North East England
North East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It covers Northumberland, County Durham and Wear, the area of the former county of Cleveland in North Yorkshire; the region is home to three large conurbations: Teesside and Tyneside, the last of, the largest of the three and the eighth most populous conurbation in the United Kingdom. There are three cities in the region: Newcastle upon Tyne, the largest, with a population of just under 280,000. Other large towns include Darlington, Hartlepool, South Shields, Stockton-on-Tees and Washington; the region is hilly and sparsely populated in the North and West, urban and arable in the East and South. The highest point in the region is The Cheviot, in the Cheviot Hills, at 815 metres; the region contains the urban centres of Tyneside and Teesside, is noted for the rich natural beauty of its coastline, Northumberland National Park, the section of the Pennines that includes Teesdale and Weardale.
The regions historic importance is displayed by Northumberland's ancient castles, the two World Heritage Sites of Durham Cathedral and Durham Castle, Hadrian's Wall one of the frontiers of the Roman Empire. In fact, Roman archaeology can be found across the region and a special exhibition based around the Roman Fort of Segedunum at Wallsend and the other forts along Hadrian's Wall are complemented by the numerous artifacts that are displayed in the Great North Museum Hancock in Newcastle. St. Peter's Church in Monkwearmouth, Sunderland and St. Pauls in Jarrow hold significant historical value and have a joint bid to become a World Heritage Site; the area has a strong religious past, as can be seen in works such as the Lindisfarne Gospels and the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The work of the 7th-century Cuthbert and Hilda of Whitby were hugely influential in the early church, are still venerated by some today; these saints are associated with the monasteries on the island of Lindisfarne, Wearmouth – Jarrow, the Abbey at Whitby, though they are associated with many other religious sites in the region.
Bede is regarded as the greatest Anglo-Saxon scholar. He worked at the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow, translating some forty books on all areas of knowledge, including nature, astronomy and theological matters such as the lives of the saints, his best known work is "The Ecclesiastical History of the English People". One of the most famous pieces of art and literature created in the region is the Lindisfarne Gospels, are thought to be the work of a monk named Eadfrith, who became Bishop of Lindisfarne in 698; this body of work is thought to have been created in honour of Cuthbert, around 710–720. On 6 June 793 the Vikings arrived on the shores of north-east England with a raiding party from Norway who attacked the monastic settlement on Lindisfarne; the monks fled or were slaughtered, Bishop Higbald sought refuge on the mainland. A chronicler recorded: "On the 8th June, the harrying of the heathen miserably destroyed God's church by rapine and slaughter." There were three hundred years of Viking raids and settlement until William the Conqueror defeated King Harold at Hastings in 1066.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle notes the change from raiding to settlement when it records that in 876 the Vikings "Shared out the land of the Northumbrians and they proceeded to plough and support themselves" The Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria extended from the Scottish borders at the Firth of Forth to the north, to the south of York, its capital, down to the Humber. The last independent Northumbrian king from 947–8 was Eric Bloodaxe, who died at the Battle of Stainmore, Westmorland, in 954. After Eric Bloodaxe's death, all England was ruled by the grandson of Alfred the Great. Today the Viking legacy can still be found in the language and place names of north-east England and in the DNA of its people; the name Newcastle comes from the castle built shortly after the conquest in 1080 by Robert Curthose, William the Conqueror's eldest son. North East England has an oceanic climate with narrower temperature ranges than the south of England. Summers and winters are mild rather than hot or cold, due to the strong maritime influence of the North Atlantic Current of the Gulf Stream.
The Met Office operates several weather stations in the region and are able they show the regional variations in temperature and its relation to the distance from the North Sea. The warmest summers in the region are found in Stockton-on-Tees and the Middlesbrough area, with a 1981-2010 July average high of 20.4 °C. Precipitation is low by English standards, in spite of the low levels of sunshine, with Stockton-on-Tees averaging only 574.2 millimetres annually, with the seaside town of Tynemouth recording 597.2 millimetres annually. The summers on the northern coastlines are cooler than in the southern and central inland areas: Tynemouth is only just above 18 °C in July. Further inland, frosts during winter are more common, due to the higher elevations and distance from the sea. After more than 2,000 years of industrial activity as a result of abundant minerals such as salt and coal the chemical industry of the Northeast England is today spread across the whole of the region with pharmaceuticals being produced in the north of the region and fine chemicals spread across the middle of the region and commodity chemicals and petrochemicals on Teessi
Gosforth is an affluent, well established area of Newcastle upon Tyne, situated to the north of the city centre. Gosforth constituted an urban district from 1895 to 1974, when it became part of the City of Newcastle upon Tyne, it has a population of 23,620. There are three electoral wards that bear the Gosforth name: Dene and South Gosforth and West Gosforth, Gosforth. Modern-day Gosforth includes other wards such as Parklands; the origin of the area's name is thought to have come from the title Gese Ford, meaning "the ford over the Ouse", referring to a crossing over the local River Ouse or Ouseburn, but others think that it comes from the Old English Gosaford, meaning "a ford where the geese dwell", it is first recorded as Goseford in 1166. Richard Welford notes that the names of North and South Gosforth come from the north and south of the River Ouse. Gosforth is first mentioned in 1166, thus some think the settlement developed at this time and South Gosforth dates back past 1319, when it has been noted that the English Army retreated there from a siege on Berwick.
According to the 19th century publication, A Topographical Dictionary of England, the township of Gosforth was held of the crown by the Surtees family from 1100 to 1509, when it passed by marriage to Robert Brandling. In 1777, Gosforth contained 7 townships of North Gosforth, South Gosforth, Kenton, East Brunton and West Brunton. By order of the Local Government Board on 20 September 1872, the parishes of South Gosforth and Coxlodge were constituted into a district, governed by the South Gosforth Local Board. After the 1894 Local Government Act, it became the South Gosforth Urban District Council. A year by a Northumberland County Council order dated 14 March 1895, the title was changed again to Gosforth Urban District Council. On 15 July 1903, the District Council applied for an order from Northumberland County Council, to extend its boundaries to include the parishes of North Gosforth, East Brunton, West Brunton and the greater part of Kenton. On 9 September 1903, an inquiry was held into the Gosforth Scheme.
The parishes of Coxlodge and South Gosforth were amalgamated into the parish of Gosforth in 1908. Gosforth extended its boundaries after the County of Northumberland Review Order 1935, to include part of Castle Ward Rural District; this comprised parts of East Brunton and North Gosforth civil parishes. The Gosforth Urban District Council was abolished on 1 April 1974 to become part of the City of Newcastle Metropolitan Borough Council. In the 19th century, Gosforth was the location of a number of collieries, including Gosforth and Coxlodge Collieries. Gosforth Colliery was located in South Gosforth, while Coxlodge Colliery was west of the Great North Road. Coxlodge Colliery comprised three pits; the modern-day centre of Gosforth, straddling the Great North Road, originated in 1826 as a settlement known for several decades as Bulman Village. It consisted of a number of properties large enough to qualify occupiers for the franchise, built by the Bulman family in an attempt to provide voters for their cause in the 1826 elections.
A stone bearing the name'Bulman Village' survives and was incorporated in the façade of a building, the Halifax Bank building north of the Brandling Arms public house. The Blacksmith's Arms public house on Gosforth High Street stands on the site of the original blacksmith's forge. At the 2001 census there were 23,620 people living in Gosforth. In the 19th century Gosforth's population was deemed by the coal trade. In 1801 there were 1,385 inhabitants, most of whom lived in Kenton, were employed in the colliery there. In 1831 the population had risen to 3,546 due to the opening of the Fawdon and Coxlodge collieries. Between 1831 and 1871 the population only grew by a small amount to 3,723, due to the pits at Fawdon and Kenton having ceased to function. There have been a number of archaeological finds in Gosforth, with the earliest piece being a prehistoric flint flake, found in 1959. In 1863 a 2nd-century Greek Colonial coin was found in a garden in Bulman Village. A Roman altar was found in North Gosforth.
It has a large business complex called the Regent Centre, which houses organisations including HM Revenue & Customs. Gosforth's main high school is Gosforth Academy, some of the private schools in Gosforth are Westfield School and Newcastle School for Boys. St Nicholas Hospital is located in Gosforth, which houses the Jubilee Theatre, a Victorian Theatre built in 1899. Apart from South Gosforth, many residential districts of Gosforth are suffixed "Park". There is Bridge Park, Brunton Park, Gosforth Park, Grange Park, Greystoke Park, Grove Park, Kingston Park, Melton Park, Newcastle Great Park and Whitebridge Park. East of the Great North Road, Garden Village was developed on'garden suburb' lines in the 1920s to house workers at the nearby London & North Eastern Railway electric train depot. Areas of Gosforth have been used as a filming locations for television films. Gosforth Park was used as a location in 1971's Get Carter and Whitebridge Park, used in an episode of Wire in the Blood. Melton Park has the ruins of a chapel which dates back to late Norman times.
Brunton Park is a neighbouring estate to the Newcastle Great Park. The oldest parts in the estate have existed since the early 1930s; the rest of the estate was built during the 1950s. It contains a number of local convenience sho
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Team Valley is a trading estate in Gateshead in Tyne and Wear, England. It is home to the Retail World retail park, many large international companies are based in the area's trading estate. In 2017 there were 700 companies on the estate, each day 20,000 people travel to Team Valley; the residential area known as the Teams is adjacent to Dunston. In the 1930s the Government decided to spend nearly £2m on this part of Gateshead establishing the Team Valley Trading Estate as a well-planned industrial environment; the architect in charge was William Holford with Hugh Beaver as chief engineer. It included a central headquarters, now used by English Partnerships, a bank, a post office and, some modestly scaled industrial buildings as well as some smaller industrial units for start-up ventures; these facilities were laid out along a wide central artery, known as'Kingsway' two miles long. Work on the estate began in May 1936 and the first factory opened in October that year; the construction, undertaken by Wimpey Construction, took several years and was completed in 1938.
Many of the older residents of Gateshead were involved in the building of the original team valley. The estate was opened by King George VI on 22 February 1939; the southern end used to be the location of the National Coal Board's regional headquarters but after the closure of the mines in the area this was replaced by a Safeway supermarket, now owned by Sainsbury's. The River Team runs directly through the centre of the trading estate, hidden in a culvert. Although the Team Valley Trading Estate predates the road by several decades, it is now bordered on the West by the A1 road, has two junctions at both the north and south ends. A dual carriageway runs the length of the trading estate between the two A1 road junctions; the worsening congestion and the lack of scope for improving the A1 has led to the Highways Agency using the provisions of Article 14 of the Town and Country Planning Order 1995 to restrict additional development taking place on Team Valley. The North East Chamber of Commerce and two local newspapers have launched a campaign against these restrictions, entitled "Go for Jobs".
To the East it is bordered by the East Coast Main Line, the main railway between London and Edinburgh via Newcastle. Until 1952, the Trading Estate was served by Low Fell railway station; the nearest heavy rail station is in Newcastle, while the Tyne and Wear Metro is accessible at Gateshead Interchange. Bus services are provided by Go North East with most operating to and from Gateshead Interchange. White, Valerie. Wimpey: The first hundred years. George Wimpey
Benwell and Scotswood
Benwell and Scotswood is an electoral ward of Newcastle upon Tyne in North East England. The ward encompasses the Benwell and Scotswood housing areas, as well as the Newcastle Business Park, located on the banks of the River Tyne and houses offices of companies such as British Airways and the Automobile Association; the population of the ward is 13,759, 5.3% of the total population of Newcastle upon Tyne. Car ownership in the area is 45.1%, lower than the city average of 54.7%. The 2011 Census gave a population of 12,694. Scotswood grew during the industrial revolution and provided labour for the huge Vickers Armstrong military engineering group Armstrong Whitworth. Scotswood Road, which Vickers Armstrong used to dominate, is a main route along the Tyne and is mentioned in the song "Blaydon Races"; the Scotswood Bridge, known as the Chain Bridge, was the first bridge to be built over the Tyne in the industrial era. It opened in 1831 and was in use until 1967 when it had been superseded by a more modern structure, was hence demolished.
Benwell and Scotswood were both sites of a number of coalmines. On 30 March 1925 the Montague Main Colliery Disaster occurred, caused by an inrush of water from the nearby disused Paradise Pit and resulting in the loss of 38 lives. Scotswood railway station was served by the Newcastle and Carlisle Railway between 1839 and 1967; the Fenham and Benwell district formed an independent urban district, incorporated into the City of Newcastle upon Tyne in 1904. The site came to attention in December 1968 for being the scene when two young boys Martin Brown, aged 4 and Brian Howe, aged 3, were found dead, after being strangled to death by Mary Bell; the boundary of the Benwell and Scotswood ward starts at the West Road/A1 roundabout southbound along the A1 to the River Tyne east to the Scotswood Road and William Armstrong Drive junction. Northbound, the boundary continues along St Johns Road to Elswick Road; the boundary heads west onto Adelaide Terrace to the Hodgkin Park Road junction and continues north to the rear of the allotment gardens and Lismore Place.
The boundary moves to the west behind Denhill Park properties to Pendower Hall School and follows the school's eastern perimeter north to the West Road to the A1. The ward has two nursery schools, six primary schools, one comprehensive secondary school and a school for children with specific needs; the ward has both the West End Library and Denton Burn Library, which have computers with free internet access. The West End library holds the West Newcastle Picture History Collection of around 17,000 images of the West End, some taken by Jimmy Forsyth. Benwell Nature Park and Denton Dene South are located within the ward. Scotswood Leisure Centre hosts fitness classes; the ward contains three pieces of Play Provision, provided by Newcastle Play Service. These are the Lillia Play Sessions, held at the Lillia Youth Centre and two playcentres: Scotswood Playcentre and Benwell Playcentre; these provide free open access sessions five days a week to children 5-12. Scotswood Natural Community garden was awarded a Green Flag Community Award.
In 2012 a Sculpture Trail was created which involved the creation of four sculptures by artists working with local community groups. West End RFC is a local amateur rugby club; the ward has 6,411 housing spaces, 6.4% being vacant, higher than the city average of 5.3%. Owner-occupied properties stand at 46.9% lower than the city average of 53.3%. The properties are as follows: Newcastle Council Ward Info: Benwell and Scotswood Newcastle Council 2001 census
In music, a drone is a harmonic or monophonic effect or accompaniment where a note or chord is continuously sounded throughout most or all of a piece. The word drone is any part of a musical instrument, used to produce such an effect, as is the archaic term burden such as a "drone of a bagpipe", the pedal point in an organ, or the lowest course of a lute. Α burden is part of a song, repeated at the end of each stanza, such as the chorus or refrain. "Of all harmonic devices, it is not only the simplest, but also the most fertile."A drone effect can be achieved through a sustained sound or through repetition of a note. It most establishes a tonality upon which the rest of the piece is built. A drone can be vocal or both. Drone can be placed in different ranges of the polyphonic texture: in the lowest part, in the highest part, or in the middle; the drone is most placed upon the tonic or dominant. A drone on the same pitch as a melodic note tends to both hide that note and to bring attention to it by increasing its importance.
A drone differs from a pedal point in degree or quality. A pedal point may be a form of nonchord tone and thus required to resolve unlike a drone, or a pedal point may be considered a shorter drone, a drone being a longer pedal point; the systematic use of drones originated in instrumental music of ancient Southwest Asia, spread north and west to Europe, east to India, south to Africa. It is a key component of much Australian aboriginal music through the didgeridoo, it is used in Indian music and is played with the tanpura and other Indian drone instruments like the ottu, the ektar, the dotara, the surpeti, the surmandal and the shankh. Most of the types of bagpipes that exist worldwide have up to three drones, making this one of the first instruments that comes to mind when speaking of drone music. In America, most forms of the African-influenced banjo contain a drone string. Since the 1960s, the drone has become a prominent feature in drone music and other forms of avant-garde music. In vocal music drone is widespread in traditional musical cultures in Europe and Melanesia.
"Drones are not uncommon in primitive music, but neither are they characteristic of it." It is present in some isolated regions of Asia. Drone is the term for the part of a musical instrument intended to produce the drone effect's sustained pitch without the ongoing attention of the player. Different melodic Indian instruments contain a drone. For example, the sitar features three or four resonating drone strings, Indian notes are practiced to a drone. Bagpipes feature a number of drone pipes. A hurdy-gurdy has one or more drone strings; the fifth string on a five-string banjo is a drone string with a separate tuning peg that places the end of the string five frets down the neck of the instrument. The bass strings of the Slovenian drone zither freely resonate as a drone; the Welsh Crwth features two drone strings. Composers of Western classical music used a drone to evoke a rustic or archaic atmosphere echoing that of Scottish or other early or folk music. Examples include the following: Symphony No.
104, "London", opening of finale, accompanying a folk melody. Beethoven, Symphony No. 6, "Pastoral", opening and trio section of scherzo. Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 3 in A minor, opus 56,'Scottish' the finale. Chopin, Mazurkas: all five contain a drone. Berlioz, Harold in Italy, accompanying oboes as they imitate the piffero of Italian peasants Richard Strauss, Also sprach Zarathustra, Introduction: the opening grows out of a drone effect in the orchestra. Mahler, Symphony No. 1, introduction. Bartók, in his adaptations for piano of Hungarian and other folk music; the best-known drone piece in the concert repertory is the Prelude to Wagner's Das Rheingold wherein low horns and bass instruments sustain an E♭ throughout the entire movement. The atmospheric ostinato effect that opens Beethoven's Ninth Symphony, which inspired similar gestures in the opening of all the symphonies of Anton Bruckner, represents a gesture derivative of drones. One consideration for composers of common practice keyboard music was equal temperament.
The adjustments lead to slight mistunings. So, drones have been used to spotlight dissonance purposefully. Modern concert musicians make frequent use of drones with just or other non-equal tempered tunings. Drones are a regular feature in the music of composers indebted to the chant tradition, such as Arvo Pärt, Sofia Gubaidulina, John Tavener; the single-tones that provided the impetus for minimalism through the music of La Monte Young and many of his students qualify as drones. David First, the band Coil, the early experimental compilations of John Cale, Pauline Oliveros and Stuart Dempster, Alvin Lucier (Music On A Long Thin Wi
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri