The Miocene is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period and extends from about 23.03 to 5.333 million years ago. The Miocene was named by Charles Lyell; the Miocene is followed by the Pliocene. As the earth went from the Oligocene through the Miocene and into the Pliocene, the climate cooled towards a series of ice ages; the Miocene boundaries are not marked by a single distinct global event but consist rather of regionally defined boundaries between the warmer Oligocene and the cooler Pliocene Epoch. The Apes first evolved and diversified during the early Miocene, becoming widespread in the Old World. By the end of this epoch and the start of the following one, the ancestors of humans had split away from the ancestors of the chimpanzees to follow their own evolutionary path during the final Messinian stage of the Miocene; as in the Oligocene before it, grasslands continued to forests to dwindle in extent. In the seas of the Miocene, kelp forests made their first appearance and soon became one of Earth's most productive ecosystems.
The plants and animals of the Miocene were recognizably modern. Mammals and birds were well-established. Whales and kelp spread; the Miocene is of particular interest to geologists and palaeoclimatologists as major phases of the geology of the Himalaya occurred during the Miocene, affecting monsoonal patterns in Asia, which were interlinked with glacial periods in the northern hemisphere. The Miocene faunal stages from youngest to oldest are named according to the International Commission on Stratigraphy: Regionally, other systems are used, based on characteristic land mammals. Of the modern geologic features, only the land bridge between South America and North America was absent, although South America was approaching the western subduction zone in the Pacific Ocean, causing both the rise of the Andes and a southward extension of the Meso-American peninsula. Mountain building took place in western North America and East Asia. Both continental and marine Miocene deposits are common worldwide with marine outcrops common near modern shorelines.
Well studied continental exposures occur in Argentina. India continued creating dramatic new mountain ranges; the Tethys Seaway continued to shrink and disappeared as Africa collided with Eurasia in the Turkish–Arabian region between 19 and 12 Ma. The subsequent uplift of mountains in the western Mediterranean region and a global fall in sea levels combined to cause a temporary drying up of the Mediterranean Sea near the end of the Miocene; the global trend was towards increasing aridity caused by global cooling reducing the ability of the atmosphere to absorb moisture. Uplift of East Africa in the late Miocene was responsible for the shrinking of tropical rain forests in that region, Australia got drier as it entered a zone of low rainfall in the Late Miocene. During the Oligocene and Early Miocene the coast of northern Brazil, south-central Peru, central Chile and large swathes of inland Patagonia were subject to a marine transgression; the transgressions in the west coast of South America is thought to be caused by a regional phenomenon while the rising central segment of the Andes represents an exception.
While there are numerous registers of Oligo-Miocene transgressions around the world it is doubtful that these correlate. It is thought that the Oligo-Miocene transgression in Patagonia could have temporarily linked the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, as inferred from the findings of marine invertebrate fossils of both Atlantic and Pacific affinity in La Cascada Formation. Connection would have occurred through narrow epicontinental seaways that formed channels in a dissected topography; the Antarctic Plate started to subduct beneath South America 14 million years ago in the Miocene, forming the Chile Triple Junction. At first the Antarctic Plate subducted only in the southernmost tip of Patagonia, meaning that the Chile Triple Junction lay near the Strait of Magellan; as the southern part of Nazca Plate and the Chile Rise became consumed by subduction the more northerly regions of the Antarctic Plate begun to subduct beneath Patagonia so that the Chile Triple Junction advanced to the north over time.
The asthenospheric window associated to the triple junction disturbed previous patterns of mantle convection beneath Patagonia inducing an uplift of ca. 1 km that reversed the Oligocene–Miocene transgression. Climates remained moderately warm, although the slow global cooling that led to the Pleistocene glaciations continued. Although a long-term cooling trend was well underway, there is evidence of a warm period during the Miocene when the global climate rivalled that of the Oligocene; the Miocene warming b
Hispaniola is an island in the Caribbean island group known as the Greater Antilles. It is the second largest island in the Caribbean after Cuba, the most populous island in the Caribbean; the 76,192-square-kilometre island is divided between two separate, sovereign nations: the Spanish-speaking Dominican Republic to the east, French / French Creole-speaking Haiti to the west. The only other shared island in the Caribbean is Saint Martin, shared between France and the Netherlands. Hispaniola is the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas, founded by Christopher Columbus on his voyages in 1492 and 1493; the island was called by various names by the Taíno Amerindians. No known Taíno texts exist, historical evidence for those names comes to us through three European historians: the Italian Pietro Martyr d‘Anghiera, the Spaniards Bartolomé de las Casas and Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo. Fernández de Oviedo and de las Casas both recorded that the island was called Quizqueia by the Taíno.
D'Anghiera added another name, but research shows that the word does not seem to derive from the original Arawak Taíno language. Although the Taínos' use of Quizqueia is verified, the name was used by all three historians, evidence suggests that it was the Taíno name of the whole island, for a region in the northeastern section of the present-day Dominican Republic; when Columbus took possession of the island in 1492, he named it Insula Hispana in Latin and La Isla Española in Spanish, with both meaning "the Spanish island". De las Casas shortened the name to "Española", when d‘Anghiera detailed his account of the island in Latin, he rendered its name as Hispaniola. In the oldest documented map of the island, created by Andrés de Morales, Los Haitises is labeled Montes de Haití, de las Casas named the whole island Haiti on the basis of that particular region, as d'Anghiera states that the name of one part was given to the whole island. Due to Taíno, Spanish and French influences on the island the whole island was referred to as Haiti, Santo Domingo, St. Domingue, or San Domingo.
The colonial terms Saint-Domingue and Santo Domingo are sometimes still applied to the whole island, though these names refer to the colonies that became Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Since Anghiera's literary work was translated into English and French soon after being written, the name Hispaniola became the most used term in English-speaking countries for the island in scientific and cartographic works. In 1918, the United States occupation government, led by Harry Shepard Knapp, obliged the use of the name Hispaniola on the island, recommended the use of that name to the National Geographic Society; the name Haïti was adopted by Haitian revolutionary Jean-Jacques Dessalines in 1804, as the official name of independent Saint-Domingue, as a tribute to the Amerindian predecessors. It was adopted as the official name of independent Santo Domingo, as the Republic of Spanish Haiti, a state that existed from November 1821 until its annexation by Haiti in February 1822; the primary indigenous group on the island of Hispaniola was the Arawak/Taíno people.
The Arawak tribe originated in the Orinoco Delta. They travelled to Hispaniola around 1200 CE; each society on the island was a small independent kingdom with a lead known as a cacique. In 1492, considered the peak of the Taíno, there were five different kingdoms on the island, the Xaragua, Magua and Marien. Many distinct Taíno languages existed in this time period. There is still heated debate over the population of Taíno people on the island of Hispaniola in 1492, but estimates range upwards of 750,000. An Arawak/Taíno home consisted of a circular building with woven palm leaves as covering. Most individuals slept in fashioned hammocks, but grass beds were used; the cacique lived in a different structure with a porch. The Taíno village had a flat court used for ball games and festivals. Religiously, the Arawak/Taíno people were polytheists, their gods were called zemí. Religious worship and dancing were common, medicine men or priests consulted the zemí for advise in public ceremonies. For food, the Arawak/Taíno relied on fish as a primary source for protein.
The Taíno relied on agriculture as a primary food source. The indigenous people of Hispaniola raised crops in a conuco, a large mound packed with leaves and fixed crops to prevent erosion; some common agricultural goods were cassava, squash, peppers, peanuts and tobacco, used as an aspect of social life and religious ceremonies. The Arawak/Taíno people travelled and used hollowed canoes with paddles when on the water for fishing or for migration purposes, upwards of 100 people could fit into a single canoe; the Taíno came in contact with another indigenous tribe, often. The caribs lived in modern day Puerto Rico and northeast Hispaniola and were known to be hostile towards other tribes; the Arawak/Taíno people had to defend themselves using bow and arrows with poisoned tips and s
Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch. It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments. Paleontological observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century BC; the science became established in the 18th century as a result of Georges Cuvier's work on comparative anatomy, developed in the 19th century. The term itself originates from Greek παλαιός, palaios, "old, ancient", ὄν, on, "being, creature" and λόγος, logos, "speech, study". Paleontology lies on the border between biology and geology, but differs from archaeology in that it excludes the study of anatomically modern humans, it now uses techniques drawn from a wide range of sciences, including biochemistry and engineering. Use of all these techniques has enabled paleontologists to discover much of the evolutionary history of life all the way back to when Earth became capable of supporting life, about 3.8 billion years ago.
As knowledge has increased, paleontology has developed specialised sub-divisions, some of which focus on different types of fossil organisms while others study ecology and environmental history, such as ancient climates. Body fossils and trace fossils are the principal types of evidence about ancient life, geochemical evidence has helped to decipher the evolution of life before there were organisms large enough to leave body fossils. Estimating the dates of these remains is essential but difficult: sometimes adjacent rock layers allow radiometric dating, which provides absolute dates that are accurate to within 0.5%, but more paleontologists have to rely on relative dating by solving the "jigsaw puzzles" of biostratigraphy. Classifying ancient organisms is difficult, as many do not fit well into the Linnaean taxonomy classifying living organisms, paleontologists more use cladistics to draw up evolutionary "family trees"; the final quarter of the 20th century saw the development of molecular phylogenetics, which investigates how organisms are related by measuring the similarity of the DNA in their genomes.
Molecular phylogenetics has been used to estimate the dates when species diverged, but there is controversy about the reliability of the molecular clock on which such estimates depend. The simplest definition of paleontology is "the study of ancient life"; the field seeks information about several aspects of past organisms: "their identity and origin, their environment and evolution, what they can tell us about the Earth's organic and inorganic past". Paleontology is one of the historical sciences, along with archaeology, astronomy, cosmology and history itself: it aims to describe phenomena of the past and reconstruct their causes. Hence it has three main elements: description of past phenomena; when trying to explain the past and other historical scientists construct a set of hypotheses about the causes and look for a smoking gun, a piece of evidence that accords with one hypothesis over the others. Sometimes the smoking gun is discovered by a fortunate accident during other research. For example, the discovery by Luis and Walter Alvarez of iridium, a extra-terrestrial metal, in the Cretaceous–Tertiary boundary layer made asteroid impact the most favored explanation for the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, although the contribution of volcanism continues to be debated.
The other main type of science is experimental science, said to work by conducting experiments to disprove hypotheses about the workings and causes of natural phenomena. This approach cannot prove a hypothesis, since some experiment may disprove it, but the accumulation of failures to disprove is compelling evidence in favor. However, when confronted with unexpected phenomena, such as the first evidence for invisible radiation, experimental scientists use the same approach as historical scientists: construct a set of hypotheses about the causes and look for a "smoking gun". Paleontology lies between biology and geology since it focuses on the record of past life, but its main source of evidence is fossils in rocks. For historical reasons, paleontology is part of the geology department at many universities: in the 19th and early 20th centuries, geology departments found fossil evidence important for dating rocks, while biology departments showed little interest. Paleontology has some overlap with archaeology, which works with objects made by humans and with human remains, while paleontologists are interested in the characteristics and evolution of humans as a species.
When dealing with evidence about humans and paleontologists may work together – for example paleontologists might identify animal or plant fossils around an archaeological site, to discover what the people who lived there ate. In addition, paleontology borrows techniques from other sciences, including biology, ecology, chemistry and mathematics. For example, geochemical signatures from rocks may help to discover when life first arose on Earth, analyses of carbon isotope ratios may help to identify climate changes and to explain major transitions such as the Permian–Triassic extinction event. A recent discipline, molecular phylogenetics, compares the DNA and RNA of modern organisms to re-construct the "family trees" of their
The Langhian is, in the ICS geologic timescale, an age or stage in the middle Miocene epoch/series. It spans the time between 13.65 ± 0.05 Ma during the Middle Miocene. The Langhian was a continuing warming period defined by Lorenzo Pareto in 1865, it was established in the Langhe area north of Ceva in northern Italy, hence the name; the Langhian is followed by the Serravallian stage. The base of the Langhian is defined by the first appearance of foraminifer species Praeorbulina glomerosa and is coeval with the top of magnetic chronozone C5Cn.1n. A GSSP for the Langhian stage was not yet established in 2009; the top of the Langhian stage is at the first occurrence of fossils of the nanoplankton species Sphenolithus heteromorphus and is located in magnetic chronozone C5ABr. The Langhian is coeval with the Orleanian and Astaracian European Land Mammal Mega Zones, with the upper Hemingfordian to mid-Barstovian North American Land Mammal Ages, with mid-Relizian to Luisian Californian regional stages, with the early-mid Badenian Paratethys stage of Central and eastern Europe, with the Tozawan stage in Japan, with the late Batesfordian through Balcombian to early Bairnsdalian Australian stages and with the mid-Cliffdenian to mid-Lillburnian New Zealand stages.
Turtles: Meiolania brevicollis Sharks, rays and relatives Chlamydoselachidae: †Chlamydoselachus tobleri Hexanchidae: Hexanchus griseus, Hexanchus nakamurai, Notorynchus cepedianus Perissodactyla Rhinocerotidae: † Dicerorhinus sansaniensis Rodentia Cricetidae: †Karydomys Sciuridae: †Palaeosciurus,? Ratufa Middle Miocene disruption Nördlinger Ries impact crater Gradstein, F. M.. G. & Smith, A. G.. Pareto, L.. PDF GeoWhen Database - Langhian Neogene timescale, at the website of the subcommission for stratigraphic information of the ICS Neogene timescale at the website of the Norwegian network of offshore records of geology and stratigraphy
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Bordeaux is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France. The municipality of Bordeaux proper has a population of 252,040. Together with its suburbs and satellite towns, Bordeaux is the centre of the Bordeaux Métropole. With 1,195,335 in the metropolitan area, it is the sixth-largest in France, after Paris, Lyon and Lille, it is the capital of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, as well as the prefecture of the Gironde department. Its inhabitants are called "Bordelais" or "Bordelaises"; the term "Bordelais" may refer to the city and its surrounding region. Being at the center of a major wine-growing and wine-producing region, Bordeaux remains a prominent powerhouse and exercises significant influence on the world wine industry although no wine production is conducted within the city limits, it is home to the world's main wine fair and the wine economy in the metro area takes in 14.5 billion euros each year. Bordeaux wine has been produced in the region since the 8th century.
The historic part of the city is on the UNESCO World Heritage List as "an outstanding urban and architectural ensemble" of the 18th century. After Paris, Bordeaux has the highest number of preserved historical buildings of any city in France. In historical times, around 567 BC it was the settlement of a Celtic tribe, the Bituriges Vivisci, who named the town Burdigala of Aquitanian origin; the name Bourde is still the name of a river south of the city. In 107 BC, the Battle of Burdigala was fought by the Romans who were defending the Allobroges, a Gallic tribe allied to Rome, the Tigurini led by Divico; the Romans were defeated and their commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus, was killed in the action. The city fell under Roman rule around its importance lying in the commerce of tin and lead, it became capital of Roman Aquitaine, flourishing during the Severan dynasty. In 276 it was sacked by the Vandals. Further ravage was brought by the same Vandals in 409, the Visigoths in 414, the Franks in 498, beginning a period of obscurity for the city.
In the late 6th century, the city re-emerged as the seat of a county and an archdiocese within the Merovingian kingdom of the Franks, but royal Frankish power was never strong. The city started to play a regional role as a major urban center on the fringes of the newly founded Frankish Duchy of Vasconia. Around 585, Gallactorius is fighting the Basque people; the city was plundered by the troops of Abd er Rahman in 732 after they stormed the fortified city and overwhelmed the Aquitanian garrison. Duke Eudes mustered a force ready to engage the Umayyads outside Bordeaux taking them on in the Battle of the River Garonne somewhere near the river Dordogne; the battle had a high death toll. Although Eudes was defeated here, he saved part of his troops and kept his grip on Aquitaine after the Battle of Poitiers. In 735, the Aquitanian duke Hunald led a rebellion after his father Eudes's death, at which Charles responded by sending an expedition that captured and plundered Bordeaux again, but did not retain it for long.
The following year, the Frankish commander descended again to Aquitaine, but clashed in battle with the Aquitanians and left to take on hostile Burgundian authorities and magnates. In 745, Aquitaine faced yet another expedition by Charles's sons Pepin and Carloman, against Hunald, the Aquitanian princeps strong in Bordeaux. Hunald was defeated, his son Waifer replaced him, confirmed Bordeaux as the capital city. During the last stage of the war against Aquitaine, it was one of Waifer's last important strongholds to fall to King Pepin the Short's troops. Next to Bordeaux, Charlemagne built the fortress of Fronsac on a hill across the border with the Basques, where Basque commanders came over to vow loyalty to him. In 778, Seguin was appointed count of Bordeaux undermining the power of the Duke Lupo, leading to the Battle of Roncevaux Pass that year. In 814, Seguin was made Duke of Vasconia, but he was deposed in 816 for failing to suppress or sympathise with a Basque rebellion. Under the Carolingians, sometimes the Counts of Bordeaux held the title concomitantly with that of Duke of Vasconia.
They were meant to keep the Basques in check and defend the mouth of the Garonne from the Vikings when the latter appeared c. 844 in the region of Bordeaux. In Autumn 845, count Seguin II marched on the Vikings, who were assaulting Bordeaux and Saintes, but he was captured and executed. No bishops were mentioned during part of the 9th in Bordeaux. From the 12th to the 15th century, Bordeaux regained importance following the marriage of Duchess Eléonore of Aquitaine with the French-speaking Count Henri Plantagenet, born in Le Mans, who became, within months of their wedding, King Henry II of England; the city flourished due to the wine trade, the cathedral of St. André was built, it was the capital of an independent state under Edward, the Black Prince, but in the end, after the Battle of Castillon, it was annexed by France which extended its territory. The Château Trompette and the Fort du Hâ, built by Charles VII of France, were the symbols of the new domination, which however deprived the city of its wealth by halting the wine commerce with England.
In 1462, Bordeaux obtained a parliament, but regained importance only in the 16th century when it became the centre of the distribution of sugar and slaves from the West Indies along with the traditional wine. Bordeaux adhered to the Fronde
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and extending from 66 million years ago to the present day. The Cenozoic is known as the Age of Mammals, because the extinction of many groups allowed mammals to diversify so that large mammals dominated it; the continents moved into their current positions during this era. Early in the Cenozoic, following the K-Pg extinction event, most of the fauna was small, included small mammals, birds and amphibians. From a geological perspective, it did not take long for mammals and birds to diversify in the absence of the large reptiles that had dominated during the Mesozoic. A group of avians known as the "terror birds" grew larger than the average human and were formidable predators. Mammals came to occupy every available niche, some grew large, attaining sizes not seen in most of today's mammals; the Earth's climate had begun a drying and cooling trend, culminating in the glaciations of the Pleistocene Epoch, offset by the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.
Cenozoic, meaning "new life," is derived from Greek καινός kainós "new," and ζωή zōḗ "life." The era is known as the Cænozoic, Caenozoic, or Cainozoic. The name "Cenozoic" was proposed in 1840 by the British geologist John Phillips; the Cenozoic is divided into three periods: the Paleogene and Quaternary. The Quaternary Period was recognized by the International Commission on Stratigraphy in June 2009, the former term, Tertiary Period, became disused in 2004 due to the need to divide the Cenozoic into periods more like those of the earlier Paleozoic and Mesozoic eras; the common use of epochs during the Cenozoic helps paleontologists better organize and group the many significant events that occurred during this comparatively short interval of time. Knowledge of this era is more detailed than any other era because of the young, well-preserved rocks associated with it; the Paleogene spans from the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs, 66 million years ago, to the dawn of the Neogene, 23.03 million years ago.
It features three epochs: the Paleocene and Oligocene. The Paleocene epoch lasted from 66 million to 56 million years ago. Modern placental mammals originated during this time; the Paleocene is a transitional point between the devastation, the K-T extinction, to the rich jungle environment, the Early Eocene. The Early Paleocene saw the recovery of the earth; the continents began to take their modern shape, but all the continents and the subcontinent of India were separated from each other. Afro-Eurasia was separated by the Tethys Sea, the Americas were separated by the strait of Panama, as the isthmus had not yet formed; this epoch featured a general warming trend, with jungles reaching the poles. The oceans were dominated by sharks. Archaic mammals filled the world such as creodonts; the Eocene Epoch ranged from 56 million years to 33.9 million years ago. In the Early-Eocene, species living in dense forest were unable to evolve into larger forms, as in the Paleocene. There was nothing over the weight of 10 kilograms.
Among them were early primates and horses along with many other early forms of mammals. At the top of the food chains were huge birds, such as Paracrax; the temperature was 30 degrees Celsius with little temperature gradient from pole to pole. In the Mid-Eocene, the Circumpolar-Antarctic current between Australia and Antarctica formed; this disrupted ocean currents worldwide and as a result caused a global cooling effect, shrinking the jungles. This allowed mammals to grow to mammoth proportions, such as whales which, by that time, had become fully aquatic. Mammals like Andrewsarchus were at the top of the food-chain; the Late Eocene saw the rebirth of seasons, which caused the expansion of savanna-like areas, along with the evolution of grass. The end of the Eocene was marked by the Eocene-Oligocene extinction event, the European face of, known as the Grande Coupure; the Oligocene Epoch spans from 33.9 million to 23.03 million years ago. The Oligocene featured the expansion of grass which had led to many new species to evolve, including the first elephants, dogs and many other species still prevalent today.
Many other species of plants evolved in this period too. A cooling period featuring seasonal rains was still in effect. Mammals still continued to grow larger; the Neogene spans from 23.03 million to 2.58 million years ago. It features 2 epochs: the Miocene, the Pliocene; the Miocene epoch spans from 23.03 to 5.333 million years ago and is a period in which grass spread further, dominating a large portion of the world, at the expense of forests. Kelp forests evolved, encouraging the evolution such as sea otters. During this time, perissodactyla thrived, evolved into many different varieties. Apes evolved into 30 species; the Tethys Sea closed with the creation of the Arabian Peninsula, leaving only remnants as the Black, Red and Caspian Seas. This increased aridity. Many new plants evolved: 95% of modern seed plants evolved in the mid-Miocene; the Pliocene epoch lasted from 5.333 to 2.58 million years ago. The Pliocene featured dramatic climactic changes, which led to modern species and plants; the Mediterranean Sea dried up for several million years (because the ice ages reduced sea levels, disconnecting the Atlantic from