposing team's goal, are therefore most responsible for scoring goals. Their advanced position and limited defensive responsibilities mean forwards score more goals on behalf of their team than other players. Modern team formations include one to three forwards. Unconventional formations may include none; the traditional role of a centre-forward is to score the majority of goals on behalf of the team. The player may be used to win long balls or receive passes and retain possession of the ball with their back to goal as teammates advance, in order to provide depth for their team or help teammates score by providing a pass. Most modern centre-forwards operate in front of the second strikers or central attacking midfielders, do the majority of the ball handling outside the box; the present role of centre-forward is sometimes interchangeable with that of an attacking midfielder in the 4–3–1–2 or 4–1–2–1–2 formations.
The term "target man" is used to describe a particular type of striker whose main role is to win high balls in the air and create chances for other members of the team. These players are tall and physically strong, being adept at heading the ball; the term centre-forward is taken from the early football playing formation in which there were five forward players: two outside forwards, two inside forwards, one centre-forward. When numbers were introduced in the 1933 English FA Cup final, one of the two centre-forwards that day wore the number nine – Everton's Dixie Dean a strong, powerful forward who had set the record for the most goals scored in a season in English football during the 1927–28 season; the number would become synonymous with the centre-forward position. The role of a striker is rather different from that of a traditional centre-forward, although the terms centre-forward and striker are used interchangeably at times, as both play further up the field than other players, while tall and technical players, like Zlatan Ibrahimović, have qualities which are suited to both positions.
Like the centre-forward, the traditional role of a striker is to score goals. They are fast players with good ball control and dribbling abilities. More agile strikers like Michael Owen have an advantage over taller defenders due to their short bursts of speed. A good striker should be able to shoot confidently with either foot, possess great power and accuracy, have the ability to link-up with teammates and pass the ball under pressure in breakaway situations. While many strikers wear the number 9 shirt, the position, to a lesser degree, is associated with the number 10, worn by more creative deep-lying forwards such as Pelé, with numbers 7 and 11, which are associated with wingers. Deep-lying forwards have a long history in the game, but the terminology to describe their playing activity has varied over the years; such players were termed inside forwards, creative or deep-lying centre-forwards. More two more variations of this old type of player have developed: the second, or shadow, or support, or auxiliary striker and, in what is in fact a distinct position unto its own, the number 10, exemplified by Dennis Bergkamp.
Other number 10s who play further back, such as Diego Maradona and Zinedine Zidane, are described as an attacking midfielder or the playmaker. The second striker position is a loosely defined and most misapplied description of a player positioned somewhere between the out-and-out striker, whether he is a "target-man" or more of a "poacher", the Number 10 or attacking midfielder, while showing some of the characteristics of both. In fact, a term coined by French advanced playmaker Michel Platini, the "nine-and-a-half", which he used to describe Roberto Baggio's playing role, has been an attempt to become a standard in defining the position. Conceivably, a Number 10 can alternate as a second-striker provided that he is a prolific goalscorer. Second or support strikers do not tend to get as involved in the orchestration of attacks as the Number 10, nor do they bring as many other players into play, since they do not share the burden of responsibility, functioning predominantly as assist providers.
In Italy, this role is known as a "rifinitore" or "seconda punta", whereas in Brazil, it is known as "segundo atacante" or "ponta-de-lança". The position of inside forward was popularly used in the late nineteenth and first half of the twentieth centuries; the inside forwards would support the centre-forward and making space in the opposition defence, and, as the passing game developed, supporting him or her with passes. The role is broadly analogous to the "hole" or second striker position in the modern game, although here there were two such players, known as inside right and inside left. In early 2–3–5 formations the inside-forwards would flank the centre-forward on both sides. With the advent of
Andy Rennie (Scottish footballer)
Andrew Rennie was a Scottish footballer, best known as a player for Luton Town. He is Luton Town's second top goalscorer of all time, with 162 goals between 1925 and 1934, 147 of which came in the league. Rennie was a prolific goalscorer in his junior days in Scotland, but on joining Kilwinning Rangers he was moved to centre-back. Rennie left Kilwinning for English Third Division South team Luton Town in 1925, still as a defender, he remained playing in that position for two years at Luton, until Luton manager John McCartney moved him back to the forward line. It was a shrewd decision by McCartney: Rennie scored in his first game up front, finished the year as the club's leading scorer, with 24 goals in as many games. Rennie did better during the 1928–29 season, scoring 43 goals in only 41 matches to be the highest goalscorer for the Third Division South. Nicknamed "Ratty" due to his short temper, Rennie went on to become Luton's second highest goalscorer of all time – at the time, he was the top goalscorer.
His records were broken by Gordon Turner three decades later. Rennie died on 5 September 1938 in Luton Hospital following a hernia operation, only four years after leaving Luton and three years after retiring from professional football, he was laid to rest on 8 September 1938 at Rothesay Road.
Oldham Athletic A.F.C.
Oldham Athletic Association Football Club is a professional association football club based in the town of Oldham, Greater Manchester, England. The team compete in League Two, the fourth tier of the English football league system, play home matches at Boundary Park. Known as the "Latics", they traditionally play in blue shirts; the club has a rivalry known as the A62 derby with nearby Huddersfield Town. The history of Oldham Athletic began with the founding of Pine Villa F. C. in 1895, a team that played in the Manchester and Lancashire leagues. When rivals Oldham County folded in 1899, Pine Villa moved into their stadium and changed their name to Oldham Athletic, they were elected into the Football League. They won promotion out of the Second Division in 1909–10 and went on to finish second in the First Division in 1914–15, before being relegated in 1923. Another relegation in 1935 left them in the Third Division North, which they won at the end of the 1952–53 campaign, only to be relegated back into the following year.
Placed in the Fourth Division, they secured promotion in 1962–63, again in 1970–71 after another relegation in 1969. Jimmy Frizzell managed the cub from 1970 to 1982 and under his leadership Oldham won the Third Division title in 1973–74, he was succeeded by Joe Royle, who had a 12-year spell in charge, during which time Oldham reached the League Cup final in 1990, before winning the Second Division title in 1990–91, which took them back into the top-flight for the first time in 68 years. Oldham were founder members of the Premier League in 1992, but were relegated two years and fell to the third tier by 1997; the club ended a 21 season long stay in the third tier – which encompassed numerous financial crises – with relegation out of League One in 2018. Pine Villa Football Club was formed in 1895, though the club changed its appearance and name in 1899 to Oldham Athletic Football Club; the club gained professional status and played in both the Lancashire Combination and Lancashire League. Unlike many clubs, Oldham Athletic gained quick success and gained acceptance into the Football League in 1907–08.
After three years in the Second Division, Latics gained promotion to the First Division. Within a couple of seasons, Oldham had announced themselves serious contenders, finishing 4th in the league in 1912–13, reaching the F. A. Cup semi-finals the same season. In 1914–15, Latics reached the quarter-finals of the FA Cup but were knocked out once again after a 0–3 replay against Sheffield United. In the league that season they won it all. Latics early success was only halted by the First World War. Following the return of competitive football after the First World War, Oldham Athletic struggled to find their early success before they returned to the Second Division in 1923 – it would be another 68 years before they played top division football again. Many of the players from their former squads had either retired from football or had been killed in the war, their highest success came in the 1929–30 season as they finished in 3rd, missing out on promotion by finishing two points behind Chelsea F. C.
From on they but fell down the league table, until a final placing of 21st at the end of the 1934–35 season saw them relegated to the Third Division North. They found life in this new division much more to their liking, coming 7th in their first season and following this with three seasons in the top five. Promotion back to the Second Division looked like it might just be a possibility, but the outbreak of the Second World War in 1939 brought an end to League Football. Players' contracts were terminated, relying on guest players, the club was to play in the war-time Northern League until August 1946. Following the return of competitive football there was to be no immediate success for Oldham Athletic, they finished 19th in the first league season after manager Frank Womack resigned. In spite of reaching a more respectable 6th place under his successor Billy Wooton in 1949, it wasn't until the appointment of George Hardwick as player-manager in November 1950 that the club found any real form.
Hardwick's appointment came with a £ 15,000 transfer fee paid to Middlesbrough. This was a huge amount at the time for a third division club, but it was to stir up the town and its fans, who now looked forward to seeing a man, captain of England only two years in charge of its club's fortunes. In Hardwick's first full season in charge they finished 4th after topping the table for a considerable time. Home gates stayed high, with an amazing 33,450 watching a 1–0 win over local rivals Stockport County in March 1952, after a January game in the snow had established a new club scoring record when Chester were beaten 11–2. Eric Gemmell scored seven of these to establish an individual club record for one game which still stands to date; the season after, Oldham Athletic proudly finished champions of the division and won promotion to the Second Division. With an ageing squad and little money to recruit however, the season that followed was a massive disappointment. Only eight games were won, Oldham finished in last place and returned to the Third Division North, where a first disappointing season saw them finish no higher than 10th.
Hardwick resigned in 1955 and between and 1960, they continued to struggle, finishing below the top 20 on three occasions. With a 15th-place finish in 1958–59, Oldham became a founding member of a newly formed Fourth Division. In the following season they finished in the 23rd position – their lowest position in the entire League, had to apply for r
Birkenhead is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral in Merseyside, England. In Cheshire, it is on the Wirral Peninsula, along the west bank of the River Mersey, opposite the city of Liverpool. In the 2011 census, the Parliamentary constituency of Birkenhead had a population of 88,818; the recorded history of Birkenhead began with the establishment of Birkenhead Priory and the Mersey Ferry in the 12th century. During the 19th century Birkenhead expanded becoming a town as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution, with Birkenhead Park and Hamilton Square being examples of the era. Around the same time, Birkenhead gained the first street tramway in Britain; the Mersey Railway connected Birkenhead and Liverpool, with the world's first tunnel beneath a tidal estuary. Birkenhead is best known for the shipbuilding of Cammell Laird, for the town's seaport. In the second half of the 20th century, the town suffered a significant period of decline, with containerisation causing a reduction in port activity.
During the first half of the 21st century, the Wirral Waters development is planned to regenerate much of the dockland. The name Birkenhead means "headland overgrown with birch", from the Old English bircen meaning birch tree, of which many once grew on the headland which jutted into the river at Woodside; the name is not derived from the Birket, a stream which enters the Mersey between Birkenhead and Seacombe. The Birket is a name, introduced by Ordnance Survey; the earliest records state that the Mersey ferry began operating from Birkenhead in 1150, when Benedictine monks under the leadership of Hamon de Mascy built a priory there. The priory was visited in 1275 and 1277 by Edward I. In a royal charter of 13 April 1330, Edward III granted the priory further rights. Distanced from the Industrial Revolution in Liverpool by the physical barrier of the River Mersey, Birkenhead retained its agricultural status until the advent of steam ferry services. In 1817 a steam ferry service started from Liverpool to Tranmere and in 1822 the paddle steamer, Royal Mail, began operation between Liverpool and Woodside.
Shipbuilding started in 1829. An iron works was established by William Laird in 1824 and was joined by his son John Laird in 1828; the business became Cammell Laird. Notable naval vessels built at Birkenhead include HMS Achilles, HMS Affray, CSS Alabama, HMS Ark Royal, HMS Birkenhead, HMS Caroline, Huáscar, the pioneer submarine Resurgam, HMS Thetis, HMS Conqueror and HMS Prince of Wales. Merchant vessels were built such as RMS Mauretania and RMS Windsor Castle. In 1833 an act was passed to introduce street paving and other improvements in the town; these included regulating the police force. The Mersey Railway tunnel opened in 1886; the Grange Road West drill hall was completed in 1900. In September 1932 thousands of unemployed people protested in a series of demonstrations organised by the local branch of the National Unemployed Workers Movement. After three days of rioting, police were brought in from elsewhere to help quell the rioters. In addition to the ferries and the railway, the Queensway road tunnel opened in 1934 and gave rapid access to Liverpool.
This opened up the Wirral Peninsula for development, prompted further growth of Birkenhead as an industrial centre. Bolstered by migration from rural Cheshire, southern Ireland and Wales, the town's population had grown from 110 in 1801 to 110,912 one hundred years and stood at 142,501 by 1951. Birkenhead was struck by an F0/T1 tornado on 23 November 1981, as part of the record-breaking nationwide tornado outbreak on that day. A township in Bidston Parish of the Wirral Hundred, Birkenhead was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1877, became a county borough with the passing of the Local Government Act 1888; the borough included the parish of Birkenhead St. Mary and the townships of Bidston, Claughton with Grange, Oxton and part of Bebington known as Rock Ferry; the townships of Landican and Thingwall were added in 1928, followed by Noctorum and Woodchurch in 1933. Prior to 1 April 1974, Birkenhead and the rest of the Wirral Peninsula were part of the county of Cheshire; the implementation of the Local Government Act 1972 caused Birkenhead to lose its county borough status.
The town has since been administered as part of the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral, in the metropolitan county of Merseyside. The Birkenhead and Tranmere electoral ward had a population of 15,879 in 2011; the current Member of Parliament for Birkenhead is Frank Field. The Birkenhead Urban Area, as defined by the Office for National Statistics, includes Birkenhead, Bebington, Ellesmere Port and the contiguous built-up areas which link those towns. In the 2011 Census, the area so defined had a total population of 325,264, making it the 19th largest conurbation in England and Wales. Shipbuilding and ship repair has featured prominently in the local economy since the 19th century. Cammell Laird entered receivership in 2001; the shipyard was sold and became'Northwestern Shiprepairers & Shipbuilders', which grew into a successful business specialising in ship repair and conversion, including maintenance contracts for the Royal Fleet Auxiliary. In September 2007 NS&S acquired the rights to use the Cammell Laird name.
The company was renamed'Cammell Laird Shiprepairers & Shipbuilders' on 17 November 2008, seeing the famous name return to Birkenhead after a seven-year hiatus. In 2010, Cammell Laird secured a
Joe Payne (footballer)
Joseph Payne was an England international footballer, best known as the scorer of 10 goals in a match for Luton Town against Bristol Rovers on 13 April 1936. This is still a record in The Football League. Payne played for Chelsea and, after missing six years of his career to the Second World War, West Ham United. Payne was born in Brimington Common near Chesterfield, worked as a coalminer as a teenager, he was spotted playing as a centre-forward for Bolsover Colliery and signed by Luton Town in 1934. There, he played for the reserve team as a half-back, spent time on loan to Biggleswade Town. Payne made his League debut for Luton on 29 December 1934, against Southend United, he made one further appearance during his initial season; the 1935–36 season saw Payne start four games as half-back, the last of which came on 21 September 1935 against Crystal Palace, he did not play for the club again until 13 April 1936, in a match against Bristol Rovers. Due to injuries to Jack Ball and Bill Boyd, Payne was played at centre-forward and scored 10 goals, still a Football League record, in a 12–0 win.
He received a £ 2 win bonus in addition to his £ 4 weekly wage. The following season, Payne scored a club record 55 goals in 39 matches as the Hatters won the Third Division South championship. In May 1937, he made his only appearance for England, scoring two goals in the 8–0 victory over Finland at the Töölön Pallokenttä. In March 1938, he was bought by Chelsea for a large fee, reported as around £5,000. In September 1941, Payne was hospitalised with acute pneumonia, his career was interrupted by the Second World War but he continued to be a prolific scorer in wartime competitions, played once for hometown club Chesterfield in an 8–0 win over Notts County in December 1944. In December 1946, Payne joined West Ham United, where made 11 appearances in his single season with the club, he joined Millwall but he had been suffering from persistent ankle injuries and never made a League appearance. Payne died in Luton on 22 April 1975, aged 61. On 13 April 2006, to mark the 70th anniversary of his 10-goal record, a plaque was unveiled by Geoff Thompson chairman of the Football Association, on the wall of the Miner's Arms public house in Manor Road, Brimington Common.
The site is adjacent to the now-demolished house where he used to live, overlooks a park where he played football. The unveiling was attended by two of Payne's nephews. A lounge at Kenilworth Road stadium was named in honour of Payne. Joe Payne at Englandstats.com