Radviliškis is a city in the Radviliškis district municipality, Šiauliai County, Lithuania. Radviliškis has been the administrative center of the district since 1950, is an important railway junction. Radviliškis was founded at the end of the 15th century, it was first mentioned in the book on state economics by M. Downar-Zapolsky listing the cities taxpayers in 1567. In 1687, John Sobieski, the king of Lithuania and Poland, granted the right of holding a market to it. Radviliškis was devastated many times by military forces and hunger in the 17th – 19th centuries. There were no citizens left in Radviliškis after the plague in 1708–1710. Town growth began when the Liepāja–Romny Railway line, crossing the town, was built in 1870 and Radviliškis–Daugavpils line was built in 1873. Railwaymen constituted the majority of the residents. Around July 12, 1941, all 300 Jews of Radviliškis were murdered in the Durpunas Forest near the Jewish cemetery by Germans and Lithuanian Activist Front members from Radviliškis.
In 1998, a sculpture of the Victory goddess Nike was unveiled in the center of Radviliškis to commemorate the eightieth anniversary of the victory over the united German–Russian West Russian Volunteer Army. It was created by sculptor P. Mazuras; the name originated from the name of the noble Radziwiłł family of Lithuanian origin. This family ruled Radviliškis for more than 200 years, from 1546 to 1764. A rising and light-emitting horse, representing communication, city development and flourishing, is depicted in the coat of arms of Radviliškis; the light is a symbol of civilization's role in the city development. It was created by artist Laima Ramonienė in 1992. Radviliškis, settled on everglades, was famous for its railway and black-from-locomotive-smoke sparrows; the two symbols of the town are the railways, black swallows. There are Evangelical-reformed, Protestant and Orthodox chapels, Jewish synagogues and Catholic Churches in Radviliškis; the stone windmill of Radviliškis was erected in remembrance of the violent and triumphant battles in 1919 against the German–Russian armed forces.
The wooden belfry of Radviliškis parish's Blessed Virgin Mary church of the Immaculate Conception is a topical architecture monument. It was set in 1878; the belfry burned twice. It was reconstructed in 1984. Radviliškis is twinned with ten cities: Skara, Sweden Grodzisk Mazowiecki, Poland Lillehammer, Norway Valka, Latvia Bauska, Latvia Stathelle, Norway Valga, Estonia Nesvizh, Belarus Gniezno, Poland Uman, Ukraine Official website Feasibility and EIA study for Radviliskis WWTP
Radviliškis District Municipality
Radviliškis District Municipality is one of the seven municipalities of Šiauliai County in Lithuania. Radviliškis town has been its center since 1950. Radviliškis district has 13 elderships. Radviliškis is known for its soft beverages, timber processing and machinery production industries and knitted men's and ladies' wear, the biggest second-hand car market in Northern Lithuania; the district is famous for extracting peat also. Agriculture is developed in the district because of the high fecundity of the soil; the main agriculture branches are cattle, sheep breeding, sugar beets and milk production. The production rates for meat, milk and sugar beets are among the highest in Lithuania. Farmers grow currants and strawberries, breed turkeys and ostriches. There are 50 educational institutions in Radviliškis District. There are two gymnasiums, five secondary schools, arts and sports schools, children's foster in Radviliškis town. Representatives of district's secondary schools develop their leadership skills at the School of Democracy and Social Practice “Ateitis”.
At the Lithuanian Rehabilitation Vocational Training center, disabled youths can get occupational training. The Center positively cooperates with foreign partners, changes places with delegations of schoolchildren, pursues international projects. From Radviliškis, it is: 137 km to Kaunas 146 km to Ryga 180 km to Vilnius 180 km to Klaipėda Today Radviliškis is cooperating with foreign countries; the municipality expands international cooperation in the fields of municipal affairs, health care, social security, monument preservation, tourism and education. The district is connected with: Sweden's Skara – since 1991. Germany's Speyer – since 1993. Poland's Grodzisk Mazowiecki – since 1995. Norway's Lillehammer – since 1997. Latvia's Valka – since 1999. Norway's Stathelle – since 2003. Estonia's Valga – since 2004. Aukštelkiai elderate Baisogala elderate Grinkiškis elderate Pakalniškiai elderate Radviliškis rural elderate Radviliškis urban elderate Šaukotas elderate Šeduva rural elderate Šeduva urban elderate Šiaulėnai elderate Sidabravas elderate Škėmiai elderate Tyruliai elderate There are many places of interest in Radviliškis district, such as: Wooden Sculptures' Alley in Radviliškis Town Park Raudondvaris Baisogala Manor The 17th century Šeduva church Daugyvene Cultural and History Museum, established in 1990 The Gothic manor palace of baron Teodoras von Ropas on the bank of the Daugyvenė river in Raudondvaris.
The manor was built in the beginning of the 19th century. There is large park near the palace; the stud and Šiauliai sport aviation base in Raudondvaris Gomerta Landscape Reserve The palace of Baisogala Manor, one of the most famous architectural monuments in Lithuania. Its magnitude and ornamentation has been amazing the visitors for 130 years; this manor was built in the 18–19th centuries. The Komaras family lived there; the palace is a monument to romanticism styles of architecture. List of municipalities in Lithuania Subdivisions of Lithuania Counties of Lithuania Official website www.lietuva.lt — Radviliskis Region www.randburg.com — Radviliskis Region www.vilniusconsult.lt — Feasibility and EIA study for Radviliskis WWTP
Kuršėnai is the twenty-fifth largest city in Lithuania. According to the 2001 census, it had 14,197 residents; the town's name was first documented in the 16th century. According to historian M. Balinskis, its name is derived from word'kuršis'. However, according to local people, the town didn't have a name for a long time. But, one summer day the river Venta flooded and washed all hay bales which were standing at the river banks. People started questioning each other: where is the hay? where is the hay?. Since the town name stayed as Kuršėnai. Since a clay, ideal for fine ceramics was detected near Kuršėnai, pottery has long been thriving in the city. In the last century, Kuršėnai became famous for fairs abundant in earthenware. Kuršėnai is called the “Capital of Potters” not only due to the abundance of such handicraftsmen in the city but because the All-Time Potter’s Crown has been won by the folk artists of Kuršėnai such as J. Paulauskas, V. Damkus, B. Radeckas, J. Vertelis, it is no coincidence that a pitcher is one of the elements of the Coat of Arms of the city.
The history of Kuršėnai Manor begins in 1564 when Sigismund Augustus gave the said manor as a fief to George Despot-Zenovich, the Castellan of Polotsk. Soon, a settlement began to grow in the manor lands on the other side of the Venta, in 1569 the first wooden church was erected. In 1621, the estate went to S. Pac, the Grand Treasurer of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, a decade the manor became the property of George Gruzewski and his wife. At the end of the 18th century, Kuršėnai were inherited by Stephen Gruzewski. Having brought in the artist J. Rilke with the apprentice team, he built a new manor house and a chapel and renovated other buildings in 1811; the estate flourished still further under ruling of his younger son Edward who took it over in 1846. Kuršėnai Manor has the most valuable heritage of wooden manorial architecture in Šiauliai District; the original staircase, window frames, wooden front doors have survived. The estate of Kurshan was under Russian rule from 1795 to 1914, first in the Vilna Governorate and from 1843 in the Kovno Governorate.
The mansion and the park were devastated by the Germans who occupied the manor during the First World War and took away the most valuable things. In 1914 the town's Jewish population was expelled by the Russian army, who accused them of collaborating with the Germans; the fire of 1915 destroyed the peasant farms and sheds. The manor belonged to George Gruzewski at that time. Owing to advanced farming, the estate was flourishing during the interwar period; the manor was nationalized in 1940. Outside the manor, the town itself began to grow in 1873. In 1939 there were around 900 Jews living in the village, their persecution began in July, 1941. Following the arrival of the Germans a Lithuanian partisan squad was formed in Kuršėnai, they assigned the Jews to various forced labor tasks. When a ghetto was set up in Kuršėnai by an order of Nazi authorities many Jews were housed in the two synagogues. At the end of July a group of Lithuanian nationalists and police seized 150 to 168 Jewish men and murdered them in a mass execution in a nearby forest, about three kilometers from city.
Stasys Raštikis, Lithuanian army general Donald Kagan, Yale Classics professor Laurynas Ivinskis - the first person who designed Lithuanian calendar in Lithuania. He is buried here. Vacys Reimeris, poet Stasys Lipskis Arieh Kubovy, chairman of Yad Vashem
Kornel Makuszyński was a Polish writer of children's and youth literature. He was an elected member of the prestigious Polish Academy of Literature in the interwar Poland. Makuszyński was born in Stryj in the Austrian Partition of Poland to Julia née Ogonowska, he attended the Jan Długosz gymnasium in Lviv. While in school he wrote occasional poetry. Makuszyński had his first poem published in 1902 in the newspaper Słowo Polskie, for which he soon became a theatrical critic, he studied literature at both the University of Lviv and in Paris. He was evacuated to Kiev in 1915, where he ran the Polish Theatre and was the chairman of the Polish writers and journalist community, he moved to Warsaw in 1918, became a writer. His children's books the series about the goat, Koziołek Matołek, illustrated by Marian Walentynowicz, have an enduring popularity in Poland, whatever the sharp changes in the country's fortunes and its political system, they have been translated into many other languages. Among others, they are popular in Israel, where Polish Jewish immigrants since the 1920s and 1930s took care to have many of them translated into Hebrew and introduced them to their own children.
Makuszyński was temporarily blacklisted right after World War II by his chief rival at the Polish Academy of Literature and communist apparatchik Wincenty Rzymowski, a plagiarist. Makuszyński died in 1953 in Zakopane, where he lived from 1945, he was buried at the Peksowe Brzysko cemetery in Zakopane. There is a museum dedicated to him in the city launched by his widow, Janina. Arabian Affairs Innocent Years The Two Who Stole the Moon 120 adventures of Matołek the Billy-Goat The Smile of Lwów, Argument about Basia Satan from the 7th grade Merry Devil's Friend About the Wawel Dragon Eva's folly List of Poles Kornel Makuszyński at Culture.pl Wikilivres has original media or text related to this article: Kornel Makuszyński
Romanticism was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical, it was a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. It was embodied most in the visual arts and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, the social sciences, the natural sciences, it had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism and nationalism. The movement emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension and terror, awe—especially that experienced in confronting the new aesthetic categories of the sublimity and beauty of nature.
It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, but spontaneity as a desirable characteristic. In contrast to the Rationalism and Classicism of the Enlightenment, Romanticism revived medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived as authentically medieval in an attempt to escape population growth, early urban sprawl, industrialism. Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French Revolution were proximate factors. Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of "heroic" individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society, it promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism.
The decline of Romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism. The nature of Romanticism may be approached from the primary importance of the free expression of the feelings of the artist; the importance the Romantics placed on emotion is summed up in the remark of the German painter Caspar David Friedrich, "the artist's feeling is his law". To William Wordsworth, poetry should begin as "the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings", which the poet "recollect in tranquility", evoking a new but corresponding emotion the poet can mold into art. To express these feelings, it was considered the content of art had to come from the imagination of the artist, with as little interference as possible from "artificial" rules dictating what a work should consist of. Samuel Taylor Coleridge and others believed there were natural laws the imagination—at least of a good creative artist—would unconsciously follow through artistic inspiration if left alone.
As well as rules, the influence of models from other works was considered to impede the creator's own imagination, so that originality was essential. The concept of the genius, or artist, able to produce his own original work through this process of creation from nothingness, is key to Romanticism, to be derivative was the worst sin; this idea is called "romantic originality". Translator and prominent Romantic August Wilhelm Schlegel argued in his Lectures on Dramatic Arts and Letters that the most phenomenal power of human nature is its capacity to divide and diverge into opposite directions. Not essential to Romanticism, but so widespread as to be normative, was a strong belief and interest in the importance of nature; this in the effect of nature upon the artist when he is surrounded by it, preferably alone. In contrast to the very social art of the Enlightenment, Romantics were distrustful of the human world, tended to believe a close connection with nature was mentally and morally healthy.
Romantic art addressed its audiences with what was intended to be felt as the personal voice of the artist. So, in literature, "much of romantic poetry invited the reader to identify the protagonists with the poets themselves". According to Isaiah Berlin, Romanticism embodied "a new and restless spirit, seeking violently to burst through old and cramping forms, a nervous preoccupation with perpetually changing inner states of consciousness, a longing for the unbounded and the indefinable, for perpetual movement and change, an effort to return to the forgotten sources of life, a passionate effort at self-assertion both individual and collective, a search after means of expressing an unappeasable yearning for unattainable goals"; the group of words with the root "Roman" in the various European languages, such as "romance" and "Romanesque", has a complicated history, but by the middle of the 18th century "romantic" in English and romantique in French were both in common use as adjectives of praise for natural phenomena such as views and sunsets, in a sense close to modern English usage but without the amorous connotation.
The application of the term to literature first became common in Germany, where the circle around the Schlegel brothers, critics August and Friedrich, began to speak of romantische Poesie in the 1790s, contrasting it with "classic" but in terms of spirit rather than dating. Friedrich Schlegel wrote in his Dialogue on Poetry, "I seek and find the romantic among th
Mary, mother of Jesus
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran. The gospels of Matthew and Luke in the New Testament and the Quran describe Mary as a virgin; the miraculous conception took place when she was betrothed to Joseph. She accompanied Joseph to Bethlehem; the Gospel of Luke begins its account of Mary's life with the Annunciation, when the angel Gabriel appeared to Mary and announced her divine selection to be the mother of Jesus. According to canonical gospel accounts, Mary was present at the crucifixion and is depicted as a member of the early Christian community in Jerusalem. According to Catholic and Orthodox teachings, at the end of her earthly life her body was raised directly into Heaven. Mary has been venerated since early Christianity, is considered by millions to be the most meritorious saint of the religion, she is claimed to have miraculously appeared to believers many times over the centuries. The Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Catholic and Lutheran churches believe that Mary, as mother of Jesus, is the Mother of God.
There is significant diversity in the Marian beliefs and devotional practices of major Christian traditions. The Catholic Church holds distinctive Marian dogmas, namely her status as the Mother of God, her Immaculate Conception, her perpetual virginity, her Assumption into heaven. Many Protestants minimize Mary's role within Christianity, basing their argument on the relative brevity of biblical references. Mary has a revered position in Islam, where one of the longer chapters of the Quran is devoted to her. Mary's name in the original manuscripts of the New Testament was based on her original Aramaic name מרים, translit. Maryam or Mariam; the English name Mary comes from the Greek Μαρία, a shortened form of Μαριάμ. Both Μαρία and Μαριάμ appear in the New Testament. In Christianity, Mary is referred to as the Virgin Mary, in accordance with the belief that she conceived Jesus miraculously through the Holy Spirit without her husband's involvement. Among her many other names and titles are the Blessed Virgin Mary, Saint Mary, the Mother of God, the Theotokos, Our Lady, Queen of Heaven, although the title "Queen of Heaven" was a name for a pagan goddess being worshipped during the prophet Jeremiah's lifetime.
Titles in use vary among Anglicans, Catholics, Protestants and other Christians. The three main titles for Mary used by the Orthodox are Theotokos, Aeiparthenos as confirmed in the Second Council of Constantinople in 553, Panagia. Catholics use a wide variety of titles for Mary, these titles have in turn given rise to many artistic depictions. For example, the title Our Lady of Sorrows has inspired such masterpieces as Michelangelo's Pietà; the title Theotokos was recognized at the Council of Ephesus in 431. The direct equivalents of title in Latin are Deipara and Dei Genetrix, although the phrase is more loosely translated into Latin as Mater Dei, with similar patterns for other languages used in the Latin Church. However, this same phrase in Greek, in the abbreviated form ΜΡ ΘΥ, is an indication attached to her image in Byzantine icons; the Council stated that the Church Fathers "did not hesitate to speak of the holy Virgin as the Mother of God". Some Marian titles have a direct scriptural basis.
For instance, the title "Queen Mother" has been given to Mary since she was the mother of Jesus, sometimes referred to as the "King of Kings" due to his ancestral descent from King David. Other titles have arisen from special appeals, or occasions for calling on Mary. To give a few examples, Our Lady of Good Counsel, Our Lady of Navigators, Our Lady Undoer of Knots fit this description. In Islam, she is known as mother of Isa, she is referred to by the honorific title sayyidatuna, meaning "our lady". A related term of endearment is Siddiqah, meaning "she who confirms the truth" and "she who believes sincerely completely". Another title for Mary is Qānitah, which signifies both constant submission to God and absorption in prayer and invocation in Islam, she is called "Tahira", meaning "one, purified" and representing her status as one of two humans in creation to not be touched by Satan at any point. The Gospel of Luke mentions Mary the most identifying her by name twelve times, all of these in the infancy narrative.
The Gospel of Matthew mentions her by name six times, five of these in the infancy narrative and only once outside the infancy narrative. The Gospel of Mark names her once and mentions her as Jesus' mother without naming her in 3:31 and 3:32; the Gospel of John never mentions her by name. Described as Jesus' mother, she makes two appearances, she is first seen at the wedding at Cana. The second reference, listed only in this gospel, has her standing near the cross of Jesus together with Mary Magdalene, Mary of Clopas (or Cleophas
Linkuva is a city in the Pakruojis district municipality, Lithuania. It is located 18 km north-east of Pakruojis; the town is more than 500 years old. In 1940, with the annexation of Lithuania to the USSR, all the town’s factories & stores owned by Jews, were nationalized. On June 23, 1941, after the Soviet withdrawal from Lithuania hundreds of Jews escaping eastward from Šiauliai and the neighboring towns found refuge in Linkuva and remained there. Most of the town’s Jews were forcibly held in stables and warehouses, where they were brutally attacked. In the summer of 1941, 200 Jewish men were killed near the village of Dvariūkai; the victims came along with Jewish refugees who had fled to the village. The history of the Jews of Linkuva and their murder during World War II, at Yad Vashem website