Richard Milhous Nixon was an American politician who served as the 37th president of the United States from 1969 to 1974. He had served as the 36th vice president of the United States from 1953 to 1961, prior to that as both a U. S. representative and senator from California. Nixon was born in California. After completing his undergraduate studies at Whittier College, he graduated from Duke University School of Law in 1937 and returned to California to practice law, he and his wife Pat moved to Washington in 1942 to work for the federal government. He subsequently served on active duty in the U. S. Navy Reserve during World War II. Nixon was elected to the House of Representatives in 1946 and to the Senate in 1950, his pursuit of the Hiss Case established his reputation as a leading anti-communist and elevated him to national prominence. He was the running mate of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the Republican Party presidential nominee in the 1952 election. Nixon served for eight years as Vice President, becoming the second-youngest vice president in history at age 40.
He waged an unsuccessful presidential campaign in 1960, narrowly losing to John F. Kennedy, lost a race for governor of California to Pat Brown in 1962. In 1968, he ran for the presidency again and was elected, defeating incumbent Vice President Hubert Humphrey. Nixon ended American involvement in the war in Vietnam in 1973 and brought the American POWs home, ended the military draft. Nixon's visit to China in 1972 led to diplomatic relations between the two nations and he initiated détente and the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty with the Soviet Union the same year, his administration transferred power from Washington D. C. to the states. He imposed wage and price controls for ninety days, enforced desegregation of Southern schools, established the Environmental Protection Agency and began the War on Cancer. Nixon presided over the Apollo 11 moon landing, which signaled the end of the moon race, he was reelected in one of the largest electoral landslides in U. S. history in 1972 when he defeated George McGovern.
In his second term, Nixon ordered an airlift to resupply Israeli losses in the Yom Kippur War, resulting in the restart of the Middle East peace process and an oil crisis at home. The Nixon administration supported a coup in Chile that ousted the government of Salvador Allende and propelled Augusto Pinochet to power. By late 1973, the Watergate scandal escalated. On August 9, 1974, he resigned in the face of certain impeachment and removal from office—the only time a U. S. president has done so. After his resignation, he was issued a controversial pardon by Gerald Ford. In 20 years of retirement, Nixon wrote nine books and undertook many foreign trips, helping to rehabilitate his image into that of an elder statesman, he suffered a debilitating stroke on April 18, 1994 and died four days at the age of 81. Richard Milhous Nixon was born on January 9, 1913 in Yorba Linda, California, in a house, built by his father, his parents were Francis A. Nixon, his mother was a Quaker, his father converted from Methodism to the Quaker faith.
Nixon was a descendant of the early American settler, Thomas Cornell, an ancestor of Ezra Cornell, the founder of Cornell University, as well as of Jimmy Carter and Bill Gates. Nixon's upbringing was marked by evangelical Quaker observances of the time, such as refraining from alcohol and swearing. Nixon had four brothers: Harold, Donald and Edward. Four of the five Nixon boys were named after kings who had ruled in legendary Britain. Nixon's early life was marked by hardship, he quoted a saying of Eisenhower to describe his boyhood: "We were poor, but the glory of it was we didn't know it"; the Nixon family ranch failed in 1922, the family moved to Whittier, California. In an area with many Quakers, Frank Nixon opened a grocery gas station. Richard's younger brother. At the age of twelve, a spot was found on Richard's lung, with a family history of tuberculosis, he was forbidden to play sports; the spot was found to be scar tissue from an early bout of pneumonia. Young Richard attended East Whittier Elementary School, where he was president of his eighth-grade class.
His parents believed that attending Whittier High School had caused Richard's older brother Harold to live a dissolute lifestyle before he fell ill of tuberculosis, so they sent Richard to the larger Fullerton Union High School. He had to ride a school bus for an hour each way during his freshman year, he received excellent grades, he lived with an aunt in Fullerton during the week. He played junior varsity football, missed a practice though he was used in games, he had greater success as a debater, winning a number of championships and taking his only formal tutelage in public speaking from Fullerton's Head of English, H. Lynn Sheller. Nixon remembered Sheller's words, "Remember, speaking is conversation... don't shout at people. Talk to them. Converse with them." Nixon stated. At the start of his junior year beginning in September 1928, Richard's parents permitted him to transfer to Whittier High School. At Whittier High, Nixon suffered his first electoral defeat, for student body president, he rose at 4 a.m. to drive the family truck into Los Angeles and purchase vegetables at the market.
He drove to the store to wash and display them, befo
Space Weather Prediction Center
The Space Weather Prediction Center, named the Space Environment Center until 2007, is a laboratory and service center of the US National Weather Service, part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, located in Boulder, Colorado. SWPC continually monitors and forecasts Earth's space environment, providing solar-terrestrial information. SWPC is warnings for the United States; the Space Weather Prediction Center is one of the nine National Centers for Environmental Prediction and provides real-time monitoring and forecasting of solar and geophysical events, conducts research in solar-terrestrial physics, develops techniques for forecasting solar and geophysical disturbances. The SWPC Forecast Center is jointly operated by NOAA and the U. S. Air Force and is the national and world warning center for disturbances that can affect people and equipment working in the space environment. SWPC works with many international partners who contribute data and observations. A few of the agencies and industry that rely on SWPC services: U.
S. power grid infrastructure Commercial airline industry Department of Transportation NASA human space flight activities Satellite launch and operations U. S. Air Force operational support Commercial and public users The Federal Aviation Administration requires dispatchers to take into consideration HF communication degradation for each dispatched polar flight. Flights can be diverted based on SWPC solar radiation alerts if air traffic control communication is compromised, with estimated costs as high as $100K per flight. A 23-day period in 2001 saw 25 flights diverted due to such radio blackouts. Coronal mass ejection Spaceflight Meteorology Group Boulder Geomagnetic Observatory Space Weather Prediction Center
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
National Technical Information Service
The National Technical Information Service is an agency within the U. S. Department of Commerce; the primary mission of NTIS is to collect and organize scientific, technical and business information generated by U. S. Government-sponsored research and development, for private industry, government and the public; the systems, financial structure, specialized staff skills that NTIS maintains to undertake its primary mission allow it to provide assistance to other agencies requiring such specialized resources. Under the provisions of the National Technical Information Act of 1988, NTIS is authorized to establish and maintain a permanent repository of non-classified scientific and engineering information. NTIS serves the United States as a central repository for government-funded scientific, technical and business related information to assure businesses, libraries and the public timely access to 2.5 million publications covering over 350 subject areas. The stated aim of NTIS is to support the Department of Commerce mission to promote the nation's economic growth by providing access to information that stimulates innovation and discovery..
Containing over 2.5 million bibliographic records, the NTIS content collection is a significant resource for accessing the latest research sponsored by the United States and select foreign governments. The collection represents the technical results of billions of dollars the U. S. Government allocates for scientific research; the contents of the collection include research reports, computer products and more. The complete electronic file dates back to 1964. On average, NTIS has added over 30,000 new records per year to the collection over the past ten years. Most records include meta-data, it contains a comprehensive collection of nuclear research, beginning with the Manhattan project, the latest government sponsored research. NTIS covers a wide spectrum of subject areas with 39 Major Subject Categories and 375 Sub-categories. NTIS operations includes the acquisition and archiving in perpetuity of scientific and technical information; this information is disseminated to the public on a fee-based cost-recovery model.
NTIS provides technical support solutions to other Federal Government Agencies. These Lines of Business include: Shipping & Fulfillment Services e-Training Services NTIS is an OPM-approved eTraining Service Provider Federal Energy Data Management Mandated by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Government Web Hosting Scanning, Digitization & Electronic Archive Services NTIS working with the Social Security Administration, National Science Foundation, Internal Revenue Service, other Federal Agencies Other Support solutions Includes Electronic & Multimedia Services, Email Broadcast & Fax Management, Billing & Collections Services, more In 2008, NTIS recognized the need to provide subscription-based access to the collection using an online platform. In April 2009, the National Technical Reports Library was introduced which offered convenient and cost-effective access to the collection to subscribers worldwide. Building upon the success of the NTRL, in early 2012 NTIS introduced a beta release of the new NTRL Repository Version 3.0 which uses the open-source platform Fedora/Solr which provides a flexible, overarching repository solution.
The new NTRL V3.0 is the first of several repositories planned for introduction under the new Federal Science Repository Service.. The FSRS was created to assist government agencies with the preservation of collections consisting of scientific and technical reports, images and other content which represents the mission of an agency or other institution; the FSRS provides a supporting infrastructure, long-term storage, interface design, content management and operational expertise. An agency can utilize this entire service or select components, resulting in the design of an agency-specific Repository that serves as a distinct gateway to its content. NTIS has been working with Public. Resource. Org to digitize videos and to post these on YouTube. NTIS' basic authority to operate a permanent clearinghouse of scientific and technical information is codified as chapter 23 of Title 15 of the United States Code; this chapter established NTIS' authority to charge fees for its products and services and to recover all costs through such fees "to the extent feasible."
This authority was restated in the National Technical Information Act of 1988, codified at 15 U. S. C. 3704b. That Act gave NTIS the authority to enter into joint ventures and declared the Clearinghouse to be a permanent Federal function that could not be eliminated or privatized without Congressional approval; that Act was amended by the American Technology Preeminence Act of 1992 which: required all costs associated with bibliographic control to be recovered by fees, required agencies to make copies of their scientific and technical reports available to NTIS, directed NTIS to focus on developing new electronic methods and media for disseminating information. Another statute having a profound impact on NTIS is the Commerce, State Appropriations Act for FY 1993 which established NTIS Revolving Fund and gave it the authority to use that Fund without f
Office of Management and Budget
The Office of Management and Budget is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States. OMB's most prominent function is to produce the President's Budget, but OMB measures the quality of agency programs and procedures to see if they comply with the president's policies and coordinates inter-agency policy initiatives. While the current OMB Director is Mick Mulvaney, he is also the acting White House Chief of Staff. Many of his duties and responsibilities have been assigned to Deputy Director Russell Vought; the OMB Director reports to Vice President and the White House Chief of Staff. The Bureau of the Budget, OMB's predecessor, was established in 1921 as a part of the Department of the Treasury by the Budget and Accounting Act of 1921, signed into law by president Warren G. Harding; the Bureau of the Budget was moved to the Executive Office of the President in 1939 and was run by Harold D. Smith during the government's rapid expansion of spending during the Second World War.
James L. Sundquist, a staffer at the Bureau of the Budget described the relationship between the President and the Bureau as close and of subsequent Bureau Directors as politicians and not public administrators; the Bureau was reorganized into the Office of Management and Budget in 1970 during the Nixon administration. The first OMB included two dozen others. In the 1990s, OMB was reorganized to remove the distinction between management staff and budgetary staff by combining the dual roles into each given program examiner within the Resource Management Offices. OMB prepares the President's budget proposal to Congress and supervises the administration of the executive branch agencies. OMB evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs and procedures, assesses competing funding demands among agencies, sets funding priorities. OMB ensures that agency reports, rules and proposed legislation are consistent with the president's budget and with administration policies. OMB oversees and coordinates the administration's procurement, financial management and regulatory policies.
In each of these areas, OMB's role is to help improve administrative management, to develop better performance measures and coordinating mechanisms, to reduce any unnecessary burdens on the public. OMB's critical missions are: Budget development and execution is a prominent government-wide process managed from the Executive Office of the President and a device by which a president implements his policies and actions in everything from the Department of Defense to NASA. OMB manages other agencies' financials, IT; the Office is made up of career appointed staff who provide continuity across changes of party and persons in the White House. Six positions within OMB – the Director, the Deputy Director, the Deputy Director for Management, the administrators of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, the Office of Federal Financial Management are presidentially appointed and Senate-confirmed positions; the largest component of the Office of Management and Budget are the five Resource Management Offices which are organized along functional lines mirroring the U.
S. federal government, each led by an OMB associate director. Half of all OMB staff are assigned to these offices, the majority of whom are designated as program examiners. Program examiners can be assigned to monitor one or more federal agencies or may be deployed by a topical area, such as monitoring issues relating to U. S. Navy warships; these staff have dual responsibility for both management and budgetary issues, as well as responsibility for giving expert advice on all aspects relating to their programs. Each year they review federal agency budget requests and help decide what resource requests will be sent to Congress as part of the president's budget, they perform in-depth program evaluations using the Program Assessment Rating Tool, review proposed regulations, agency testimony, analyze pending legislation, oversee the aspects of the president's management agenda including agency management scorecards. They are called upon to provide analysis information to any EOP staff member, they provide important information to those assigned to the statutory offices within OMB, which are Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, the Office of Federal Financial Management, the Office of E-Government & Information Technology whose job it is to specialize in issues such as federal regulations or procurement policy and law.
Other offices are OMB-wide support offices which include the Office of General Counsel, the Office of Legislative Affairs, the Budget Review Division, the Legislative Reference Division. The BRD performs government-wide budget coordination and is responsible for the technical aspects relating to the release of the president's budget each February. With respect to the estimation of spending for the executive branch, the BRD serves a purpose parallel to that of the Congressional Budget Office for the estimation of spending for Congress, the Department of the Treasury for the estimation of revenues for the executive branch, the Joint Committee on Taxation for the estimation of revenues for Congress; the Legislative Reference Division has the important role of being the central clearing house across the federal government for proposed legislation or testimony by federal officials. It distributes proposed legislation and testimony to all relevant federal reviewers and distils the comments into a consensus opinion of the
United States Department of Commerce
The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth. Among its tasks are gathering economic and demographic data for business and government decision-making, helping to set industrial standards; this organization's main purpose is to create jobs, promote economic growth, encourage sustainable development and improve standards of living for all Americans. The Department of Commerce headquarters is the Herbert C. Hoover Building in Washington, D. C. Wilbur Ross is the current Commerce secretary; the department was created as the United States Department of Commerce and Labor on February 14, 1903. It was subsequently renamed the Department of Commerce on March 4, 1913, as the bureaus and agencies specializing in labor were transferred to the new Department of Labor; the United States Patent and Trademark Office was transferred from the Interior Department into Commerce, the Federal Employment Stabilization Office existed within the department from 1931 to 1939.
In 1940, the Weather Bureau was transferred from the Agriculture Department, the Civil Aeronautics Authority was merged into the department. In 1949, the Public Roads Administration was added to the department due to the dissolution of the Federal Works Agency. In 1958, the independent Federal Aviation Agency was created and the Civil Aeronautics Authority was abolished; the United States Travel Service was established by the United States Secretary of Commerce on July 1, 1961 pursuant to the International Travel Act of 1961 The Economic Development Administration was created in 1965. In 1966, the Bureau of Public Roads was transferred to the newly created Department of Transportation; the Minority Business Development Agency was created on March 5, 1969 established by President Richard M. Nixon as the Office of Minority Business Enterprise; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration was created on October 3, 1970. The Department of Commerce was authorized a budget for Fiscal Year 2015 of $14.6 billion.
The budget authorization is broken down as follows: Proposals to reorganize the Department go back many decades. The Department of Commerce was one of three departments that Texas governor Rick Perry advocated eliminating during his 2012 presidential campaign, along with the Department of Education and Department of Energy. Perry's campaign cited the frequency with which agencies had been moved into and out of the department and its lack of a coherent focus, advocated moving its vital programs into other departments such as the Department of the Interior, Department of Labor, Department of the Treasury; the Economic Development Administration would be eliminated. On January 13, 2012, President Obama announced his intentions to ask the United States Congress for the power to close the department and replace it with a new cabinet-level agency focused on trade and exports; the new agency would include the Office of the United States Trade Representative part of the Executive Office of the President, as well as the Export-Import Bank of the United States, the Overseas Private Investment Corporation, the United States Trade and Development Agency, the Small Business Administration, which are all independent agencies.
The Obama administration projected that the reorganization would save $3 billion and would help the administration's goal of doubling U. S. exports in five years. The new agency would be organized around four "pillars": a technology and innovation office including the United States Patent and Trademark Office and the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration would be transferred from the Department of Commerce into the Department of the Interior. That year, shortly before the 2012 presidential election, Obama invoked the idea of a "secretary of business" in reference to the plan; the reorganization was part of a larger proposal which would grant the President the authority to propose mergers of federal agencies, which would be subject to an up-or-down Congressional vote. This ability had existed from the Great Depression until the Reagan presidency, when Congress rescinded the authority; the Obama administration plan faced criticism for some of its elements.
Some Congress members expressed concern that the Office of the United States Trade Representative would lose focus if it were included in a larger bureaucracy given its status as an "honest broker" between other agencies, which tend to advocate for specific points of view. The overall plan has been criticized as an attempt to create an agency similar to Japan's powerful Ministry of International Trade and Industry, abolished in 2001 after some of its initiatives failed and it became seen as a hindrance to growth. NOAA's climate and terrestrial operations and fisheries and endangered species programs would be expected to integrate well with agencies in the Interior Department, such as the United States Geological Survey and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. However, environmental groups such as the Natural Resources Defense Council feared that the reorganization could distract the agency from its mission of protecting the nation's oceans and ecosystems; the plan was reiterated in the Obama administration's FY2016 budget proposal, released in February 2015.
Title 13 of the C
Climate Prediction Center
The Climate Prediction Center is a United States federal agency, one of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction, which are a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. CPC is headquartered in Maryland, its roots trace back to the late 18th century, with the United States Army Signal Corp taking over responsibility of the climate program in the late 19th century. Once it became part of the United States Weather Bureau, it was known as the Weather Bureau Climate and Crop Services. From 1957 through 1966, the United States Weather Bureau's Office of Climatology, located in Washington, D. C. and Suitland, published the Mariners Weather Log publication. Late in the 20th century, it was known as the Climate Analysis Center for a time, before evolving into CPC in 1995. CPC issues climate forecasts valid for months in advance; the roots of modern climate prediction can be traced to the late 18th century. One of the nation's first applied climatologists was Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States.
A century the federal government assigned to the Army Signal Corps the mission to define the climate of the regions of the country being opened for farming. In 1890, the United States Department of Agriculture created the Weather Bureau climate and crops services which began publishing the Weather and Crops Weekly Bulletin, which the CPC in conjunction with the USDA still publishes today; the records of the Climate Division span from 1883 to 1961. For a time during the 1960s, the Weather Bureau's Office of Climatology was located in Suitland, Maryland. In 1970, various federal weather and climate functions were consolidated into the National Weather Service and placed in a new agency called the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. In the 1980s the National Weather Service established the Climate Prediction Center, known at the time as the Climate Analysis Center; the CPC is best known for its United States climate forecasts based on El Niño and La Niña conditions in the tropical Pacific.
The CPC's products are operational predictions of climate variability, real-time monitoring of global climate, attribution of the origins of major climate anomalies. The products cover time scales from a week to seasons, cover the land, the ocean, the atmosphere, extending into the stratosphere; these climate services are available for users in government, the public and private industry, both in this country and abroad. Applications include the mitigation of weather-related natural disasters and uses for social and economic good in agriculture, transportation, water resources, health. Continual product improvements are supported through diagnostic research, increasing use of models, interactions with user groups; some specific products include: 3-Month Temperature and Precipitation Outlooks Discussions 1-Month Temperature and Precipitation Outlooks Discussions 6 to 10-Day and 8 to 14-Day Products Temperature and Precipitation Anomaly Excessive Heat Outlook Maximum Heat Index Prediction 3-Month probability of exceedance Temperature Precipitation Heating and Cooling Degree Days Hurricane Season Outlook Atlantic basin Pacific basin U.
S. Drought Outlook Discussion International Support Weekly Afghan Hazards Weekly Africa Hazards Weekly Central America Hazards Weekly Haiti Hazards National Climatic Data Center Climatology Coupled Forecast System http://www.cpc.noaa.gov/index.php