Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp
Hedwig Eleonora of Holstein-Gottorp was Queen of Sweden from 1654 until 1660 by marriage to Charles X Gustav of Sweden, the mother of Charles XI. She served as regent during the minority of her son from 1660 until 1672, during the minority of her grandson Charles XII in 1697, she represented Charles XII during his absence in the Great Northern War from 1700 until the regency of her granddaughter Ulrika Eleonora in 1713. Hedwig Eleonora was described as a dominant personality, was regarded as the de facto first lady of the royal court for 61 years, from 1654 until her death. Hedwig Eleonora was born on 23 October 1636 to Duke Frederick III of Holstein-Gottorp and Marie Elisabeth of Saxony, she was the sixth of the couple's sixteen children. One day after her eighteenth birthday, she was married to King Charles X Gustav of Sweden on 24 October 1654. Charles Gustav was the second cousin of Hedwig Eleonora's mother, he and Hedwig Eleonora were third cousins twice. The marriage was arranged as an alliance between Sweden and Holstein-Gottorp against their mutual enemy Denmark.
Queen Christina of Sweden met Hedwig Eleonora in Holstein-Gottorp on her way to Rome after her abdication. Christina was concerned that Charles Gustav was unmarried, so she suggested the match; the suggestion was accepted by Holstein-Gottorp, who agreed to all demands from Sweden, which made the negotiations quick. Hedwig Eleonora was at the time engaged to Gustav Adolph, Duke of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, Queen Christina recommended Hedwig Eleonora's elder sister, Magdalene Sibylle of Holstein-Gottorp. After having seen portraits of both sisters, Charles Gustav chose Hedwig Eleonora because of her beauty, her current fiancé was instead married to Magdalena Sibylle. In the marriage contract, Hedwig Eleonora was granted a dowry of 20.000 riksdaler, 32.000 riksdaler as a dower, the incomes of the fiefs of Gripsholm and Strömsholm. Hedwig Eleonora was welcomed by King Charles X Gustav at Dalarö in Sweden 5 October 1654, stayed at Karlberg Palace before her official arrival at Stockholm for the wedding 24 October.
She was greeted, dressed in silver brocade, by queen dowager Maria Eleonora of Brandenburg at the Stockholm Royal Palace, where the wedding was celebrated the same day. She was crowned queen at Storkyrkan 27 October. Shortly after, her husband left for Poland to participate in the Deluge. Hedwig Eleonora remained in Sweden for the birth of the future Charles XI the 24 November 1655 and the following Christmas; the spring of 1656, she left Sweden and followed Charles Gustav during his campaign, during which she displayed both physical and mental strength. She was present during the Battle of Warsaw, during which she received the official praise from the Swedish army alongside her spouse, she returned to Sweden in the autumn of 1656. In Sweden, she took control over her dower lands, which she controlled during her life. After the Dano-Swedish War ), she was called to join her husband at Gothenburg she followed him to Gottorp and Wismar. During the Dano-Swedish War and her sister-in-law Maria Eufrosyne of Pfalz lived at Kronborg in Denmark after it had been taken by the Swedish general Carl Gustaf Wrangel.
At Kronborg, Hedwig Eleonora entertained the foreign ambassadors. She visited Frederiksborgs hunted in the woods with the English ambassador. During the Falster campaign, she entertained the ambassadors at Nyköbing Falster. Hedwig Eleonora left for Gothenburg in December 1659, where the Swedish parliament was to assemble in January 1660. After the death of her consort Charles X Gustav 13 February 1660, Hedwig Eleonora became regent of Sweden and chair of the Regency Council of her son Charles XI during his minority. According to the will and testament of Charles Gustav, Hedwig Eleonora was to be the chair and regent with two votes and a final say over the rest of the council: the power over the government was shared with five high officials, including Per Brahe, but her vote was to be the preferred one; the will was contested by the council because her former brother-in-law Adolph John I, Count Palatine of Kleeburg, had been given power over the army. The day after the death of her husband, Hedwig Eleonora sent a message to the council that she knew that they contested the will, she demanded that it should be respected.
The council answered. At the following council in Stockholm 13 May, the council tried to keep her from attending, they questioned whether it would be good for her health or suitable for a widow to attend council, that if not, it would be hard to keep sending a messenger to her quarters. Her reply that the council would be allowed to meet without her and only inform her when they considered it necessary was met with satisfaction from the council. Hedwig Eleonora's ostensible indifference to politics came as a great relief to the lords of the guardian government. Despite her initial message, Hedwig Eleonora was in fact present at all council meetings except when she was away to administrate her dower lands, she used her position as regent foremost to protect her son's interests and rights toward the council, thereby saw it as her duty to be informed and present in the decisions, although she did not take part in them. Adolph John of Kleeburg had lost command of the army and his status as a prince of Sweden, her only support in the council came from Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie.
Aware of the fact that she did not have enough support in the council to manage her own policy, she did not wish to risk being maneuvered from her position by challenging the council. She concurred with the anti-Danish and
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous urban area in the Nordic countries. The city stretches across fourteen islands. Just outside the city and along the coast is the island chain of the Stockholm archipelago; the area has been settled since the Stone Age, in the 6th millennium BC, was founded as a city in 1252 by Swedish statesman Birger Jarl. It is the capital of Stockholm County. Stockholm is the cultural, media and economic centre of Sweden; the Stockholm region alone accounts for over a third of the country's GDP, is among the top 10 regions in Europe by GDP per capita. It is an important global city, the main centre for corporate headquarters in the Nordic region; the city is home to some of Europe's top ranking universities, such as the Stockholm School of Economics, Karolinska Institute and Royal Institute of Technology. It hosts the annual Nobel Prize ceremonies and banquet at the Stockholm Concert Hall and Stockholm City Hall. One of the city's most prized museums, the Vasa Museum, is the most visited non-art museum in Scandinavia.
The Stockholm metro, opened in 1950, is well known for the decor of its stations. Sweden's national football arena is located north of the city centre, in Solna. Ericsson Globe, the national indoor arena, is in the southern part of the city; the city was the host of the 1912 Summer Olympics, hosted the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics otherwise held in Melbourne, Australia. Stockholm is the seat of the Swedish government and most of its agencies, including the highest courts in the judiciary, the official residencies of the Swedish monarch and the Prime Minister; the government has its seat in the Rosenbad building, the Riksdag is seated in the Parliament House, the Prime Minister's residence is adjacent at Sager House. Stockholm Palace is the official residence and principal workplace of the Swedish monarch, while Drottningholm Palace, a World Heritage Site on the outskirts of Stockholm, serves as the Royal Family's private residence. After the Ice Age, around 8,000 BC, there were many people living in what is today the Stockholm area, but as temperatures dropped, inhabitants moved south.
Thousands of years as the ground thawed, the climate became tolerable and the lands became fertile, people began to migrate back to the North. At the intersection of the Baltic Sea and lake Mälaren is an archipelago site where the Old Town of Stockholm was first built from about 1000 CE by Vikings, they had a positive trade impact on the area because of the trade routes they created. Stockholm's location appears in Norse sagas as Agnafit, in Heimskringla in connection with the legendary king Agne; the earliest written mention of the name Stockholm dates from 1252, by which time the mines in Bergslagen made it an important site in the iron trade. The first part of the name means log in Swedish, although it may be connected to an old German word meaning fortification; the second part of the name means islet, is thought to refer to the islet Helgeandsholmen in central Stockholm. According to Eric Chronicles the city is said to have been founded by Birger Jarl to protect Sweden from sea invasions made by Karelians after the pillage of Sigtuna on Lake Mälaren in the summer of 1187.
Stockholm's core, the present Old Town was built on the central island next to Helgeandsholmen from the mid-13th century onward. The city rose to prominence as a result of the Baltic trade of the Hanseatic League. Stockholm developed strong economic and cultural linkages with Lübeck, Gdańsk, Visby and Riga during this time. Between 1296 and 1478 Stockholm's City Council was made up of 24 members, half of whom were selected from the town's German-speaking burghers; the strategic and economic importance of the city made Stockholm an important factor in relations between the Danish Kings of the Kalmar Union and the national independence movement in the 15th century. The Danish King Christian II was able to enter the city in 1520. On 8 November 1520 a massacre of opposition figures called the Stockholm Bloodbath took place and set off further uprisings that led to the breakup of the Kalmar Union. With the accession of Gustav Vasa in 1523 and the establishment of a royal power, the population of Stockholm began to grow, reaching 10,000 by 1600.
The 17th century saw Sweden grow into a major European power, reflected in the development of the city of Stockholm. From 1610 to 1680 the population multiplied sixfold. In 1634, Stockholm became the official capital of the Swedish empire. Trading rules were created that gave Stockholm an essential monopoly over trade between foreign merchants and other Swedish and Scandinavian territories. In 1697, Tre Kronor was replaced by Stockholm Palace. In 1710, a plague killed about 20,000 of the population. After the end of the Great Northern War the city stagnated. Population growth halted and economic growth slowed; the city was in shock after having lost its place as the capital of a Great power. However, Stockholm maintained its role as the political centre of Sweden and continued to develop culturally under Gustav III. By the second half of the 19th century, Stockholm had regained its leading economic role. New industries emerged and Stockholm was transformed into an important trade and service centre as well as a key gateway point within Sweden.
The population grew during this time through immigration. At the end
Storkyrkan named Sankt Nikolai kyrka and informally called Stockholms domkyrka, is the oldest church in Gamla stan, the old town in central Stockholm, Sweden. The main parish church of Stockholm, it also serves as the seat of the Lutheran Bishop of Stockholm within the Church of Sweden since the creation of the Diocese of Stockholm in 1942, it is an important example of Swedish Brick Gothic. Situated next to the Royal Palace, it forms the western end of Slottsbacken, the major approach to the Royal Palace, while the streets Storkyrkobrinken, Högvaktsterrassen, Trångsund passes north and west of it respectively. South of the church is the Stockholm Stock Exchange Building facing Stortorget and containing the Swedish Academy, Nobel Library, Nobel Museum. Storkyrkan was first mentioned in a written source dated 1279 and according to tradition was built by Birger Jarl, the founder of the city itself. For nearly four hundred years it was the only parish church in the city, the other churches of comparable antiquity being built to serve the spiritual needs of religious communities.
It became a Lutheran Protestant church in 1527. The parish church since the Middle Ages of the Nikolai parish, covering the whole island on which the Old Town stands, it has been the cathedral of Stockholm since the Diocese of Stockholm was created out of the Archdiocese of Uppsala and the Diocese of Strängnäs in 1942; because of its convenient size and its proximity to the earlier royal castle and the present royal palace it has been the site of major events in Swedish history, such as coronations, royal wedding and royal funerals. The last Swedish king to be crowned here was Oscar II in 1873. Crown Princess Victoria, oldest daughter of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia, was married to Daniel Westling on 19 June 2010 at the Storkyrkan, the anniversary of her parents' marriage in Storkyrkan in 1976; the most famous of its treasures is the dramatic wooden statue of Saint George and the Dragon attributed to Bernt Notke. The statue, commissioned to commemorate the Battle of Brunkeberg serves as a reliquary, containing relics of Saint George and six other saints.
A copy from the early 20th century is found on Österlånggatan just south of the church. The Saint George is a symbolic representation of Sten Sture, the dragon is the Danish King Christian I, the Princess is Sweden; the church contains a copy of the oldest known image of Stockholm, the painting Vädersolstavlan, a 1632 copy of a lost original from 1535. The painting was commissioned by the scholar and reformer Olaus Petri, a 19th-century statue of whom is found on the eastern side of the church, it depicts a halo display, e.g. sun dogs, which gives the painting its name and in the 16th century was interpreted as a presage. The monumental pulpit is in a French Baroque style, it became the model for a number of other large pulpits in Sweden. From the rear of its lofty sounding board issues billowing dragery, in front of which hover two large winged genii on either side of a radiant sun bearing the Hebrew letters יהוה; the relief on the front of the pulpit itself depicts the story of the Canaanite woman.
The door of the pulpit is adorned with a relief of Christ's head, while its pediment is crowned by a statue of Hope with putti on either side. Below the memorial are the arms of the Funck family. Beneath the pulpit and surrounded by an iron railing lies the worn gravestone of Olaus Petri; the view down the central aisle of the church is dominated on either side by the Royal Pews, one facing the other on either side of the central aisle. They were designed by the celebrated architect Nicodemus Tessin the Younger and made by Butchard Precht; each consists of a large enclosed box with decorated sides and back. High above each of the Royal Pews is a large royal crown forming a canopy above it, supported by two genii in flowing mantles, from which billow sculptured hangings behind the royal seat, while above hover numerous putti; the royal seats are themselves upholstered in blue velvet with rich applied embroidery. The main altar--"The Silver Altar"—is a wooden triptych with an ebony veneer with sculptured reliefs in silver in ascending order of the Last Supper on the predella.
On either side of the Silver Altar is a sculpture holding a candle, one of St. Nicholas and the other of St. Peter, both designed by G. Torhamn and carved in oak by the sculptor Herbst in 1937; the rose window above and behind the Silver Altar was made in Paris in the 1850s, the first of a series of modern stained windows in the church contributed by various donors. The Silver Altar and the rose window above it fill the wall space occupied by the apse of the medieval chancel removed by Gustavus Vasa when he expanded the fortifications of the Tre Kronor Castle, while the statue of the Olaus Petri monument at the back exterior of the church stands on the site of the medieval high altar. List of churches in Stockholm Virtual tour of Storkyrkan by Virtualsw
A bust is a sculpted or cast representation of the upper part of the human figure, depicting a person's head and neck, a variable portion of the chest and shoulders. The piece is supported by a plinth; the bust is a portrait intended to record the appearance of an individual, but may sometimes represent a type. They may be of any medium used for sculpture, such as marble, terracotta, wax or wood. Sculptural portrait heads from classical antiquity, stopping at the neck, are sometimes displayed as busts. However, these are fragments from full-body statues, or were created to be inserted into an existing body, a common Roman practice. Sculpted heads stopping at the neck are sometimes mistakenly called busts; the portrait bust was a Hellenistic Greek invention, though few original Greek examples survive, as opposed to many Roman copies of them. There are four Roman copies as busts of Pericles with the Corinthian helmet, but the Greek original was a full-length bronze statue, they were popular in Roman portraiture.
The Roman tradition may have originated in the tradition of Roman patrician families keeping wax masks death masks, of dead members, in the atrium of the family house. When another family member died, these were worn by people chosen for the appropriate build in procession at the funeral, in front of the propped-up body of the deceased, as an "astonished" Polybius reported, from his long stay in Rome beginning in 167 BC; these seem to have been replaced or supplemented by sculptures. Possession of such imagines maiorum was a requirement for belonging to the Equestrian order. Herma Portrait Belting, Hans, An Anthropology of Images: Picture, Body, 2014, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0691160961, 9780691160962, google books Stewart, Statues in Roman Society: Representation and Response, 2003, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0199240949, 9780199240944, google books Livius.org: Bust gallery of famous ancient Greeks Oxford definition Dictionary.com definition
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
An epitaph is a short text honoring a deceased person. Speaking, it refers to text, inscribed on a tombstone or plaque, but it may be used in a figurative sense; some epitaphs are specified by the person themselves before their death, while others are chosen by those responsible for the burial. An epitaph may be written in poem verse. Most epitaphs are brief records of the family, the career, of the deceased with a common expression of love or respect—for example, "beloved father of..."—but others are more ambitious. From the Renaissance to the 19th century in Western culture, epitaphs for notable people became lengthy and pompous descriptions of their family origins, career and immediate family in Latin. Notably, the Laudatio Turiae, the longest known Ancient Roman epitaph, exceeds all of these at 180 lines; some aphorisms. One approach of many epitaphs is to warn them about their own mortality. A wry trick of others is to request the reader to get off their resting place, inasmuch as the reader would have to be standing on the ground above the coffin to read the inscription.
Some record achievements. Nearly all note name, year or date of birth, date of death. Many list family members and the relationship of the deceased to them. Heroes and Kings your distance keep. — Alexander PopeWe must know. We will know. — David Hilbert Looking into the portals of eternity teaches thatThe brotherhood of man is inspired by God’s word. -- George WashingtonHe never killed a man. — Clay Allison Here lies One whose Name was writ in Water — John KeatsCast a cold eyeOn life, on death. Horseman, pass by! — W. B. YeatsUndefeated — Hans-Joachim MarseilleAnd the beat goes on. — Sonny BonoSleep after toyle, port after stormie seas,Ease after warre, death after life, does please. — Joseph Conrad Oh God — Mahatma GandhiThat's all folks! — Mel BlancI've stopped getting dumber. — Paul ErdősHomo sum! the adventurer — D. H. LawrenceGo tell the Spartans, stranger passing by that here, obedient to their law, we lie. -- Simonides's epigram at ThermopylaeI told you. — Spike MilliganHere sleeps at peace a Hampshire GrenadierWho caught his early death by drinking cold small beer.
Soldiers, be wise at his untimely fall, And when you're hot, drink none at all. — Thomas Thetcher tombstone epitaph in Winchester CathedralTo save your world you asked this man to die:Would this man, could he see you now, ask why? — Epitaph for the Unknown Soldier, written by W. H. AudenThere is borne an empty hearsecovered over for such as appear not. Heroes have the whole earth for their tomb. — Unknown Soldier's epitaph, Athens. -- Virginia WoolfGood frend for Iesvs sake forebeare. Bleste be man spares thes stones,And cvrst be he moves my bones.: Good friend for Jesus' sake forbear, To dig the dust enclosed here. Blessed be the man that spares these stones. — William Shakespeare In a more figurative sense, the term may be used for music composed in memory of the deceased. Igor Stravinsky composed in 1958 Epitaphium for flute and harp. In 1967 Krzysztof Meyer called his Symphony No. 2 for choir and orchestra Epitaphium Stanisław Wiechowicz in memoriam. Jeffrey Lewis composed Epitaphium – Children of the Sun for narrator, chamber choir, flute and percussion.
Bronius Kutavičius composed in 1998 Epitaphium temporum pereunti. Valentin Silvestrov composed in 1999 Epitaph L. B. for viola and piano. In 2007 Graham Waterhouse composed Epitaphium for string trio as a tribute to the memory of his father William Waterhouse; the South African poet Gert Vlok Nel wrote an untitled song, which appeared on his first music album'Beaufort-Wes se Beautiful Woorde' as'Epitaph', because his producer Eckard Potgieter told him that the song sounded like an epitaph. David Bowie's final album, released in 2016, is seen as his musical epitaph, with singles "Blackstar" and "Lazarus" singled out. In the late 1990s, a unique epitaph was flown to the moon along with the ashes of geologist and planetary scientist Eugene Shoemaker. At the suggestion of colleague Carolyn Porco, Shoemaker's ashes were launched aboard the Lunar Prospector spacecraft on January 6, 1998; the ashes were accompanied by a laser-engraved epitaph on a small piece of foil. The spacecraft, along with the ashes and epitaph, crashed on command into the south polar region of the moon on July 31, 1999.
Chronogram Death poem Epigraph Epitaph Epitaphios logos Hero stone Seikilos epitaph Epitaph Records Vidor, Gian Marco. Satisfying the mind and inflaming the heart: emotions and funerary epigraphy in nineteenth-centu