Burgh Castle is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. It is situated on the east bank of the River Waveney, some 3.7 miles west of Great Yarmouth and within the Broads National Park. The parish was part of Suffolk until 1974. Burgh Castle is the site of one of several Roman forts constructed to hold cavalry as a defence against Saxon raids up the rivers of the east and south coasts of southern Britain; this was Gariannonum, a name that appears in a some sources. The fort is rectangular 205 m by 100 m, with three of the tall massively built walls still extant; the site is owned by the Norfolk Archaeological Trust with the walls in the care of English Heritage. The site is open to the public and has a major access and interpretation scheme created by the Trust, with funding and collaboration from Natural England and English Heritage. There is a timber viewing platform overlooking the rivers and marshes which provides an ideal spot for wildlife observation. Since William Camden, Burgh Castle has been suggested as the site of Cnobheresburg, the unknown place in East Anglia, where in about 630 the first Irish monastery in southern England was founded by Saint Fursey as part of the Hiberno-Scottish mission described by Bede.
Historians are unable to agree on a better one. The Roman fort at Burgh Castle was excavated by Charles Green during 1958-61. A detailed report by Norfolk Museums Service in 1983 shows that there was never any monastic settlement in Burgh Castle itself; the church of Burgh Castle, St Peter and St Paul, one of 124 existing round-tower churches in Norfolk, has been a Grade II* listed building since November 1954. Points of interest include a well-preserved 14th-century "East Anglian Lion Font" and some magnificent stained glass windows the small lancet "Fursey" window. In 2015 the first stage of a major restoration programme, repairs to the north aisle, was completed; the church is open daily from 10am to 5pm April to October and at weekends from 10am to 3pm during March and November. The civil parish of Burgh Castle has an area of 1,670 acres and in the 2001 census had a population of 955 in 376 households. For the purposes of local government, the parish today falls within the district of Great Yarmouth.
However prior to the Local Government Act 1972, the parish was within Lothingland Rural District in Suffolk. The House of Burke take the original form of their surname de Burgh, from the area. Map sources for Burgh Castle Burgh Castle fort at Norfolk Archaeological Trust Burgh Castle at genuki.org.uk Burgh Castle at English Heritage Photographs of Burgh Castle and the church of St Peter and St Paul at roundtowerchurches.de Photographs of the church and fort at flickr.com Hursey Pilgrims - Christian pilgrimage to Burgh Castle
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
Burgh by Sands
Burgh by Sands is a village and civil parish in the City of Carlisle district of Cumbria, situated near the Solway Firth. The parish includes the village of Burgh by Sands along with Longburgh, Boustead Hill and Thurstonfield, it is notable as the place where Edward I of England died in 1307. According to the 2011 census the parish had a population of 1,176; the village is about seven miles west of Carlisle city centre. The village has a pub and a post office, it has a statue of Edward I at some distance to the north. Burgh was on the Carlisle Navigation canal from 1823 to 1853, after which it was served by the Port Carlisle railway, built on the bed of the canal, until its closure in 1932. From 1856 to 1964, railway trains operating on the Carlisle to Silloth line once again stopped at Burgh-by-sands station. Burgh is "doubtless so named from the'burh' or fort on Hadrian's Wall which ended here.". Hadrian's Wall runs through the village, the site once was that of a Roman fort, Aballava, it is the death-place of Edward I of England In the 12th century, the castle and lands of Burgh by Sands belonged to members of the Feudal barony of Burgh by Sands, among them Ada de Engaine.
Her granddaughter's second marriage founded a younger branch of the de Multon family, a branch of which held this castle in the 13th century. In the 14th century the Dacre family inherited it by marriage to the heiress. King Edward I, while on his way to war against the Scots, died on the marshes near Burgh, his corpse lay at the village's 12th-century church until its eventual removal to Westminster Abbey. There is an impressive monument on the marshes, it is signposted and can be reached on foot. The Church of St Michael is built with stone from the Roman wall on the site of a Norman church, it has a broad tower with a base dating from the mid 14th Century, apart from the 18th century east windows, the rest is Early English. The tower, which can only be reached from within the church, is designed for defence and the ground floor is tunnel-vaulted; the top of the tower is 18th century. The Parish falls in the electoral ward of Burgh; this wards stretches beyond the boundaries of Burgh by Sands with a total population taken at the 2011 Census of 2,117.
Public transport consists of a bus service from Carlisle. As of September 2018 it is run four times daily by Stagecoach. Listed buildings in Burgh by Sands Drumburgh List of English and Welsh endowed schools North End, Cumbria Cumbria County History Trust: Burgh-by-Sands Burgh by Sands Parish Council
Burgh is a village and civil parish in the Suffolk Coastal district of Suffolk, about 3.5 miles north-west of Woodbridge. St Botolph's church stands near the site of a Roman villa; the body of Saint Botolph is supposed to have been buried at his foundation of Icanho but in 970, Edgar I of England gave permission for Botolph's remains to be transferred to Burgh, where they remained for some fifty years before being transferred to their own tomb at Bury St Edmunds Abbey, on the instructions of Cnut. The church building is a Grade II * listed building. In the north wall is a mural painting by Anna Zinkeisen in memory of her husband Col. Guy Heseltine of c. 1967 showing birds of the Bible. The population of Burgh is about 200, measured at 182 at the 2011 census; because of its small size, there is no parish council, no parish rate is levied. Instead, there is a parish meeting; this meeting occurs three times a year. During these meetings, residents are welcome to discuss the issues, problems and affairs of the village.
Several artists and craftsmen work in the village. The neighbouring village of Grundisburgh and the towns of Woodbridge and Ipswich provide shops and all business and commercial services. Media related to Burgh at Wikimedia Commons
Burgh le Marsh
Burgh le Marsh is a town and electoral ward to the west of Skegness in the East Lindsey district of Lincolnshire, England. The town is built on a low hill surrounded by former marsh land, the marsh influenced the town's name, Burgh Le Marsh. Both the village windmill and church are visible from far distances; the A158 used to run through from west to east but this was rerouted when a new bypass opened in late 2007, having started in September 2006, has reduced traffic congestion dramatically. A Roman road passes through the town on the way to Skegness, comes from the north-west via Tetford and Ulceby; the town is on the site of a former Roman fort. Near the parish church is a large mound, where Saxon burial remains were found during the 1930s. There is a dip in the top of the mound, it is suggested that it was used for cockfighting, to this day it is known as Cock Hill. There is a traditional butcher and convenience shops. There is a fishmonger, a post office, a Chinese takeaway, a fish and chip shop, a library, a supermarket, an estate agent and a florist.
Local public houses include the Fleece Inn on the Market Square, the Red Lion in Storey's Lane, the Bell Hotel, White Hart Hotel, Ye Olde Burgh Inn on the High Street. Burgh-le-Marsh Grade I listed Anglican parish church is dedicated to St Paul. There is Methodist chapel. St Paul's Missionary College was an institution for training Anglican Clergy and existed from 1878 to 1936. There was once a Burgh-le-Marsh railway station on the line between Boston and Louth, but it is now closed; the town has two tower mills, the untarred Hanson's Mill of 1855, now a residence, the tarred Dobson's Mill, now a museum. Built in 1813 by Sam Oxley it is unusual in being the only left-handed tower mill having five sails. "Left-handed sails" mean they rotate clockwise when viewed from the front - a rare type of windmill. Burgh le Marsh is twinned with the town of Beaumont-sur-Sarthe in the Pays de la Loire in France; this twinning has celebrated its 25th Anniversary. The celebrations took place on the weekend of 18 May 2013.
The Chairman of the Burgh le Marsh Twinning Association is Neil Cooper and for the Beaumont sur Sarthe Twinning Association is Jean-Pascal Maudet. Media related to Burgh le Marsh at Wikimedia Commons Burgh le Marsh Church Website Burgh Le Marsh Town website Town council Windmill Poacher Country
A burh or burg was an Old English fortification or fortified settlement. In the 9th century and invasions by Vikings prompted Alfred the Great to develop a network of burhs and roads to use against such attackers; some were new constructions. As at Lundenburh, many were situated on rivers: this facilitated internal lines of supply while aiming to restrict access to the interior of the kingdom for attackers in shallow-draught vessels such as longships. Burhs had a secondary role as commercial and sometimes administrative centres, their fortifications were used to protect England's various royal mints. Burh and burg were Old English developments of the Proto-Germanic word reconstructed as *burg-s, cognate with the verb *berg-an, they are cognate with German Burg and Scandinavian borg and, in English, developed variously as "borough", "burg", "burgh". Byrig was the plural form of burh and burg: "forts", "fortifications", it was the dative case: "to the fort" or "for the fort". This developed into "bury" and "berry", which were used to describe manor houses, large farms, or settlements beside the fortifications.
In addition to the English foundations described here, these names were sometimes used in Old English calques or variants of native placenames, including the Brittonic *-dunon and Welsh caer, as at Salisbury. Burhs were built as military defences. According to H. R. Loyn, the burh "represented only a stage, though a vitally important one, in the evolution of the medieval English borough and of the medieval town"; the boundaries of ancient burhs can still be traced to modern urban borough limits. Most of these were founded by Alfred the Great in a consciously planned policy, continued under his son Edward the Elder and his daughter, Æthelflæd, the'Lady of the Mercians', her husband Æthelred, Ealdorman of Mercia; the Mercian Register tells of the building of ten burhs by Æthelflæd, some as important as Tamworth and Stafford, others now unidentifiable. Some were based upon pre-existing Roman structures, some newly built, though others may have been built at a date. Æthelstan granted these burhs the right to mint coinage and in the tenth and eleventh centuries the firm rule was that no coin was to be struck outside a burh.
A tenth-century document, now known as the Burghal Hidage and so named by Frederic William Maitland in 1897, cites thirty burhs in Wessex and three in Mercia. At the time, Mercia was ruled by the West Saxon kings; these burhs were all built to defend the region against Viking raids. Only eight of the burhs achieved municipal status in the Middle Ages: Chester, Tamworth, Hertford, Warwick and Maldon; the largest were at Winchester and Warwick, whilst Wallingford and Wareham are the best-preserved examples, with substantial ditches and banks still visible. It has been estimated that construction of Wallingford's 9,000 feet of bank would have taken more than 120,000 man hours. Burh towns usually had regular street layouts, some of which are still preserved. Burhs are thought to have been the origins of urban life in England. In most cases, Alfred's rebuilding of a burh did not cause any change of name, as the sites chosen had been some sort of fortified structure; the burhs were made in a variety of different ways, depending on materials available locally, the size of the settlement or area it was intended to defend.
A burh was built on the site of pre-existing fortifications. Sometimes, the Anglo-Saxons would repair old Roman walls in towns such as Winchester, York, Burgh Castle and Dover. At other times, they would build on the site of old Iron Age forts, such as Dover, utilising the old ditches and ramparts. However, the Anglo-Saxons did not just use old fortifications. Many of the burhs built by the Saxons were new fortified sites, built on strategic sites on the coast, near ports or overlooking roads and trade routes. Substantial new towns were built on flat land with a rectangular layout, at for example Oxford, Wallingford and Wareham. Traditionally, burhs were constructed first with a massive series of banks fronted by a ditch; the bank was timber faced and timber revetted. This was topped by a wooden palisade of stakes, up to 10 feet high, with a walkway. At towns such as Tamworth, the ramparts would decay and push outwards over time, meaning that the ditch and bank would deteriorate. To solve this, Anglo-Saxon builders faced banks with stone, thus further reinforcing the defences and improving their life span.
The purpose of the burhs was to provide defence for a port or town, the surrounding farms and hamlets. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Alfred constructed a series of burhs, listed in the Burghal Hidage numbering over 30, it was Alfred's intention that no English farm or village be any more than 20 miles away from a burh. He built a network of well maintained army roads, known as herepaths, that interconnected the burhs, allowing the population quick access to shelter; the herepaths enabled Alfred's troops to move swiftly to engage the enemy. It meant that reinforcements could be called up from other burhs if needed. Ryan Lavelle believes that each burh would have had a mounted force that would be ready for action against the Vikings, it is probable that there was a system of beacons on the high hills of Wessex that gave advance warning of any invader. Thus with this integrated network o
Burgh Island is a tidal island on the coast of South Devon in England near the small seaside village of Bigbury-on-Sea. There are the largest being the Art Deco Burgh Island Hotel; the other buildings are three private houses, a public house, the Pilchard Inn, run by the hotel. Archaeological discovery of tin ingots at the River Erme estuary wreck show that the local area was a significant tin trading port in ancient times; those who dwell near Belerium, one of the headlands of Britain, are fond of strangers, on account of their trade with the merchants they have a more civilized manner of living. They collect the tin. Although the land is stony, it has certain veins of earth from which they melt and purify the metal, extracted. After making this into bars they carry it to a certain island near Britain called Ictis. For although the place between is for the most part covered with water, yet in the middle there is dry ground, over this they carry a great amount of tin in wagons Thence the merchants carry into Gaul the tin which they have bought from the inhabitants.
And after a journey of thirty days on foot through Gaul, they convey their packs carried by horses to the mouths of the Rhone River. The island has been known by various names over the years. Early records and maps mention it as St Michael's Island; the name changed to Borough Island shortened to Burgh. As late as 1947 an Ordnance Survey map refers to the island as Borough Island. In 1908 a postcard produced by Stengel & Co Ltd of London referred to it as Burr Island. A map published in 1765 shows "Borough or Bur Isle", it is believed a monastery was established on the island, most of the remains of which may lie beneath the current hotel. The ancient Pilchard Inn may have started life as the guest lodgings for the monastery. A small transient, population of fishermen occupied the island following the dissolution of the monastery, specialising in pilchard fishing. There are the remains of a chapel atop the island, which became a "huers hut" — a place where fishermen would make a "hue and cry" call to inform other fishermen of shoals of pilchards.
During this period smuggling and piracy were common, benefiting from a natural barrier for half the day. Fear that German landing forces might use the island as a beachhead during World War II resulted in the area's fortification with anti-tank defences and two pillboxes, positioned on both sides of the causeway. An observation post was established on the summit to monitor the coastline. Burgh Island is well-known today as the location of a restored 1930s Art Deco-style hotel. Burgh Island is linked to Agatha Christie, as it served as the inspirational setting for Soldier Island and for the setting of the Hercule Poirot mystery Evil Under the Sun; the hotel, with its Art Deco styling, was a bolt hole in the 1930s for some of London's rich and famous, including Noël Coward. The 2002 TV adaptation of Evil Under The Sun used the island as a filming location. In 1994 an episode of the television series Lovejoy was set and filmed on the island, entitled Somewhere - Over the Rainbow? The island was the location for GMTV's Inch-loss Island slimming feature in 2008, as it was for the original series in 2001.
The climactic scene of the 1965 British film Catch Us. The island is 270 yards from the mainland at Bigbury-on-Sea and is approachable on foot at low tide. At high tide, the sea tractor, operated by the hotel, transports passengers back and forth; the original vehicle was constructed in 1930. The vehicle drives across the beach with its wheels underwater on the sandy bottom while its driver and passengers sit on a platform high above. Power from a Fordson tractor engine is relayed to the wheels via hydraulic motors; the island has an extensive network of footpaths and the owner until 2003 was a keen hiker who welcomed walkers. The new owners, erected signs closing footpaths and obtained an exemption from the public "rights to roam" enabled in the Countryside and Rights of Way Act 2000; the exemption was overturned, except for the routes closest to the hotel, in 2006. In April 2018, the owners of the island, Deborah Clark and Tony Orchard, announced that the island had been bought by "Project Archie", a joint venture between Bluehone Capital and Marechale Capital, for an undisclosed sum