Espionage or spying is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information. Spies help agencies uncover secret information. Any individual or spy ring, in the service of a government, company or independent operation, can commit espionage; the practice is clandestine, as it is by definition unwelcome and in many cases illegal and punishable by law. Espionage is a method of intelligence gathering which includes information gathering from public sources. Espionage is part of an institutional effort by a government or commercial concern. However, the term tends to be associated with state spying on potential or actual enemies for military purposes. Spying involving corporations is known as industrial espionage. One of the most effective ways to gather data and information about the enemy is by infiltrating the enemy's ranks; this is the job of the spy. Spies can return information concerning the strength of enemy forces, they can find dissidents within the enemy's forces and influence them to defect.
In times of crisis, spies sabotage the enemy in various ways. Counterintelligence is the practice of thwarting enemy intelligence-gathering. All nations have strict laws concerning espionage and the penalty for being caught is severe. However, the benefits gained through espionage are so great that most governments and many large corporations make use of it. Information collection techniques used in the conduct of clandestine human intelligence include operational techniques, asset recruiting, tradecraft. Today, espionage agencies target terrorists as well as state actors. Since 2008, the United States has charged at least 57 defendants for attempting to spy for China. Intelligence services value certain intelligence collection techniques over others; the former Soviet Union, for example, preferred human sources over research in open sources, while the United States has tended to emphasize technological methods such as SIGINT and IMINT. In the Soviet Union, both political and military intelligence officers were judged by the number of agents they recruited.
Espionage agents are trained experts in a targeted field so they can differentiate mundane information from targets of value to their own organizational development. Correct identification of the target at its execution is the sole purpose of the espionage operation. Broad areas of espionage targeting expertise include: Natural resources: strategic production identification and assessment. Agents are found among bureaucrats who administer these resources in their own countries Popular sentiment towards domestic and foreign policies. Agents recruited from field journalistic crews, exchange postgraduate students and sociology researchers Strategic economic strengths. Agents recruited from science and technology academia, commercial enterprises, more from among military technologists Military capability intelligence. Agents are trained by military espionage education facilities, posted to an area of operation with covert identities to minimize prosecution Counterintelligence operations targeting opponents' intelligence services themselves, such as breaching confidentiality of communications, recruiting defectors or moles Although the news media may speak of "spy satellites" and the like, espionage is not a synonym for all intelligence-gathering disciplines.
It is a specific form of human source intelligence. Codebreaking, aircraft or satellite photography, research in open publications are all intelligence gathering disciplines, but none of them is considered espionage. Many HUMINT activities, such as prisoner interrogation, reports from military reconnaissance patrols and from diplomats, etc. are not considered espionage. Espionage is the disclosure of sensitive information to people who are not cleared for that information or access to that sensitive information. Unlike other forms of intelligence collection disciplines, espionage involves accessing the place where the desired information is stored or accessing the people who know the information and will divulge it through some kind of subterfuge. There are exceptions to physical meetings, such as the Oslo Report, or the insistence of Robert Hanssen in never meeting the people who bought his information; the US defines espionage towards itself as "The act of obtaining, transmitting, communicating, or receiving information about the national defense with an intent, or reason to believe, that the information may be used to the injury of the United States or to the advantage of any foreign nation".
Black's Law Dictionary defines espionage as: "... gathering, transmitting, or losing... information related to the national defense". Espionage is a violation of United States law, 18 U. S. C. §§ 792–798 and Article 106a of the Uniform Code of Military Justice". The United States, like most nations, conducts espionage against other nations, under the control of the National Clandestine Service. Britain's espionage activities are controlled by the Secret Intelligence Service. A spy is a person employed to seek out top secret information from a source. Within the United States Intelligence Community, "asset" is a more common usage. A case officer or Special Agent, who may have diplomatic status and directs the human collector. Cutouts are couriers who do not know the case officer but transfer messages. A
Diocese of Asia
The Diocese of Asia was a diocese of the Roman Empire, incorporating the provinces of western Asia Minor and the islands of the eastern Aegean Sea. The diocese was established after the reforms of Diocletian, was subordinate to the Praetorian prefecture of the East, was abolished during the reforms of Justinian I in 535, it was one of the most populous and wealthy dioceses of the Empire, included 11 provinces: Asia, Pamphylia, Lydia, Lycaonia, Phrygia Pacatiana, Phrygia Salutaria and Insulae. Flavius Ablabius Tertullianus Veronicianus Scylacius Anatolius Araxius Germanus Italicianus Caesarius Clearchus Auxonius Musonius
Diocese of the East
The Diocese of the East or Diocese of Oriens was a diocese of the Roman Empire, incorporating the provinces of the western Middle East, between the Mediterranean Sea and Mesopotamia. During late Antiquity, it was one of the major commercial, agricultural and intellectual areas of the empire, its strategic location facing the Sassanid Empire and the unruly desert tribes gave it exceptional military importance; the capital of the diocese was at Antioch, its governor had the special title of comes Orientis instead of the ordinary "vicarius". The diocese was established after the reforms of Diocletian, was subordinate to the praetorian prefecture of the East; the diocese included all Middle Eastern provinces of the Empire: Isauria, Cyprus, Mesopotamia, Syria Coele, Palaestina Prima, Palaestina Secunda and the Egyptian provinces Aegyptus, Thebais, Libya Superior and Libya Inferior, which were grouped into the separate Diocese of Egypt under Valens. During the course of the 4th century, several provinces were split, resulting in the new provinces of Cilicia I and Cilicia II, Syria I and Syria II Salutaris, Phoenice I and Phoenice II Libanensis, Palaestina I, Palaestina II and Palaestina Salutaris.
The last creation of a new province dated in the reign of Justinian I, when Theodorias, the region around Laodicea, was split off from Syria I. At about the same time, Cyprus was split off and became part of a new super-province, the quaestura exercitus. In 535, as part of his administrative reforms, Justinian I abolished the diocese, the comes Orientis became the provincial governor of Syria I, while retaining his previous rank of vir spectabilis and his salary; the entire area of the former diocese came under Sassanid Persian occupation in the 610s and 620s, during the Byzantine–Sassanid War of 602–628. Shortly after the Byzantine victory in the war and the recovery of the region, it was again lost, this time permanently, to the Muslim conquests: by the 640s, Cilicia formed the border between Byzantium and the new Arab Caliphate, while Cyprus became a disputed territory. From the old provinces of the Diocese of the East, only Isauria and parts of the two Cilicias remained under Byzantine rule, grouped under the new Anatolic Theme.
Lollianus Mavortius Felicianus Nebridius Domitius Modestus Iulianus Aradius Rufinus Eutolmius Tatianus Tuscianus Flavius Eparchius Philagrius Proculus Icarius Irenaeus Ephraim of Amida Asterius Bacchus Bonosus
Praetorian prefecture of Illyricum
The praetorian prefecture of Illyricum was one of four praetorian prefectures into which the Late Roman Empire was divided. The administrative centre of the prefecture was Sirmium, after 379, Thessalonica, it took its name from the older province of Illyricum, which in turn was named after ancient Illyria, in its greatest expanse encompassed Pannonia, Noricum and most of the Balkan peninsula except for Thrace. Unlike the other three "classical" prefectures that are mentioned in the Notitia Dignitatum, the early administrative history of Illyricum as a prefecture during the 4th century involved its abolition, re-establishment and division several times; the territories comprising the praetorian prefecture of Illyricum belonged to the Prefecture of Italy and Africa. It was as established as a praetorian prefecture in its own right during the dynastic struggles between the sons of Constantine the Great which followed his death in 337, it seems that the three dioceses of Macedonia and Pannonia were first grouped together in a separate praetorian prefecture in 347 by Constans by removing them from the praetorian prefecture of Italy and Illyricum or that this praetorian prefecture was formed in 343 when Constans appointed a prefect for Italy.
It remained in existence until 361, when it was abolished by emperor Julian, revived under Gratian between 375-379. In that year the Diocese of Pannonia was again added to Italy as the "Diocese of Illyricum", while Macedonia and Dacia were ruled directly by Theodosius I from Thessalonica. During the years 384-395 they were again incorporated in the Italian prefecture, except a short period in 388-391, when the two dioceses formed a separate prefecture. Only after the death of Theodosius in 395 and the division of the Empire did the Illyricum assume the permanent form which appears in the Notitia, incorporating the dioceses of Macedonia and Dacia, with Thessalonica as capital. However, the Western Empire during the regency of Stilicho, continued claim them until 437 when, as part of the dowry of Licinia Eudoxia, Valentinian III recognized the East's sovereignty over the prefecture. On this occasion, it appears that the prefecture's capital was to Sirmium, but the move is debated, as the northern Balkans were at the time ravaged by invasions.
The intention of Justinian I to move the capital to his new city of Justiniana Prima in the 540s remained unfulfilled. Following the Slavic invasions in the 7th century, most of the Balkan hinterland was lost by the Byzantines, who only retained control of the parts of Thrace nearest Constantinople and its environs, some coastal strips in Greece. A praetorian prefect is attested in the sources as governor of Thessalonica as late as the first years of the 9th century, one of the last survivals of the old Constantinian administrative system in the entire Empire. At that point however, the wars with the rising power of Bulgaria necessitated a reorganization of the provinces, Thessalonica was constituted as a distinct theme under a strategos sometime before 840. Vulcacius Rufinus Quintus Flavius Maesius Egnatius Lollianus Mavortius Anatolius Florentius Sextus Claudius Petronius Probus Quintus Clodius Hermogenianus Olybrius Vettius Agorius Praetextatus Flavius Eutychianus Anatolius Herculius Leontius Flavius Junius Quartus Palladius Gessius Flavius Anthemius Isidorus Flavius Simplicius Reginus Eubulus Thalassius Apraeumius Eulogius Valentinianus Callicrates Iohannes Basilides Notitia dignitatum Bury, John B.
A history of the Eastern Roman empire from the fall of Irene to the accession of Basil I. London: Macmillan and Co. Janković, Đorđe. "The Slavs in the 6th Century North Illyricum". Гласник Српског археолошког друштва. 20: 39–61. Kazhdan, Alexander, ed. Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-504652-6 Morrison, Cécile, ed. Le Monde Byzantin I - L'Empire romain d'orient, Athens: Polis Editions, ISBN 978-960-435-134-3 The Times History of Europe, Times Books, London, 2001. Map - The Roman Empire in 337
The Byzantine Empire referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed.
Under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Thus, although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity; the borders of the empire evolved over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I, the empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries; the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 exhausted the empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, when it lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arab caliphate. During the Macedonian dynasty, the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia. The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration, by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence, its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 ended the Byzantine Empire; the last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years in the 1461 Siege of Trebizond. The first use of the term "Byzantine" to label the years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources.
The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts; the publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, in 1680 of Du Cange's Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of "Byzantine" among French authors, such as Montesquieu. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world; the Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the "Roman Empire", the "Empire of the Romans", "Romania", the "Roman Republic", as "Rhōmais". The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and as late as the 19th century Greeks referred to Modern Greek as Romaiika "Romaic." After 1204 when the Byzantine Empire was confined to its purely Greek provinces the term'Hellenes' was used instead. While the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its predominant Greek element.
The occasional use of the term "Empire of the Greeks" in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum were used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more straightforwardly seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known as Rûm; the name millet-i Rûm, or "Roman nation," was used by the Ottomans through the 20th century to refer to the former subjects of the Byzantine Empire
Leo III the Isaurian
Leo III the Isaurian known as the Syrian, was Byzantine Emperor from 717 until his death in 741 who founded the Isaurian dynasty. He put an end to the Twenty Years' Anarchy, a period of great instability in the Byzantine Empire between 695 and 717, marked by the rapid succession of several emperors to the throne, he successfully defended the Empire against the invading Umayyads and forbade the veneration of icons. Leo, whose original name was Konon, was born in Germanikeia in the Syrian province of Commagene. Some, including the Byzantine chronicler Theophanes, have claimed that Konon's family had been resettled in Thrace, where he entered the service of Emperor Justinian II, when the latter was advancing on Constantinople with an army of loyalist followers, horsemen provided by Tervel of Bulgaria in 705. After the victory of Justinian II, Konon was dispatched on a diplomatic mission to Alania and Lazica to organize an alliance against the Umayyad Caliphate under Al-Walid I. Konon was appointed commander of the Anatolic theme by Emperor Anastasius II.
On his deposition, Konon joined with his colleague Artabasdus, the stratēgos of the Armeniac theme, in conspiring to overthrow the new Emperor Theodosius III. Artabasdus was betrothed to daughter of Leo as part of the agreement. Leo entered Constantinople on 25 March 717 and forced the abdication of Theodosios III, becoming emperor as Leo III; the new Emperor was forced to attend to the Second Arab siege of Constantinople, which commenced in August of the same year. The Arabs were Umayyad forces sent by Caliph Sulayman ibn Abd al-Malik and serving under his brother Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik, they had taken advantage of the civil discord in the Byzantine Empire to bring a force of 80,000 to 150,000 men and a massive fleet to the Bosphorus. Careful preparations, begun three years earlier under Anastasius II, the stubborn resistance put up by Leo wore out the invaders. An important factor in the victory of the Byzantines was their use of Greek fire; the Arab forces fell victim to Bulgarian reinforcements arriving to aid the Byzantines.
Leo was allied with the Bulgarians but the chronicler Theophanes the Confessor was uncertain if they were still serving under Tervel of Bulgaria or his eventual successor Kormesiy of Bulgaria. Unable to continue the siege in the face of the Bulgarian onslaught, the impenetrability of Constantinople's walls, their own exhausted provisions, the Arabs were forced to abandon the siege in August, 718. Sulayman himself had died the previous year and his successor Umar II would not attempt another siege; the siege had lasted 12 months. Having thus preserved the Empire from extinction, Leo proceeded to consolidate its administration, which in the previous years of anarchy had become disorganized. In 718 he suppressed a rebellion in Sicily and in 719 did the same on behalf of the deposed Emperor Anastasios II. Leo secured the Empire's frontiers by inviting Slavic settlers into the depopulated districts and by restoring the army to efficiency, his military efforts were supplemented by his alliances with the Khazars and the Georgians.
Leo undertook a set of civil reforms including the abolition of the system of prepaying taxes which had weighed upon the wealthier proprietors, the elevation of the serfs into a class of free tenants and the remodelling of family, maritime law and criminal law, notably substituting mutilation for the death penalty in many cases. The new measures, which were embodied in a new code called the Ecloga, published in 726, met with some opposition on the part of the nobles and higher clergy; the Emperor undertook some reorganization of the theme structure by creating new themata in the Aegean region. Leo's most striking legislative reforms dealt with religious matters iconoclasm. After an successful attempt to enforce the baptism of all Jews and Montanists in the empire, he issued a series of edicts against the veneration of images; this prohibition of a custom, in use for centuries seems to have been inspired by a genuine desire to improve public morality, received the support of the official aristocracy and a section of the clergy.
A majority of the theologians and all the monks opposed these measures with uncompromising hostility, in the western parts of the Empire the people refused to obey the edict. A revolt which broke out in Greece on religious grounds, was crushed by the imperial fleet in 727. In 730, Patriarch Germanos I of Constantinople resigned rather than subscribe to an iconoclastic decree. Leo had him replaced by Anastasios, thus Leo suppressed the overt opposition of the capital. In the Italian Peninsula, the defiant attitude of Popes Gregory II and Gregory III on behalf of image-veneration led to a fierce quarrel with the Emperor; the former summoned councils in Rome to excommunicate the iconoclasts. The struggle was accompanied by an armed outbreak in the exarchate of Ravenna in 727, which Leo endeavoured to subdue by means of a large fleet, but the destruction of the armament by a storm decided the issue against him.
Intelligence assessment is the development of behavior forecasts or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organisation, based on wide ranges of available overt and covert information. Assessments develop in response to leadership declaration requirements to inform decision making. Assessment may be executed on behalf of a state, military or commercial organisation with ranges of information sources available to each. An intelligence assessment reviews available information and previous assessments for relevance and currency. Where there requires additional information, the analyst may direct some collection. Intelligence studies is the academic field concerning intelligence assessment relating to international relations and military science. Intelligence assessment is based on a customer requirement or need, which may be a standing requirement or tailored to a specific circumstance or a Request for Information; the "requirement" is passed to the assessing agency and worked through the intelligence cycle, a structured method for responding to the RFI.
The RFI may indicate. The RFI is reviewed by a Requirements Manager, who will direct appropriate tasks to respond to the request; this will involve a review of existing material, the tasking of new analytical product or the collection of new information to inform an analysis. New information may be collected through one or more of the various collection disciplines; the nature of the RFI and the urgency placed on it may indicate that some collection types are unsuitable due to the time taken to collect or validate the information gathered. Intelligence gathering disciplines and the sources and methods used are highly classified and compartmentalised, with analysts requiring an appropriate high level of security clearance; the process of taking known information about situations and entities of importance to the RFI, characterizing what is known and attempting to forecast future events is termed "all source" assessment, analysis or processing. The analyst uses multiple sources to mutually corroborate, or exclude, the information collected, reaching a conclusion along with a measure of confidence around that conclusion.
Where sufficient current information exists, the analysis may be tasked directly without reference to further collection. The analysis is communicated back to the requester in the format directed, although subject to the constraints on both the RFI and the methods used in the analysis, the format may be made available for other uses as well and disseminated accordingly; the analysis will be written to a defined classification level with alternative versions available at a number of classification levels for further dissemination. This approach, known as Find-Fix-Finish-Exploit-Assess, is complementary to the intelligence cycle and focused on the intervention itself, where the subject of the assessment is identifiable and provisions exist to make some form of intervention against that subject, the target-centric assessment approach may be used; the subject for action, or target, is identified and efforts are made to find the target for further development. This activity will identify where intervention against the target will have the most beneficial effects.
When the decision is made to intervene, action is taken to fix the target, confirming that the intervention will have a high probability of success and restricting the ability of the target to take independent action. During the finish stage, the intervention is executed an arrest or detention or the placement of other collection methods. Following the intervention, exploitation of the target is carried out, which may lead to further refinement of the process for related targets; the output from the exploit stage will be passed into other intelligence assessment activities. Intelligence cycle List of intelligence gathering disciplines Military intelligence Surveillance Threat assessment Futures studies SurveysAndrew, Christopher. For the President's Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington to Bush Black and Morris, Benny Israel's Secret Wars: A History of Israel's Intelligence Services Bungert, Heike et al. eds. Secret Intelligence in the Twentieth Century essays by scholars Dulles, Allen W.
The Craft of Intelligence: America's Legendary Spy Master on the Fundamentals of Intelligence Gathering for a Free World Kahn, David The Codebreakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet, 1200 pages Lerner, K. Lee and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, eds. Encyclopedia of Espionage and Security, 1100 pages. 850 articles, strongest on technology Odom, Gen. William E. Fixing Intelligence: For a More Secure America, Second Edition O'Toole, George. Honorable Treachery: A History of U. S. Intelligence, Covert Action from the American Revolution to the CIA Owen, David. Hidden Secrets: A Complete History of Espionage and the Technology Used to Support It, popular Richelson, Jeffery T. A Century of Spies: Intelligence in the Twentieth Century Richelson, Jeffery T; the U. S. Intelligence Community Shulsky, Abram N. and Schmitt, Gary J. "Silent Warfare: Understanding the World of Intelligence", 285 pages West, Nigel. MI6: British Secret Intelligence Service Operations 1909–1945 West, Nigel.
Secret War: The Story of SOE, Britain's Wartime Sabotage Organization Wohlstetter, Roberta. Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision World War IBeesly, Patrick. Room 40.. Covers the breaking of German codes by RN intelligence