The Czech Republic, known as Czechia, is a nation state in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with mostly temperate continental climate and it is a unitary parliamentary republic, has 10.5 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague, with over 1.2 million residents. The Czech Republic includes the territories of Bohemia, Moravia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire, after the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as part of the Holy Roman Empire, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria, the Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years War.
After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, reimposed Roman Catholicism, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, and was liberated in 1945 by the armies of the Soviet Union and the United States. The Czech country lost the majority of its German-speaking inhabitants after they were expelled following the war, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections. Following the 1948 coup détat, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence, in 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed, on 6 March 1990, the Czech Socialistic Republic was renamed to the Czech Republic. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.
The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004, it is a member of the United Nations, the OECD, the OSCE, and it is a developed country with an advanced, high income economy and high living standards. The UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development, the Czech Republic ranks as the 6th most peaceful country, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance. It has the lowest unemployment rate in the European Union, the traditional English name Bohemia derives from Latin Boiohaemum, which means home of the Boii. The current name comes from the endonym Čech, spelled Cžech until the reform in 1842. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, the etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning member of the people, thus making it cognate to the Czech word člověk. The country has traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the southeast, and Czech Silesia in the northeast.
Following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia at the end of 1992, the Czech part of the former nation found itself without a common single-word geographical name in English, the name Czechia /ˈtʃɛkiə/ was recommended by the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The Resian dialect is a distinct dialect of Slovene spoken in the Resia Valley, Province of Udine, close to the border with Slovenia. Because of its location outside of Slovenia, the dialect has phonetic properties different from standard Slovene. Although not a dialect, and without any official status in Italy. The alphabet contains the letter ⟨w⟩, a letter that few Slavic languages use and this grapheme—according to the Italian linguist Bartoli—is characteristic of the Ladin language of the eastern Alps and indicates the autochthonous Neolatin populations strong influence on Resian. Most contemporary scholars consider Resian a transitional dialect between the Carinthian and Littoral dialects of Slovene, linguists identify three historical layers in the development of Resian. Initially, Resian was a part of the Carinthian Gail Valley dialect, in the 14th century, with the German and Friulian colonization of the Canale and Raccolana valleys, the connection of Resian with Carinthian dialects was interrupted.
Starting from the 15th century, Resian acquired specific features of Venetian Slovenian dialects, the third layer is represented by specific innovations and developments, which are unique to Resian and cannot be found in any other Slovene dialect. In addition, Resian has maintained a number of archaisms that have disappeared both in standard Slovene and most other Slovene dialects, atypical for a Slavic language, Resian has a definite article, masculine te, feminine ta. This historical development helps to understand the specifics of Resian in regards to other Slovene dialects and it however distinguishes sharply from these neighboring dialects in its phonetics. Resian sounds very different from other Slovene dialects, especially regarding the system, nevertheless. Written Resian can mostly be understood by Slovenes, but spoken Resian is much harder to understand, especially for those from central and eastern Slovenia. However and standard Slovene are mutually unintelligible due to archaisms lost in modern Slovene, notable linguists who have studied the dialect include Jan Niecisław Baudouin de Courtenay, Eric Hamp, Milko Matičetov, and Roberto Dapit.
Friuli Venetian Slovenia Slovene Lands Resianic homepage, containing texts in Italian, German and English, as well as a Resian-Slovenian dictionary
Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic, known as Old Church Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica, as the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages. The language was standardized for the mission of the two apostles to Great Moravia in 863, the language and the alphabet were taught at the Great Moravian Academy and were used for government and religious documents and books between 863 and 885. The texts written during this phase contain characteristics of the Slavic vernaculars in Great Moravia, in 885, the use of Old Church Slavonic in Great Moravia was prohibited by Pope Stephen V in favour of Latin. Students of the two apostles, who were expelled from Great Moravia in 886, brought the Glagolitic alphabet to the First Bulgarian Empire, there it was taught at two literary schools, the Preslav Literary School and the Ohrid Literary School.
The Glagolitic alphabet was used at both schools, though the Cyrillic script was developed early on at the Preslav Literary School where it superseded Glagolitic. The texts written during this era exhibit certain linguistic features of the vernaculars of the First Bulgarian Empire and these local varieties are collectively known as the Church Slavonic language. In Bosnia was preserved the local Bosnian Cyrillic alphabet, while in Croatia a variant of the Glagolitic alphabet was preserved, see Early Cyrillic alphabet for a detailed description of the script and information about the sounds it originally expressed. For Old Church Slavonic, the segments are reconstructible. The sounds are given in Slavic transliterated form rather than in IPA, as the realisation is uncertain. The letter щ denoted different sounds in different dialects and is not shown in the table, in Bulgaria, it represented the sequence /ʃt/, and it is normally transliterated as št for that reason. Farther west and north, it was probably /c/ or /tɕ/ like in modern Macedonian and Serbian/Croatian, /dz/ appears mostly in early texts, becoming /z/ on.
The distinction between l, n and r, on one hand, and palatal l, n and r, when it is, it is shown by a kamora diacritic over the letter. Accent is not indicated in writing and must be inferred from languages, the pronunciation of yat ě differed by area. In Bulgaria it was an open vowel, commonly reconstructed as /æ/. The yer vowels ĭ and ŭ are often called ultrashort and were lower, more centralised and shorter than their counterparts i and they disappeared in most positions in the word, already sporadically in the earliest texts but more frequently on. They tended to merge with other vowels, particularly ĭ with e and ŭ with o, the exact articulation of the nasal vowels is unclear because different areas tend to merge them with different vowels. ę is occasionally seen to merge with e or ě in South Slavic, ǫ generally merges with u or o, but in Bulgaria, ǫ was apparently unrounded and eventually merged with ŭ
The Dajnko alphabet was a Slovene alphabet invented by Peter Dajnko. It was used in from 1824 to 1839 mostly in Styria, Dajnko introduced his alphabet in 1824 in his book Lehrbuch der windischen Sprache. He decided to replace the older Bohorič alphabet with his own new writing system because of the problems with the writing of sibilants, in 1825, Franc Serafin Metelko came up with a similar proposal, complicating the issue. The Dajnko alphabet, which was introduced to schools in 1831, was opposed by Anton Murko. After 1834 it gradually came out of use with the adoption of a modified version of Gajs Latin alphabet as the new Slovene script and was in 1839 officially abolished. He represented the phonemes /ts/, /s/, /z/ with the letters C, S, Z and the phonemes /tʃ/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/ with special characters
The Metelko alphabet was a Slovene writing system developed by Franc Serafin Metelko. It was used by a group of authors from 1825 to 1833. Metelko introduced his alphabet in the book Lehrgebäude der slowenischen Sprache im Königreiche Illyrien und in den benachbarten Provinzen and he invented his alphabet in order to replace the formerly used Bohorič alphabet, which was considered problematic in certain situations. Metelko was influenced by the ideas of Jernej Kopitar, a well-known linguist who participated in the development of the modern Serbian alphabet, Metelko added special letters for some common clusters, and. The difference between glottal and velar H is in fact not relevant to Slovene phonology, and therefore the letter was omitted by some authors, in the formerly used Bohorič alphabet, certain words with different pronunciation had the same spelling. Metelko wanted to solve this problem by splitting E into three and O into two variants. Metelkos letters E, and represent the vowels /ɛ/, /e/ and /ə/, which were written with E.
Metelkos letters O and represent the vowels /o/ and /ɔ/. The main problem of Metelkos alphabet was its graphic design, Metelkos letters appeared strange to the average Slovene writer and the alphabet itself was soon nicknamed krevljica the twisted alphabet. Some letters were in difficult to write by hand. Besides Metelko was strongly influenced by his own dialect, certain solutions were not accepted by speakers of other dialects, soon strong opposition rose against Metelkos alphabet. After the Slovene alphabet war Metelkos alphabet was forbidden in 1833, a few years Slovenes accepted Gajs Latin alphabet, which is easier to write. In this alphabet variants in pronunciation are written using diacritics but only in cases when it is necessary to distinguish two words
Austria, officially the Republic of Austria, is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.7 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north and Slovakia to the east and Italy to the south, the territory of Austria covers 83,879 km2. The terrain is mountainous, lying within the Alps, only 32% of the country is below 500 m. The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects of German as their native language, other local official languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene. The origins of modern-day Austria date back to the time of the Habsburg dynasty, from the time of the Reformation, many northern German princes, resenting the authority of the Emperor, used Protestantism as a flag of rebellion. Following Napoleons defeat, Prussia emerged as Austrias chief competitor for rule of a greater Germany, Austrias defeat by Prussia at the Battle of Königgrätz, during the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, cleared the way for Prussia to assert control over the rest of Germany.
In 1867, the empire was reformed into Austria-Hungary, Austria was thus the first to go to war in the July Crisis, which would ultimately escalate into World War I. The First Austrian Republic was established in 1919, in 1938 Nazi Germany annexed Austria in the Anschluss. This lasted until the end of World War II in 1945, after which Germany was occupied by the Allies, in 1955, the Austrian State Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state, ending the occupation. In the same year, the Austrian Parliament created the Declaration of Neutrality which declared that the Second Austrian Republic would become permanently neutral, Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy comprising nine federal states. The capital and largest city, with a population exceeding 1.7 million, is Vienna, other major urban areas of Austria include Graz, Linz and Innsbruck. Austria is one of the richest countries in the world, with a nominal per capita GDP of $43,724, the country has developed a high standard of living and in 2014 was ranked 21st in the world for its Human Development Index.
Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, joined the European Union in 1995, Austria signed the Schengen Agreement in 1995, and adopted the euro currency in 1999. The German name for Austria, Österreich, meant eastern realm in Old High German, and is cognate with the word Ostarrîchi and this word is probably a translation of Medieval Latin Marchia orientalis into a local dialect. Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in 976, the word Austria is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century. Accordingly, Norig would essentially mean the same as Ostarrîchi and Österreich, the Celtic name was eventually Latinised to Noricum after the Romans conquered the area that encloses most of modern-day Austria, around 15 BC. Noricum became a Roman province in the mid-first century AD, heers hypothesis is not accepted by linguists. Settled in ancient times, the Central European land that is now Austria was occupied in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes, the Celtic kingdom of Noricum was claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province
It is a pluricentric language with four mutually intelligible standard varieties. South Slavic dialects historically formed a continuum, the turbulent history of the area, particularly due to expansion of the Ottoman Empire, resulted in a patchwork of dialectal and religious differences. Due to population migrations, Shtokavian became the most widespread in the western Balkans, Bosniaks and Serbs differ in religion and were historically often part of different cultural circles, although a large part of the nations have lived side by side under foreign overlords. Serbo-Croatian was standardized in the mid-19th-century Vienna Literary Agreement by Croatian and Serbian writers and philologists, from the very beginning, there were slightly different literary Serbian and Croatian standards, although both were based on the same Shtokavian subdialect, Eastern Herzegovinian. In the 20th century, Serbo-Croatian served as the language of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The breakup of Yugoslavia affected language attitudes, so that social conceptions of the language separated on ethnic, since the breakup of Yugoslavia, Bosnian has likewise been established as an official standard in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and there is an ongoing movement to codify a separate Montenegrin standard.
Serbo-Croatian thus generally goes by the ethnic names Serbian, Bosnian, like other South Slavic languages, Serbo-Croatian has a simple phonology, with the common five-vowel system and twenty-five consonants. Its grammar evolved from Common Slavic, with inflection, preserving seven grammatical cases in nouns, pronouns. Verbs exhibit imperfective or perfective aspect, with a complex tense system. Serbo-Croatian is a language with flexible word order, subject–verb–object being the default. It can be written in Serbian Cyrillic or Gajs Latin alphabet, whose thirty letters mutually map one-to-one, throughout the history of the South Slavs, the vernacular and written languages of the various regions and ethnicities developed and diverged independently. Prior to the 19th century, they were collectively called Illyric, Slavic, at that time and Croat lands were still part of the Ottoman and Austrian Empires. Officially, the language was called variously Serbo-Croat, Croato-Serbian and Croatian, Croatian and Serbian, Serbian or Croatian, Croatian or Serbian, use of the term Serbo-Croatian is controversial due to the prejudice that nation and language must match.
Old Church Slavonic was adopted as the language of the liturgy and this language was gradually adapted to non-liturgical purposes and became known as the Croatian version of Old Slavonic. The two variants of the language and non-liturgical, continued to be a part of the Glagolitic service as late as the middle of the 19th century, the earliest known Croatian Church Slavonic Glagolitic manuscripts are the Glagolita Clozianus and the Vienna Folia from the 11th century. Serbo-Croatian competed with the established literary languages of Latin and Old Slavonic in the west and Persian. Old Slavonic developed into the Serbo-Croatian variant of Church Slavonic between the 12th and 16th centuries, the Baška tablet from the late 11th century was written in Glagolitic. It is a stone tablet found in the small Church of St. Lucy
Southeastern Macedonian dialects
The Southeastern Macedonian dialects according to one of the scientific views are one of three groups of the Macedonian language. According to another view all or part of these dialects are part of the Bulgarian language, the group is located in the eastern and southeastern areas of the Republic of Macedonia, surrounding the cities of Štip and Delčevo. The group includes Blagoevgrad Province, or Pirin Macedonia, in Bulgaria, the group of Southeastern Macedonian dialects is divided into three subgroups, the eastern group, the southwestern group, and the southeastern group
Prekmurje Slovene, known as Pannonian Slovene, East Slovene, or Wendish, is a supradialectal regional variety of Slovene. It is used in communication and publications by authors from Prekmurje. It is spoken in the Prekmurje region of Slovenia and by the Hungarian Slovenes in Vas County in western Hungary, the Prekmurje dialect is spoken by approximately 110,000 speakers worldwide. 80,000 in Prekmurje,20,000 dispered in Slovenia and 10,000 in other countries, in Hungary it is used by the Slovene-speaking minority in Vas County in and around the town of Szentgotthárd. Other speakers of the live in other Hungarian towns, particularly Budapest, Bakony. The dialect was spoken in Somogy, but it has nearly disappeared in the last two centuries. There are some speakers in Austria, the United States, Prekmurje Slovene has a defined territory and body of literature, and it is one of the few Slovene dialects in Slovenia that is still spoken by all strata of the local population. Some speakers have claimed that it is a separate language, prominent writers in Prekmurje Slovene, such as Miklós Küzmics, István Küzmics, Ágoston Pável, József Klekl Senior, and József Szakovics, have claimed that it is a language, not simply a dialect.
Evald Flisar, a writer and playwright from Prekmurje and it had a written standard and literary tradition, both of which were largely neglected after World War II. There were attempts to publish in it more widely in the 1990s, primarily in Hungary, others consider Prekmurje Slovene a regional language, without denying that it is part of Slovene. The linguist Janko Dular has characterized Prekmurje Slovene as a standard language for historical reasons. Together with Resian, Prekmurje Slovene is the only Slovene dialect with a standard that has had a different historical development from the rest of Slovene ethnic territory. For centuries, it was used as a language of religious education, the historical Hungarian name for the Slovenes living within the borders of the Kingdom of Hungary was Vendek, or the Wends. In the 18th and 19th centuries Prekmurje authors used to designate this dialect as sztári szlovenszki jezik old Slovene and now, it is referred to as the Slovene language between the Mura and Raba.
Prekmurje Slovene is widely used in the media, films. The younger generation write SMS messages and web comments in their local tongue, in the Prekmurje and Hungary a few streets, hotels, etc. have Prekmurje Slovene names. In the 2012 protests in Slovenia in Murska Sobota the protesters use Prekmurje Slovene banners and it is the liturgical language in the Lutheran and Pentecostal churches, and in the Catholic Church of Hungarian Slovenes. Marko Jesenšek, a professor at the University of Maribor, states that the functionality of Prekmurje Slovene is limited, Prekmurje Slovene is part of the Pannonian dialect group, known as the eastern Slovene dialect group
Kajkavian /kaɪˈkɑːviən, -ˈkæ-/ is a South Slavic regiolect spoken primarily by Croats in much of Central Croatia, Gorski Kotar and northern Istria. Notable Croatian linguists consider Kajkavian to be a language in its own right, with its own established dialects, Croatian linguist Stjepan Ivšić has used Kajkavian vocabulary and accentuation, which significantly differs from that of Serbo-Croatian, as evidence. Furthermore, there is no clear demarcation between Slovene dialects and Kajkavian, thus, it has low mutual intelligibility with Shtokavian, on which Croatias standard language is based. As of 2015, historic Literary Kajkavian has a separate language ISO 639-3 code – kjv, Kajkavian literary language does not belong to Serbo-Croatian since it does not belong to the hbs-macrolanguage. The term Kajkavian stems from the interrogative pronoun kaj, the other main dialects of Serbo-Croatian derive their name from their reflex of the interrogative pronoun. However, the pronouns are only general pointers and do not serve as actual identifiers of the respective dialects, certain Kajkavian dialects use the interrogative pronoun ča, the one that is usually used in Chakavian.
The pronouns these dialects are named after are merely the most common one in that dialect, outside Croatias northern most regions, the dialect is spoken in Austrian Burgenland and a number of enclaves in Hungary along the Austrian and Croatian border and in Romania. Although speakers of Kajkavian are primarily Croats, and Kajkavian is considered a dialect of Serbo-Croatian, its closest relative is the Slovene language, followed by Chakavian, Kajkavian is part of a dialect continuum with Slovene and Chakavian. Since at least the early to mid-20th century, Kajkavian has been classified as a Serbo-Croatian dialect. Autonyms used throughout history by various Kajkavian writers have been manifold, the naming went through several phases, with the Slavic-based name initially being dominant. Over time, the name Croatian started gaining ground mainly during the 17th century, the name followed the same evolution in neighboring Slovene Prekmurje, although there the name Slovene-Croatian existed as well.
The actual term Kajkavian is today accepted by its speakers in Croatia, the problem with classifying Kajkavian within South Slavic stems in part from its structural differences from neighboring Shtokavian speeches as well as its historical closeness to Slovene speeches. Some Slavists maintain that when the separation of Western South Slavic speeches happened, they separated into four divergent groups — Shtokavian, Kajkavian, as a result of this, throughout history Kajkavian has often been categorized differently than today. It was considered by many to be either a separate node altogether or a node categorized together with Slovene, furthermore, no isoglosses exist that would separate all Slovene speeches from all Serbo-Croatian speeches. Nor do innovations exist common to Kajkavian and Shtokavian that would separate them from Slovene, the Kajkavian speech area is bordered in the northwest by the Slovene language and in the northeast by the Hungarian language. In the east and southeast it is bordered by Shtokavian dialects roughly along a line used to serve as the border between Civil Croatia and the Habsburg Military Frontier.
Finally, in the southwest it borders Chakavian along the Kupa and it is thought that historically these borders extended further to the south and east. For example, the border is thought to have extended at least well into modern-day Slavonia to the area around the town of Pakrac
The Slovene alphabet is an extension of the Latin script and is used in the Slovene language. The writing itself in its form does not use any other signs, for instance, additional accentual marks. For example, gòl | gól, jêsen | jesén, kót | kot, kózjak | kozják, med | méd | méd, pól | pól | pôl, prècej | precéj ), remí | rémi, there are 5 letters for vowels and 20 for consonants. In addition, the graphemes Ö and Ü are used in certain non-standard dialect spellings - for example, dödöli and Danilo Türk. Encyclopedic listings make use of this alphabet, a, b, c, č, ć, d, đ, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, š, t, u, v, w, x, y, z, ž. Therefore, Newton or New York remain the same and are not transliterated to Njuton or Njujork, the unit of force is written as njuton as well as newton. Other names from non-Latin languages are transliterated in a similar to that used by other European languages. Japanese and Arabic names such as Kajibumi and Jabar are written as Kadžibumi, Džakarta and Džabar, except for Ć and Đ, graphemes with diacritical marks from other foreign alphabets are not used as independent letters.
To remedy this, so that each vocal sound would have a written equivalent, in 1825, Franc Serafin Metelko proposed his version of the alphabet called metelčica. However, it was banned in 1833 in favour of the bohoričica after the so-called Suit of the Letters, another alphabet, dajnčica, was developed by Peter Dajnko in 1824, which did not catch on as much as metelčica, it was banned in 1838. The reason for their being banned is because they mixed Latin and Cyrillic characters, the gajica was adopted afterwards, however it still fails to feature all phonemes of the Slovene language. The preferred character encodings for Slovene texts are UTF-8 and ISO 8859-2, gajs Latin alphabet Slovenian braille Yugoslav manual alphabet Slovene alphabet