Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed forces or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. In its broadest sense, the term "officer" refers to commissioned officers, non-commissioned officers, warrant officers. However, when used without further detail, the term always refers to only commissioned officers, the more senior portion of a force who derive their authority from a commission from the head of state; the proportion of officers varies greatly. Commissioned officers make up between an eighth and a fifth of modern armed forces personnel. In 2013, officers were the senior 17% of the British armed forces, the senior 13.7% of the French armed forces. In 2012, officers made up about 18% of the German armed forces, about 17.2% of the United States armed forces. However, armed forces have had much lower proportions of officers. During the First World War, fewer than 5% of British soldiers were officers. In the early twentieth century, the Spanish army had the highest proportion of officers of any European army, at 12.5%, at that time considered unreasonably high by many Spanish and foreign observers.
Within a nation's armed forces, armies tend to have a lower proportion of officers, but a higher total number of officers, while navies and air forces have higher proportions of officers since military aircraft are flown by officers. For example, 13.9% of British army personnel and 22.2% of the RAF personnel were officers in 2013, but the army had a larger total number of officers. Having a command authority is one requirement for combatant status under the laws of war, though this authority need not have obtained an official commission or warrant. In such case, those persons holding offices of responsibility within the organization are deemed to be the officers, the presence of these officers connotes a level of organization sufficient to designate a group as being combatant. Commissioned officers receive training as leadership and management generalists, in addition to training relating to their specific military occupational specialty or function in the military. Many advanced militaries require university degrees as a prerequisite for commissioning from the enlisted ranks.
Others, including the Australian Defence Force, the British Armed Forces, Nepal Army, the Pakistani Armed Forces, the Swiss Armed Forces, the Singapore Armed Forces, the Israel Defense Forces, the Swedish Armed Forces, the New Zealand Defence Force, are different in not requiring a university degree for commissioning—although a significant number of officers in these countries are graduates. In the Israel Defense Forces, a university degree is a requirement for an officer to advance to the rank of lieutenant colonel; the IDF sponsors the studies for its majors, while aircrew and naval officers obtain academic degrees as a part of their training programmes. In the United Kingdom, there are three routes of entry for British Armed Forces officers; the first, primary route are those who receive their commission directly into the officer grades following completion at their relevant military academy. In the second method, an individual may gain their commission after first enlisting and serving in the junior ranks, reaching one of the senior non-commissioned officer ranks, as what are known as'direct entry' or DE officers.
The third route is similar to the second. LE officers, whilst holding the same Queen's commission work in different roles from the DE officers. In the infantry, a number of warrant officer class 1s are commissioned as LE officers. In the British Army, commissioning for DE officers occurs after a 44-week course at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst for regular officers or the Army Reserve Commissioning Course, which consists of four two-week modules for Army Reserve officers; the first two modules may be undertaken over a year for each module at an Officers' Training Corps, the last two must be undertaken at Sandhurst. For Royal Navy and Royal Air Force officer candidates, a 30-week period at Britannia Royal Naval College or a 24-week period at RAF College Cranwell, respectively. Royal Marines officers receive their training in the Command Wing of the Commando Training Centre Royal Marines during a gruelling 15-month course; the courses consist of not only tactical and combat training, but leadership, management and international affairs training.
Until the Cardwell Reforms of 1871, commissions in the British Army were purchased by officers. The Royal Navy, operated on a more meritocratic, or at least mobile, basis. Commissioned officers are the only persons, in an armed forces environment, able to act as the commanding officer of a military unit. A superior officer is an officer with a higher rank than another officer, a subordinate officer relative to the superior. Non-commissioned officers, to include naval and coast guard petty officers and chief petty officers, in positions of authority can be said to have control or charge rather than command per se. Most officers in the Armed Forces of the United States are commissioned through one of three major commissioning programs: United States Military Academy Unit
United States Naval Observatory
The United States Naval Observatory is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States, with a primary mission to produce Positioning and Timing for the United States Navy and the United States Department of Defense. Located in Northwest Washington, D. C. at the Northwestern end of Embassy Row, it is one of the pre-1900 astronomical observatories located in an urban area. Former USNO director Gernot M. R. Winkler initiated the "Master Clock" service that the USNO still operates, which provides precise time to the GPS satellite constellation run by the United States Air Force; the USNO performs radio VLBI-based positions of quasars with numerous global collaborators, in order to produce Earth Orientation parameters. Aside from its scientific mission, a house located within the Naval Observatory complex serves as the official residence of the Vice President of the United States. President John Quincy Adams, who in 1825 signed the bill for the creation of a national observatory just before leaving presidential office, had intended for it to be called the National Observatory.
The names "National Observatory" and "Naval Observatory" were both used for 10 years, until a ruling was passed to use the latter. Adams had made protracted efforts to bring astronomy to a national level at that time, he spent many nights at the observatory and charting the stars, which had always been one of Adams' avocations. Established by the order of the United States Secretary of the Navy John Branch on 6 December 1830 as the Depot of Charts and Instruments, the Observatory rose from humble beginnings. Placed under the command of Lieutenant Louis M. Goldsborough, with an annual budget of $330, its primary function was the restoration and rating of navigational instruments, it was made into a national observatory in 1842 via a federal law and a Congressional appropriation of $25,000. Lieutenant James Melville Gilliss was put in charge of "obtaining the instruments needed and books." Lt. Gilliss visited the principal observatories of Europe with the mission to purchase telescopes and scientific devices and books.
The observatory's primary mission was to care for the United States Navy's marine chronometers and other navigational equipment. It calibrated ships' chronometers by timing the transit of stars across the meridian. Opened in 1844 in Foggy Bottom north of the present site of the Lincoln Memorial and west of the White House, the observatory moved in 1893 to its present location on a 2000-foot circle of land atop Observatory Hill overlooking Massachusetts Avenue; these facilities were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2017. The first superintendent was Navy Commander Matthew Fontaine Maury. Maury had the world's first vulcanized time ball, created to his specifications by Charles Goodyear for the U. S. Observatory, it was the first time ball in the United States, being placed into service in 1845, the 12th in the world. Maury kept accurate time by the planets; the time ball was dropped every day except Sunday at the astronomically defined moment of Mean Solar Noon, enabling all ships and civilians to know the exact time.
By the end of the American Civil War, the Observatory's clocks were linked via telegraph to ring the alarm bells in all of the Washington, D. C. firehouses three times a day, by the early 1870s the Observatory's daily noon-time signal was being distributed nationwide via the Western Union Telegraph Company. Time was "sold" to the railroads and was used in conjunction with railroad chronometers to schedule American rail transport. Early in the 20th century, the Arlington Time Signal broadcast this service to wireless receivers. In 1849 the Nautical Almanac Office was established in Cambridge, Massachusetts as a separate organization, it was moved to Washington, D. C. in 1866, colocating with the U. S. Naval Observatory in 1893. On September 20, 1894, the NAO became a "branch" of USNO, however it remained autonomous for several years after this. An early scientific duty assigned to the Observatory was the U. S. contribution to the definition of the Astronomical Unit, or the AU, which defines a standard mean distance between the Sun and the Earth, conducted under the auspices of the Congressionally funded U.
S. Transit of Venus Commission; the astronomical measurements taken of the transit of Venus by a number of countries since 1639 resulted in a progressively more accurate definition of the AU. Relying on photographic methods, the naval observers returned 350 photographic plates in 1874, 1,380 measurable plates in 1882; the results of the surveys conducted from several locations around the world produced a final value of the solar parallax, after adjustments, of 8.809", with a probable error of 0.0059", yielding a U. S. defined Earth-Sun distance of 92,797,000 miles, with a probable error of 59,700 miles. This calculated distance was a significant improvement over several previous estimates; the telescope used for the discovery of the Moons of Mars was the 26-inch refractor located at Foggy Bottom. In 1893 it was moved to the present location. In November 1913 the Paris Observatory, using the Eiffel Tower as an antenna, exchanged sustained wireless signals with the United States Naval Observatory, using an antenna in Arlington, Virginia to determine the exact difference of longitude between the two institutions.
In 1934, the last large telescope to be installed at USNO saw "first light". This 40-inch aperture instrument was the second telescope made by famed optician
National Archives and Records Administration
The National Archives and Records Administration is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives. NARA is responsible for maintaining and publishing the authentic and authoritative copies of acts of Congress, presidential directives, federal regulations; the NARA transmits votes of the Electoral College to Congress. The Archivist of the United States is the chief official overseeing the operation of the National Archives and Records Administration; the Archivist not only maintains the official documentation of the passage of amendments to the U. S. Constitution by state legislatures, but has the authority to declare when the constitutional threshold for passage has been reached, therefore when an act has become an amendment; the Office of the Federal Register publishes the Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, United States Statutes at Large, among others.
It administers the Electoral College. The National Historical Publications and Records Commission —the agency's grant-making arm—awards funds to state and local governments and private archives and universities, other nonprofit organizations to preserve and publish historical records. Since 1964, the NHPRC has awarded some 4,500 grants; the Office of Government Information Services is a Freedom of Information Act resource for the public and the government. Congress has charged NARA with reviewing FOIA policies and compliance of Federal agencies and to recommend changes to FOIA. NARA's mission includes resolving FOIA disputes between Federal agencies and requesters; each branch and agency of the U. S. government was responsible for maintaining its own documents, which resulted in the loss and destruction of records. Congress established the National Archives Establishment in 1934 to centralize federal record keeping, with the Archivist of the United States as chief administrator; the National Archives was incorporated with GSA in 1949.
The first Archivist, R. D. W. Connor, began serving in 1934; as a result of a first Hoover Commission recommendation, in 1949 the National Archives was placed within the newly formed General Services Administration. The Archivist served as a subordinate official to the GSA Administrator until the National Archives and Records Administration became an independent agency on April 1, 1985. In March 2006, it was revealed by the Archivist of the United States in a public hearing that a memorandum of understanding between NARA and various government agencies existed to "reclassify", i.e. withdraw from public access, certain documents in the name of national security, to do so in a manner such that researchers would not be to discover the process. An audit indicated that more than one third withdrawn since 1999 did not contain sensitive information; the program was scheduled to end in 2007. In 2010, Executive Order 13526 created the National Declassification Center to coordinate declassification practices across agencies, provide secure document services to other agencies, review records in NARA custody for declassification.
NARA's holdings are classed into "record groups" reflecting the governmental department or agency from which they originated. Records include paper documents, still pictures, motion pictures, electronic media. Archival descriptions of the permanent holdings of the federal government in the custody of NARA are stored in the National Archives Catalog; the archival descriptions include information on traditional paper holdings, electronic records, artifacts. As of December 2012, the catalog consisted of about 10 billion logical data records describing 527,000 artifacts and encompassing 81% of NARA's records. There are 922,000 digital copies of digitized materials. Most records at NARA are in the public domain, as works of the federal government are excluded from copyright protection. However, records from other sources may still be protected by donor agreements. Executive Order 13526 directs originating agencies to declassify documents if possible before shipment to NARA for long-term storage, but NARA stores some classified documents until they can be declassified.
Its Information Security Oversight Office monitors and sets policy for the U. S. government's security classification system. Many of NARA's most requested records are used for genealogy research; this includes census records from 1790 to 1940, ships' passenger lists, naturalization records. Archival Recovery Teams investigate the theft of records; the most well known facility of the National Archives and Records Administration is the National Archives Building, located north of the National Mall on Constitution Avenue in Washington, D. C.. A sister facility, known as the National Archives at College Park was opened 1994 near the University of Maryland, College Park; the Washington National Records Center located in the Washington, D. C. metropolitan area, is a large warehouse facility where federal records that are still under the control of the creating agency are stored. Federal government agencies pay a yearly fee for storage at the facility. In accordance with federal records schedules, documents at WNRC are transferred to the legal custody of the National Archives after a certain time.
Temporary records at WNRC are
Bureau of Yards and Docks
The Bureau of Yards and Docks was the branch of the United States Navy responsible from 1842 to 1966 for building and maintaining navy yards and other facilities relating to ship construction and repair. The Bureau was established on August 31, 1842 by an act of Congress, as one of the five bureaus replacing the Board of Naval Commissioners established in 1815. Established as the Bureau of Naval Yards and Docks, the branch was renamed the Bureau of Yards and Docks in 1862; the Bureau was abolished effective in 1966 as part of the Department of Defense's reorganization of its material establishment, being replaced by the Naval Facilities Engineering Command. Captain Lewis Warrington, 1842–1846 Captain Joseph Smith, 1846–1869 Captain Daniel Ammen, 1869–1871 Commodore Christopher R. P. Rodgers, 1871–1874 Commodore John C. Howell, 1874–1878 Commodore Richard L. Law, 1878–1881 Rear Admiral Edward T. Nichols, 1881–1885 Commodore David B. Harmony, 1885–1889 Commodore George D. White, 1889–1890 Commodore Norman H. Farquhar, 1890–1894 Commodore Edmund O. Matthews, 1894–1898 Rear Admiral Mordecai T. Endicott, 1898–1907 Rear Admiral Harry H. Rousseau, 1907 Rear Admiral Richard C.
Hollyday, 1907–1912 Rear Admiral Homer R. Stanford, 1912–1916 Rear Admiral Frederick R. Harris, 1916–1917 Rear Admiral Charles W. Parks, 1918–1921 Rear Admiral Luther E. Gregory, 1921–1929 Rear Admiral Archibald L. Parsons, 1929–1933 Rear Admiral Norman M. Smith, 1933–1937 Rear Admiral Ben Moreell, 1937–1945 Rear Admiral John J. Manning, 1945–1949 Rear Admiral Joseph F. Jelley, Jr. 1949–1953 Rear Admiral John R. Perry, 1953–1955 Rear Admiral Robert H. Meade, 1955–1959 Rear Admiral Eugene J. Peltier, 1959–1962 Rear Admiral Peter Corradi, 1962–1965 Rear Admiral Alexander C. Husband, 1965–1966Naval Facilities Engineering Command Rear Admiral Walter Enger, 1969-1973 Rear Admiral Albert R. Marchall, 1973-1977 Rear Admiral Donal G. Iselin, 1977-1981 Rear Admiral William M. Zobel, 1981-1984 Rear Admiral John Paul Jones Jr. 1984-1987 Rear Admiral Benjamin F. Montoya, 1987-1989 Rear Admiral David Bottoroff, 1989-1992 Rear Admiral Jack E. Buffington, 1992-1995 Rear Admiral David J. Nash, 1995-1998 Rear Admiral Louis M Smith, 1998-2000 Rear Admiral Michael R. Johnson, 2000-2003 Rear Admiral Michael K. Loose, 2003-2006 Rear Admiral Wayne G. Shear, 2006-2010 Rear Admiral Christopher J. Mossey, 2010-2012 Rear Admiral Katherine L. Gregory, 2012-2014 United States Navy bureau system This article contains public domain information from the United States National Archives and Records Administration.
"Records of the Bureau of Yards And Docks". National Archives and Records Administration. 2014. Activities of the Bureau of Yards and Docks, Navy Department. World War 1917-1918. Washington D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office. 1921. Building the Navy's Bases in World War II: History of the Bureau of Yards and Docks and the Civil Engineer Corps, 1940-1946. Washington D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office. 1947
Bureau of Navigation
The Bureau of Navigation the Bureau of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection and the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation — not to be confused with the United States Navy's Bureau of Navigation — was an agency of the United States Government established in 1884 to enforce laws relating to the construction, operation, inspection and documentation of merchant vessels. The bureau investigated marine accidents and casualties; when established, the Bureau of Navigation was a part of the United States Department of the Treasury. In 1903, the organization was transferred to the newly formed United States Department of Commerce and Labor. In 1913 that department was split into the United States Department of Commerce and the United States Department of Labor, the bureau was assigned to the new Department of Commerce. In 1932 the bureau was combined with the Steamboat Inspection Service to form the Bureau of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection; the Bureau of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection was in turn renamed the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation in 1936.
In 1942, Executive Order 9083 transferred many functions of the bureau to two other agencies: Merchant vessel documentation was transferred to the United States Customs Service, while functions relating to merchant vessel inspection, safety of life at sea, merchant mariners were transferred to the United States Coast Guard. The merchant vessel documentation functions were transferred to the Coast Guard in 1946. With all its functions having been absorbed by the U. S. Customs Service and the U. S. Coast Guard, the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation was abolished as unnecessary and redundant by Reorganization Plan No. III of 1946. Ships of the Bureau of Navigation, the Bureau of Navigation and Steamboat Inspection, the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation flew a blue flag with a white three-masted sailing ship within a red disc. Ships of the bureau with the director of the bureau embarked flew the director's flag, which featured the same white three-masted sailing ship on a blue field.
US National Archives Records of the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation Records of the U. S. Navy Bureau of Navigation
Bureau of Medicine and Surgery
The Bureau of Medicine and Surgery is an agency of the United States Department of the Navy that manages health care activities for the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps. BUMED operates hospitals and other health care facilities as well as laboratories for biomedical research, trains and manages the Navy's many staff corps related to medicine, its headquarters is located at the Defense Health Headquarters in Virginia. BUMED has more than a million eligible beneficiaries. BUMED was one of the original five Navy bureaus formed in 1842 to replace the Board of Navy Commissioners, it is one of two bureaus still in existence. BUMED was housed at the Old Naval Observatory from 1942 until 2012. In 2005, Navy Medicine aligned its shore facilities into four overarching commands: Navy Medicine East, Navy Medicine West, Navy Medicine National Capital Area, Navy Medicine Support Command. In 2012, Navy Medicine Support Command was renamed and realigned into the Navy Medicine Education and Training Command, with its non-training units becoming independent under BUMED.
Navy Medicine National Capital Area's largest component, the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, was merged in 2011 with Walter Reed Army Medical Center to form the joint Walter Reed National Military Medical Center as a result of the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Commission. The merged facility came under the jurisdiction of the new Joint Task Force National Capital Region/Medical, in 2013, Navy Medicine National Capital Area was disestablished, with its few remaining facilities transferred to Navy Medicine East. While a 2006 report of the Defense Business Board recommended that the Army and Air Force medical commands be merged into a single joint command, citing savings in budget and personnel, this recommendation was not carried out and in 2012 the Defense Health Agency was established separately from the military medical commands. All three military medical commands were however all moved to share the new Defense Health Headquarters facility in Falls Church with DHA, again as a result of the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure.
The commanding officer of BUMED is the Surgeon General of a vice admiral. BUMED is divided into ten departments, each referred to with an alphanumerical code; each of the staff corps is headed by a rear admiral, except for the Hospital Corps, headed by a force master chief petty officer because of its status as an enlisted rating. The other department heads are either rear admirals or civilians. M00: Corps Chiefs M00C1: Chief, Medical Corps M00C2: Chief, Dental Corps M00C3: Chief, Nurse Corps M00C4: Director, Medical Service Corps M00C5: Director, Hospital Corps M1: Manpower and Resources - Total Force M2: Research and Development M3: Medical Operations M4: Installations and Logistics M5: Future Operations M6: Information Management/Information Technology and Chief Information Officer M7: Education and Training M8: Comptroller and Resource Management M9: Wounded and Injured BUMED operates the following facilities and commands: Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Falls Church, VirginiaNavy Medicine East: Navy Medicine East, VirginiaNaval Medical Center Portsmouth, Virginia Naval Hospital Beaufort, South Carolina Naval Hospital Camp Lejeune, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina Naval Hospital Guantanamo Bay, Cuba Naval Hospital Jacksonville, Florida Naval Hospital Naples, Italy Naval Hospital Pensacola, Florida Naval Hospital Rota, Rota, Cádiz, Spain Naval Hospital Sigonella, Italy Captain James A. Lovell Federal Health Care Center, Great Lakes, Illinois Naval Health Clinic Annapolis, Maryland Naval Health Clinic Charleston, North Charleston, South Carolina Naval Health Clinic Cherry Point, Cherry Point, North Carolina Naval Health Clinic Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas Naval Health Clinic New England, Rhode Island Naval Health Clinic Patuxent River, Patuxent River, Maryland Naval Health Clinic Quantico, Virginia 2nd Dental Battalion, Camp Lejeune, North CarolinaNavy Medicine West: Navy Medicine West, San Diego, CaliforniaNaval Medical Center San Diego, San Diego, California Naval Hospital Bremerton, Washington Naval Hospital Camp Pendleton, Camp Pendleton, California Naval Hospital Lemoore, California Naval Hospital Oak Harbor, Oak Harbor, Washington Naval Hospital Twentynine Palms, Twentynine Palms, California Naval Hospital Guam, Agana Heights, Guam Naval Hospital Okinawa, Japan Naval Hospital Yokosuka Japan, Japan Naval Health Clinic Hawaii, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii 1st Dental Battalion, Camp Pendleton, California 3rd Dental Battalion, JapanEducation and Training Command: Navy Medicine Education and Training Command, San Antonio, TexasNavy Medicine Professional Development Center, Maryland Navy Medicine Training Support Center, San Antonio, Texas Navy Medicine Operational Training Center, FloridaOther commands: Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, MarylandNaval Health Research Center, San Diego, California Naval Medical Research Unit 2, Phnom Penh, Cambodia Naval Medical Research Unit 3, Egypt Naval Medical Research Unit 6, Peru Naval Medical Research Unit Dayton, Ohio Naval Medical Research Unit San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, Connecticut Naval Medical Logistics Command, Fort Detrick, MarylandNaval Ophthalmic Support and Training Activity, Virginia Navy Medicine Information Systems Support Activity, San Antonio, Texas Navy and Marine Corps Public Health Center, VirginiaNavy Drug Screening Lab Jacksonville, FloridaHospital shi
United States Secretary of the Navy
The Secretary of the Navy is a statutory officer and the head of the Department of the Navy, a military department within the Department of Defense of the United States of America. The Secretary of the Navy must be a civilian by law, at least 5 years removed from active military service; the Secretary is appointed by the President and requires confirmation by a majority vote of the Senate. The Secretary of the Navy was, from its creation in 1798, a member of the President's Cabinet until 1949, when the Secretary of the Navy was by amendments to the National Security Act of 1947 made subordinate to the Secretary of Defense; the Department of the Navy consists of two Uniformed Services: the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps. The Secretary of the Navy is responsible for, has statutory authority to "conduct all the affairs of the Department of the Navy", i.e. as its chief executive officer, subject to the limits of the law, the directions of the President and the Secretary of Defense.
In effect, all authority within the Navy and Marine Corps, unless exempted by law, is derivative of the authority vested in the Secretary of the Navy. Enumerated responsibilities of the SECNAV in the before-mentioned section are: recruiting, supplying, training and demobilizing; the Secretary oversees the construction and repair of naval ships and facilities. SECNAV is responsible for the formulation and implementation of policies and programs that are consistent with the national security policies and objectives established by the President or the Secretary of Defense; the Secretary of the Navy is a member of the Defense Acquisition Board, chaired by the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Logistics. Furthermore, the Secretary has several statutory responsibilities under the Uniform Code of Military Justice with respect to the administration of the military justice system for the Navy & the Marine Corps, including the authority to convene general courts-martial and to commute sentences.
The principal military advisers to the SECNAV are the two service chiefs of the naval services: for matters regarding the Navy the Chief of Naval Operations, for matters regarding the Marine Corps the Commandant of the Marine Corps. The CNO and the Commandant act as the principal executive agents of the SECNAV within their respective services to implement the orders of the Secretary; the United States Navy Regulations is the principal regulatory document of the Department of the Navy, any changes to it can only be approved by the Secretary of the Navy. Whenever the United States Coast Guard operates as a service within the Department of the Navy, the Secretary of the Navy has the same powers and duties with respect to the Coast Guard as the Secretary of Homeland Security when the Coast Guard is not operating as a service in the Department of the Navy; the Office of the Secretary of the Navy known within DoD as the Navy Secretariat or just as the Secretariat in a DoN setting, is the immediate headquarters staff that supports the Secretary in discharging his duties.
The principal officials of the Secretariat include the Under Secretary of the Navy, the Assistant Secretaries of the Navy, the General Counsel of the Department of the Navy, the Judge Advocate General of the Navy, the Naval Inspector General, the Chief of Legislative Affairs, the Chief of Naval Research. The Office of the Secretary of the Navy has sole responsibility within the Department of the Navy for acquisition, auditing and information management, legislative affairs, public affairs and development; the Chief of Naval Operations and the Commandant of the Marine Corps have their own separate staffs, the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations and Headquarters Marine Corps. Military awards of the United States Department of the Navy Secretary of the Navy Council of Review Boards Stephen Mallory, the only Secretary of the Navy of the Confederate States of America Official website