Tap water is water supplied to a tap. Its uses include drinking, washing and the flushing of toilets. Indoor tap water is distributed through "indoor plumbing", which has existed since antiquity but was available to few people until the second half of the 19th century when it began to spread in popularity in what are now developed countries. Tap water became common in many regions during the 20th century, is now lacking among people in poverty in developing countries. Tap water is culturally assumed to be drinking water in developed countries, it is potable, although water quality problems are not rare. Household water purification methods such as water filters, boiling, or distillation can be used when tap water's potability is doubted; the application of technologies involved in providing clean water to homes and public buildings is a major subfield of sanitary engineering. Calling a water supply "tap water" distinguishes it from the other main types of fresh water which may be available. Publicly available treated water has been associated with major increases in life expectancy and improved public health.
Water-borne diseases are vastly reduced by fresh water availability. Providing tap water to large urban or suburban populations requires a complex and designed system of collection, storage and distribution, is the responsibility of a government agency the same agency responsible for the removal and treatment of clean water. Specific chemical compounds are taken out of tap water during the treatment process to adjust the pH or remove contaminants, chlorine may be added to kill biological toxins. Local geological conditions affecting groundwater are determining factors for the presence of various metal ions rendering the water "soft" or "hard". Tap water remains susceptible to chemical contamination. In the event of contamination deemed dangerous to public health, government officials issue an advisory regarding water consumption. In the case of biological contamination, residents are advised to boil their water before consumption or to use bottled water as an alternative. In the case of chemical contamination, residents may be advised to refrain from consuming tap water until the matter is resolved.
In many areas a compound of fluoride is added to tap water in an effort to improve dental health among the public. In some communities "fluoridation" remains a controversial issue; this supply may come from several possible sources. Municipal water supply Water wells Processed water from creeks, rivers, rainwater, etc. Domestic water systems have been evolving since people first located their homes near a running water supply, such as a stream or river; the water flow allowed sending waste water away from the residences. Modern indoor plumbing delivers clean, potable water to each service point in the distribution system, it is important that the clean water not be contaminated by the waste water side of the process system. This contamination of drinking water has been the largest killer of humans. Tap water can sometimes appear cloudy mistaken for mineral impurities in the water, it is caused by air bubbles coming out of solution due to change in temperature or pressure. Because cold water holds more air than warm water, small bubbles will appear in water.
It has a high dissolved gas content, heated or depressurized, which reduces how much dissolved gas the water can hold. The harmless cloudiness of the water disappears as the gas is released from the water. Domestic hot water is provided through district heating; the hot water from these units is piped to the various fixtures and appliances that require hot water, such as lavatories, bathtubs, washing machines, dishwashers. Everything in a building that uses water falls under one of two categories; as the consumption points above perform their function, most produce waste/sewage components that will require removal by the waste/sewage side of the system. The minimum is an air gap. See cross connection control & backflow prevention for an overview of backflow prevention methods and devices in use, both through the use of mechanical and physical principles. Fixtures are devices. Potable water supply systems are composed of pipes and valves; the installation of water pipes can be done using the following plastic and metal materials: polybutylene high density cross-linked polyethylene block copolymer of polypropylene the polypropylene copolymer random copolymer of polypropylene Layer: cross-linked polyethylene, high-density polyethylene Layer: polyethylene crosslinked, cross-linked polyethylene Layer copolymer of a random polypropylene, polypropylene random copolymer polyvinyl chloride, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride - not softened carbon steel, ordinary galvanized corrosion resistant steel Deoxidized High Phosphorus copper Lead - not used anymore for its toxicityOther materials, if the pipes made from them have been let into circulation and the widespread use in the construction of the water supply
Tarija is a department in Bolivia. It is located in south-eastern Bolivia bordering with Argentina to the south and Paraguay to the east. According to the 2012 census, it has a population of 482,196 inhabitants, it has an area of 37,623 km2. The city of Tarija is the capital of the department; the department is divided into five provinces and one autonomous region: Gran Chaco Province Aniceto Arce Province José María Avilés Province Cercado Province Eustaquio Méndez Province Burdett O'Connor ProvinceNotable places in Tarija include: Villamontes in the department's oil-producing eastern scrubland Bermejo, a border town adjoining Aguas Blancas, Argentina Yacuiba, a border town with Argentina. The Department of Tarija is renowned for its mild, pleasant climate, comprises one of the country's foremost agricultural regions, its citizens have traditionally felt close to, conducted a lively international trade with, neighboring towns of northern Argentina. Between 1816-1898, the region was part of Argentina, was ceded to Bolivia in exchange for Puna de Atacama.
Tarija boasts South America's second-largest natural gas reserves. Increased gas revenues and foreign direct investment in gas exploration and distribution are fueling growth and turning Tarija into Bolivia's next industrial hub. Political instability at the national level has hindered development of the reserves, as the region has chosen to align with pro-autonomy forces which aim at the devolution of considerable powers away from the central government in favor of the departments. More than 20 different indigenous tribes, ranging in population from 20 persons up to 1500, live in the region; the Guaraní is the largest tribe. Important battles and events related to the 1932-35 Chaco War with Paraguay took place in the department's eastern dry lands. Tarija was the home of Víctor Paz Estenssoro, leader of the 1952 Bolivian Revolution and four-time Constitutional President; the main economic activity is the wine industry. The land and climate are ideal for wine production; the city of Tarija holds an annual Festival of Cheese.
The petroleum industry is important not only for the region but for the country as a whole the gas industry, exported to Argentina and Brazil. The autonomous region of Gran Chaco is from; the languages spoken in the department are Spanish, Quechua and Guaraní. The following table shows the numbers belonging to the recognized groups of speakers. Aguaragüe National Park and Integrated Management Natural Area Cordillera de Sama Biological Reserve Tariquía Flora and Fauna National Reserve "Tarija", Travel Guide Weather in Tarija Bolivian Music and Web Varieties Full information of Tarija Department
Anglican Church of South America
The Anglican Church of South America is the ecclesiastical province of the Anglican Communion that covers six dioceses in the countries of Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Formed in 1981, the province had 25,000 members in April 2013, its members in South America are thinly spread, making it one of the smaller provinces in the Anglican Communion in terms of numbers, although one of the largest in geographical extent. The province was known as "The Province of the Southern Cone of America" from its formation in 1981 until September 2014, when it formally changed its name to "The Anglican Church of South America"; the province included Chile, until the inception of the new Anglican Church of Chile as an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion, on 4 November 2018. During the 19th century, British immigrants to South America brought Anglicanism with them. In Britain, a voluntary Anglican society was formed in 1844 to evangelize the indigenous peoples of Tierra del Fuego; this became the South American Mission Society and extended its activities to the Araucanian regions of Chile and the Chaco.
It still has an important place in the life of the church. The first diocese was established in 1869 as the Diocese of the Falkland Islands and the rest of South America, excepting British Guyana; the see of the bishop. Despite its title, the diocese's effective territory was restricted to the Southern Cone plus Peru and Bolivia. By contrast, Anglican/Episcopal congregations in Brazil and the more northern Spanish-speaking countries were under the wing of the Episcopal Church of the USA; as the Anglican Church and its mission grew in South America, new dioceses were created from that larger one. Missionary bishops were appointed to smaller dioceses; until 1974, these missionary dioceses were under the metropolitical oversight of the Archbishop of Canterbury. For the next seven years, they were administered by an ad hoc council known by the acronym CASA, which had Brazilian members. In 1981, the five dioceses of Argentina, Northern Argentina and Bolivia, Paraguay came together to form the Province of the Southern Cone.
In November 2010, at a provincial synod held in Argentina, Bishop Tito Zavala, Diocesan Bishop of Chile, was elected primate. He was the first South American-born primate of the province, served for six years. In November 2016, at the provincial synod in Santiago, Bishop Gregory Venables, who had served from 2001-2010, was re-elected primate of the Province of South America. In early 2018 the Diocese of Chile split into four dioceses, in November that year those dioceses were removed from the Anglican Church of South America and formed into an autonomous province named the Anglican Church of Chile, with Tito Zavala as their first primate; the province is distinguished by a conservative interpretation of Biblical texts and church practice while some dioceses are more liberal. The province has been outspoken in its opposition to the ordination of women to the priesthood appealing to scriptural issues of headship as the basis for such opposition; the Diocese of Uruguay, more liberal than other parts of the province, made a formal request in 2011 to be allowed to admit women to the priesthood.
This request was received by the provincial synod meeting held in Asunción, Paraguay, in November 2011, was rejected. However, in 2015 Bolivia became the first diocese in the province to ordain women as priests, ordaining the Rev. Tammy Smith Firestone; that year Rev. Susana Lopez Lerena, the Rev. Cynthia Myers Dickin and the Rev. Audrey Taylor Gonzalez became the first women Anglican priests ordained in the Diocese of Uruguay; the Anglican Church of South America is a part of GAFCON, a conservative coalition of Anglican provinces opposing non-celibate homosexuality and same-sex marriage. Some representatives in the Diocese of Uruguay have supported gay and lesbian rights. Diocesan bishop — Gregory James Venables, 1993–Previous bishops: Edward Francis Every, 1910–1937. Diocesan bishop — Nicholas James Quested Drayson, 2001– Suffragan bishop — Mateo Alto Suffragan bishop — Cristiano Rojas Suffragan bishop — Urbano DuartePrevious bishops:Bill Flagg, 1969–1973. Missionaries began their work in the early 1980's.
Diocesan bishop — Raphael R. Samuel, 2013–. Graduate of Trinity Theological College, Singapore in 1984, missionary from the diocese of Singapore; the longest serving Anglican missionary in Bolivia. Previous bishops: Gregory James Venables, 1995–2001, Frank Lyons, 2001–2012 Founded 1973. Diocesan bishop — Peter Bartlett, 2008– Auxiliary bishop — Andrés Rodríguez ErbenPrevious bishops: Douglas Milmine, 1973–1985. Diocesan bishop — Jorge Luis Aguilar, 2017– Suffragan/Missionary bishop — Alejandro Mesco Suffragan/Missionary bishop — Juan Carlos RevillaPrevious bishops: Bill Flagg, 1977. See city, Cathedral of The Most Holy Trinity, Montevideo Diocesan bishop — Michael Pollesel Suffragan bishop — Gilberto Obdulio Porcal MartínezPrevious bishops: William Godfrey, 1988-1998 In July 2015 it was announced by the A
Tertiary sector of the economy
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory. The others are the secondary sector, the primary sector; the service sector consists of the production of services instead of end products. Services include attention, access and affective labor; the production of information has long been regarded as a service, but some economists now attribute it to a fourth sector, the quaternary sector. The tertiary sector of industry involves the provision of services to other businesses as well as final consumers. Services may involve the transport and sale of goods from producer to a consumer, as may happen in wholesaling and retailing, pest control or entertainment; the goods may be transformed in the process of providing the service, as happens in the restaurant industry. However, the focus is on people interacting with people and serving the customer rather than transforming physical goods, it is sometimes hard to define whether a given company is part and parcel of the secondary or tertiary sector.
And it is not only companies. In order to classify a business as a service, one can use classification systems such as the United Nations' International Standard Industrial Classification standard, the United States' Standard Industrial Classification code system and its new replacement, the North American Industrial Classification System, the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Community in the EU and similar systems elsewhere; these governmental classification systems have a first-level hierarchy that reflects whether the economic goods are tangible or intangible. For purposes of finance and market research, market-based classification systems such as the Global Industry Classification Standard and the Industry Classification Benchmark are used to classify businesses that participate in the service sector. Unlike governmental classification systems, the first level of market-based classification systems divides the economy into functionally related markets or industries.
The second or third level of these hierarchies reflects whether goods or services are produced. For the last 100 years, there has been a substantial shift from the primary and secondary sectors to the tertiary sector in industrialized countries; this shift is called tertiarisation. The tertiary sector is now the largest sector of the economy in the Western world, is the fastest-growing sector. In examining the growth of the service sector in the early Nineties, the globalist Kenichi Ohmae noted that: "In the United States 70 percent of the workforce works in the service sector; these are not busboys and live-in maids. Many of them are in the professional category, they are earning as much as manufacturing workers, more.”Economies tend to follow a developmental progression that takes them from a heavy reliance on agriculture and mining, toward the development of manufacturing and toward a more service-based structure. The first economy to follow this path in the modern world was the United Kingdom.
The speed at which other economies have made the transition to service-based economies has increased over time. Manufacturing tended to be more open to international trade and competition than services. However, with dramatic cost reduction and speed and reliability improvements in the transportation of people and the communication of information, the service sector now includes some of the most intensive international competition, despite residual protectionism. Service providers face obstacles selling services that goods-sellers face. Services are intangible, making it difficult for potential customers to understand what they will receive and what value it will hold for them. Indeed, such as consultants and providers of investment services, offer no guarantees of the value for price paid. Since the quality of most services depends on the quality of the individuals providing the services, "people costs" are a high fraction of service costs. Whereas a manufacturer may use technology and other techniques to lower the cost of goods sold, the service provider faces an unrelenting pattern of increasing costs.
Product differentiation is difficult. For example, how does one choose one investment adviser over another, since they are seen to provide identical services? Charging a premium for services is an option only for the most established firms, who charge extra based upon brand recognition. Examples of tertiary industries may include: Telecommunication Hospitality industry/tourism Mass media Healthcare/hospitals Public health Pharmacy Information technology Waste disposal Consulting Gambling Retail sales Fast-moving consumer goods Franchising Real estate Education Financial services Banking Insurance Investment management Professional services Accounting Legal services Management consultingTransportation Below is a list of countries by service output at market exchange rates in 2016. Quaternary sector of the economy Indigo Era National Occupational Research Agenda Service Sector Council, USA Media related to Service industries at Wikimedia Commons
Tarija or San Bernardo de la Frontera de Tarixa is a city in southern Bolivia. Founded in 1574, Tarija is the largest city & capital and municipality within the Tarija Department, with an airport offering regular service to primary Bolivian cities, as well as a regional bus terminal with domestic and international connections, its climate is semi-arid with mild temperatures in contrast to the harsh cold of the Altiplano and the year-round humid heat of the Amazon Basin. Tarija has a population of 234,442; the name of Tarija is said to come from Francisco de Tarija or Tarifa, researched information disproves that probability. Members of the first group of Spaniards to enter the valley where present-day Tarija is situated, stated that the name of Tarija was in use; this group did not include anyone by the name of Francisco de Tarija. Similar-sounding toponyms exist for surrounding places, such as Taxara. In 1826 the citizens of Tarija voted to become part of Bolivia. In 1807, Tarija had become separated from Upper Peru to become part of the jurisdiction of Salta, but because of its close ties to what became Bolivia, it returned to its original jurisdiction.
In 1899, Argentina renounced its claims in exchange for the Puna de Atacama. The valley that Tarija is situated in was first occupied by Western Hemispheric indigenous groups, such as the Churumatas and the Tomatas. Subsequently, the Inca Empire – administered by the Quechua civilization – conquered the land and dispersed the Churumatas and other local groups over wide territories of the Andes. Mitimaes is the Quechuan name that the Incas used for the resisting ethnic groups they uprooted and dispersed geographically; when the Spanish first arrived to the valley of Tarija they encountered several stone roads, most the remnants of pre-Incaic cultures, such as that of the Churumatas. However, during that period, the presence of indigenous peoples remained sparse within the valley. Several of the pre-Incaic roads and trials have been preserved, function as a walking trail for Tarijeños. Tarija has a semi-arid climate; the summers are warm and humid, while "winters” are dry, with any rainfall, temperatures warm during the day and cooler at night.
All the annual precipitation is received during the southern-hemisphere summer months. Freezes occur from May to October. Tarija's main plaza is surrounded by restaurants of various cuisines, local handicraft shops, internet cafes. Within immediate walking distance is the public market, a university campus, a number of tourist sights including the Paleontology Museum of Tarija City; the city includes higher-end restaurants as well as fast food restaurants like McRonalds and Homeros. Tarija's nightlife, including dance clubs, is popular with tourists. From Tarija, primary destinations and land routes coincide with the cardinal directions: Paraguay/the Gran Chaco, to the east via Yacuiba; the route to the altiplano and Potosí is much safer, as of December 2012. A new tunnel bypasses the mountain just west of the city of Tarija; the San Jacinto Dam is located a few kilometers south of Tarija, the Chorros de Jurina falls is located a few kilometers northwest from the city. Tarija's land and climate are adequate for wine production.
The Festival of Wine is held annually in Tarija. Tarija is regarded by Bolivian nationals and tourists alike as the "Bolivian Andalusia"; the Guadalquivir River that borders the city was named after the Spanish river of the same name. Residents of Tarija call themselves Chapacos, regardless of ethnic background. Although the origin of the name is uncertain, there is a hypothesis that it is a variation of chacapa, the name of an indigenous settlement in the region during early colonial times. During Bolivia's post-revolutionary period, the Chapacos voted in favor of being annexed by Bolivia instead of Argentina. For that reason, Tarijeños have been included among Bolivia's most patriotic people. However, the modern culture is isolated from the rest of urban Bolivia, in recent times, many Tarijeñans feel much more connected to Tarija itself than to the rest of Bolivia, their local creed is reflected in a famous, folkloric Cueca song, titled "Chapaco Soy". Reykjavík, Iceland Cobija, Bolivia Grimstad, Norway Brasschaat, Belgium Glasgow, United Kingdom Salta, Argentina Cannes, France Arica, Chile Seville, Spain Los Angeles, U.
S. Tarija City Guide Tarija profile
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Provinces of Bolivia
A province is the second largest administrative division in Bolivia, after a department. Each department is divided into provinces. There are 112 provinces; the country's provinces are further divided into 337 municipalities which are administered by an alcalde and municipal council. Departments of Bolivia Municipalities of Bolivia Instituto Nacional de Estadística - Bolivia