A loom is a device used to weave cloth and tapestry. The basic purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension to facilitate the interweaving of the weft threads; the precise shape of the loom and its mechanics may vary. The word "loom" is derived from the Old English geloma, formed from ge- and loma, a root of unknown origin. In 1404 it was used to mean a machine to enable weaving thread into cloth. By 1838, it had gained the meaning of a machine for interlacing thread. Weaving is done by intersecting the longitudinal threads, the warp, i.e. "that, thrown across", with the transverse threads, the weft, i.e. "that, woven". The major components of the loom are the warp beam, harnesses or shafts, shuttle and takeup roll. In the loom, yarn processing includes shedding, picking and taking-up operations; these are the principal motions. Shedding. Shedding is the raising of part of the warp yarn to form a shed, through which the filling yarn, carried by the shuttle, can be inserted, forming the weft.
On the modern loom and intricate shedding operations are performed automatically by the heddle or heald frame known as a harness. This is a rectangular frame to which a series of wires, called healds, are attached; the yarns are passed through the eye holes of the heddles. The weave pattern determines which harness controls which warp yarns, the number of harnesses used depends on the complexity of the weave. Two common methods of controlling the heddles are a Jacquard Head. Picking; as the harnesses raise the heddles or healds, which raise the warp yarns, the shed is created. The filling yarn is inserted through the shed by a small carrier device called a shuttle; the shuttle is pointed at each end to allow passage through the shed. In a traditional shuttle loom, the filling yarn is wound onto a quill, which in turn is mounted in the shuttle; the filling yarn emerges through a hole in the shuttle. A single crossing of the shuttle from one side of the loom to the other is known as a pick; as the shuttle moves back and forth across the shed, it weaves an edge, or selvage, on each side of the fabric to prevent the fabric from raveling.
Battening. Between the heddles and the takeup roll, the warp threads pass through another frame called the reed; the portion of the fabric, formed but not yet rolled up on the takeup roll is called the fell. After the shuttle moves across the loom laying down the fill yarn, the weaver uses the reed to press each filling yarn against the fell. Conventional shuttle looms can operate at speeds of about 150 to 160 picks per minute. There are two secondary motions, because with each weaving operation the newly constructed fabric must be wound on a cloth beam; this process is called taking up. At the same time, the warp yarns must be released from the warp beams. To become automatic, a loom needs a tertiary motion, the filling stop motion; this will brake the loom. An automatic loom requires 0.125 hp to 0.5 hp to operate. The back strap loom is a simple loom, it consists of two bars between which the warps are stretched. One bar is attached to a fixed object and the other to the weaver by means of a strap around the back.
The weaver uses their body weight to tension the loom. On traditional looms, the two main sheds are operated by means of a shed roll over which one set of warps pass, continuous string heddles which encase each of the warps in the other set. To open the shed controlled by the string heddles, the weaver relaxes tension on the warps and raises the heddles; the other shed is opened by drawing the shed roll toward the weaver. Both simple and complex textiles can be woven on this loom. Width is limited to. Warp faced textiles decorated with intricate pick-up patterns woven in complementary and supplementary warp techniques are woven by indigenous peoples today around the world, they produce such things as belts, bags and carrying cloths. Supplementary weft patterning and brocading is practiced in many regions. Balanced weaves are possible on the backstrap loom. Today, commercially produced backstrap loom kits include a rigid heddle; the warp-weighted loom is a vertical loom. The earliest evidence of warp-weighted looms comes from sites belonging to the Starčevo culture in modern Serbia and Hungary and from late Neolithic sites in Switzerland.
This loom was used in Ancient Greece, spread north and west throughout Europe thereafter. Its defining characteristic is hanging weights. Extra warp thread is wound around the weights; when a weaver has reached the bottom of the available warp, the completed section can be rolled around the top beam, additional lengths of warp threads can be unwound from the weights to continue. This frees the weaver from vertical size constraint. A drawloom is a hand-loom for weaving figured cloth. In a drawloom, a "figure harness" is used to control each warp thread separately. A drawloom requires two operators, the weaver and an assistant called a "drawboy" to manage the figure harness; the earliest confirmed drawloom fabrics come from the State of Chu and date c. 400 BC. Most scholars attribute the invention of the dra
A metal detector is an electronic instrument which detects the presence of metal nearby. Metal detectors are useful for finding metal inclusions hidden within objects, or metal objects buried underground, they consist of a handheld unit with a sensor probe which can be swept over the ground or other objects. If the sensor comes near a piece of metal this is indicated by a changing tone in earphones, or a needle moving on an indicator; the device gives some indication of distance. Another common type are stationary "walk through" metal detectors used for security screening at access points in prisons and airports to detect concealed metal weapons on a person's body; the simplest form of a metal detector consists of an oscillator producing an alternating current that passes through a coil producing an alternating magnetic field. If a piece of electrically conductive metal is close to the coil, eddy currents will be induced in the metal, this produces a magnetic field of its own. If another coil is used to measure the magnetic field, the change in the magnetic field due to the metallic object can be detected.
The first industrial metal detectors were developed in the 1960s and were used extensively for mineral prospecting and other industrial applications. Uses include detecting land mines, the detection of weapons such as knives and guns, geophysical prospecting and treasure hunting. Metal detectors are used to detect foreign bodies in food, in the construction industry to detect steel reinforcing bars in concrete and pipes and wires buried in walls and floors. Towards the end of the 19th century, many scientists and engineers used their growing knowledge of electrical theory in an attempt to devise a machine which would pinpoint metal; the use of such a device to find ore-bearing rocks would give a huge advantage to any miner who employed it. Early machines were crude, used a lot of battery power, worked only to a limited degree. In 1874, Parisian inventor Gustave Trouvé developed a hand-held device for locating and extracting metal objects such as bullets from human patients. Inspired by Trouvé, Alexander Graham Bell developed a similar device to attempt to locate a bullet lodged in the chest of American President James Garfield in 1881.
The modern development of the metal detector began in the 1920s. Gerhard Fischer had developed a system of radio direction-finding, to be used for accurate navigation; the system worked well, but Fischer noticed there were anomalies in areas where the terrain contained ore-bearing rocks. He reasoned that if a radio beam could be distorted by metal it should be possible to design a machine which would detect metal using a search coil resonating at a radio frequency. In 1925 he applied for, was granted, the first patent for a metal detector. Although Gerhard Fischer was the first person granted a patent for a metal detector, the first to apply was Shirl Herr, a businessman from Crawfordsville, Indiana, his application for a hand-held Hidden-Metal Detector was filed in February 1924, but not patented until July 1928. Herr assisted Italian leader Benito Mussolini in recovering items remaining from the Emperor Caligula's galleys at the bottom of Lake Nemi, Italy in August 1929. Herr's invention was used by Admiral Richard Byrd's Second Antarctic Expedition in 1933, when it was used to locate objects left behind by earlier explorers.
It was effective up to a depth of eight feet. However, it was one Lieutenant Józef Stanisław Kosacki, a Polish officer attached to a unit stationed in St Andrews, Scotland, during the early years of World War II, who refined the design into a practical Polish mine detector; these units were still quite heavy, as they ran on vacuum tubes, needed separate battery packs. The design invented by Kosacki was used extensively during the Second Battle of El Alamein when 500 units were shipped to Field Marshal Montgomery to clear the minefields of the retreating Germans, used during the Allied invasion of Sicily, the Allied invasion of Italy and the Invasion of Normandy; as the creation and refinement of the device was a wartime military research operation, the knowledge that Kosacki created the first practical metal detector was kept secret for over 50 years. Many manufacturers of these new devices brought their own ideas to the market. White's Electronics of Oregon began in the 1950s by building a machine called the Oremaster Geiger Counter.
Another leader in detector technology was Charles Garrett. With the invention and development of the transistor in the 1950s and 1960s, metal detector manufacturers and designers made smaller lighter machines with improved circuitry, running on small battery packs. Companies sprang up all over the United States and Britain to supply the growing demand. Modern top models are computerized, using integrated circuit technology to allow the user to set sensitivity, track speed, threshold volume, notch filters, etc. and hold these parameters in memory for future use. Compared to just a decade ago, detectors are lighter, deeper-seeking, use less battery power, discriminate better. Larger portable metal detectors are used by archaeologists and treasure hunters to locate metallic items, such as jewelry, coins and other various artifacts buried beneath the surface; the biggest technical change in detectors was the development of the induction-balance system. This system involved two coils that were electrically
Styria is a state, or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria. In area it is the second largest of the nine Austrian federated states, covering 16,401 km2, it borders Slovenia and the Austrian states of Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Salzburg and Carinthia. The capital city is Graz which had 276,526 inhabitants at the beginning of 2015; the March of Styria derived its name from the original seat of its ruling Otakar dynasty: Steyr, in today's Upper Austria. In German, the area is still called "Steiermark"; the ancient link between Steyr and Styria is apparent in their nearly identical coats of arms, a white Panther on a green background. The term "Upper Styria" used by an Austrian refers to the northern and northwestern parts of the federal-state; the term "West Styria" is used for the districts to the west of Graz. The western and eastern parts of the district Graz-Umgebung may or may not be considered parts of West and East Styria, respectively; the southern parts of the Duchy of Styria, which have formed part of Yugoslavia and Slovenia since 1918, were referred to as "Lower Styria".
During early Roman times, Styria was inhabited by Celtic tribes. After its conquest by the Romans, the eastern part of what is now Styria was part of Pannonia, while the western one was included in Noricum. During the Barbarian invasions, it was conquered or crossed by the Visigoths, the Huns, the Ostrogoths, the Rugii, the Lombards. Slavs, who first were under the domination of the Avars, settled in the valleys of this country. At the same time Bavarian people began to expand their area to the south and east and absorbed the Slavic population. In 1180 Styria became a Duchy of its own. Styria formed the central part of Inner Austria. Styria developed culturally and economically under Archduke John of Austria between 1809 and 1859. In 1918, after World War I, it was divided into a northern section, a southern one, called Lower Styria, inhabited by ethnic Slovenians, and, annexed to Yugoslavia, in Slovenia; as elsewhere in the developed world, there has been a shift away from the manufacturing sector towards the service sector in Styria.
This has had negative consequences for the industrial regions of upper Styria which have suffered a steady decline in population in recent years. In 2004 Styria had the strongest economic growth rate in Austria at 3.8%—mainly due to the Graz area which saw strong economic growth that year and has continued to grow in economic and population terms since then. Styria is home to more than 150 clean technology companies, of which one dozen are world technology leaders in their field; the revenue of Styrian cleantech companies totals €2.7 billion. This equals to 8 percent of the Gross Regional Product, is one of the highest concentrations of leading clean technology companies in Europe; the companies have an average growth rate of 22 percent per year—well above the worldwide cleantech market growth of 18 percent per year. The region created 2,000 additional green jobs in 2008 alone; the state is divided into one of them a statutory city. Graz Bruck-Mürzzuschlag Deutschlandsberg Graz-Umgebung Hartberg-Fürstenfeld Leibnitz Leoben Liezen Murau Murtal Südoststeiermark Voitsberg Weiz The state had been a stronghold of the Austrian People's Party since 1945.
Graz however is a stronghold of the far left Communist Party. The governor has been an ÖVP member. In the 2005 elections for state parliament the Social Democrats under their regional chairman Franz Voves won the majority after the ÖVP had damaged its credibility through scandals and the secession of a high-ranking party member who took part in the 2005 elections after setting up his own party. In these elections, the KPÖ received many votes after it had gained much popularity through its role in local politics in Graz during the preceding few years; the two right-wing populist parties, the Freedom Party of Austria and the Alliance for the Future of Austria, failed to win seats. In subsequent elections in 2010 and 2015, the Social Democrats, the Austrian People's Party, the Communist Party each lost between one fourth and one third of their shares of the vote relative to 2005; the Freedom Party grew from 4.6 percent to 26.8 percent. The current government of Styria is a coalition of Social Democrats and People's Party, with each party holding 4 seats of the 8 seats available.
The governor, Hermann Schützenhöfer, is a representative of the People's Party. His deputy, Michael Schickhofer, is a Social Democrat. Palman and mercenary commander of the Serbian Empire Johann Joseph Fux and music theorist, wrote Gradus ad Parnassum – a composition manual used by Beethoven and Mozart Archduke John of Austria Jo
The Neolithic, the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first development of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, in other parts of the world. The division lasted until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago, marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BC, while in China it extended until 1200 BC. Other parts of the world remained broadly in the Neolithic stage of development, although this term may not be used, until European contact; the Neolithic comprises a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, "new" and λίθος líthos, "stone" meaning "New Stone Age"; the term was coined by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. Following the ASPRO chronology, the Neolithic started in around 10,200 BC in the Levant, arising from the Natufian culture, when pioneering use of wild cereals evolved into early farming.
The Natufian period or "proto-Neolithic" lasted from 12,500 to 9,500 BC, is taken to overlap with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of 10,200–8800 BC. As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas are thought to have forced people to develop farming. By 10,200–8800 BC farming communities had arisen in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa and North Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, the keeping of dogs and goats. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, the use of pottery. Not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order: the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
In other parts of the world, such as Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia, independent domestication events led to their own regionally distinctive Neolithic cultures, which arose independently of those in Europe and Southwest Asia. Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC. Early development occurred from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC; the prehistoric Beifudi site near Yixian in Hebei Province, contains relics of a culture contemporaneous with the Cishan and Xinglongwa cultures of about 6000–5000 BC, neolithic cultures east of the Taihang Mountains, filling in an archaeological gap between the two Northern Chinese cultures. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the collection of neolithic findings at the site encompasses two phases.
The Neolithic 1 period began around 10,000 BC in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe, dated to around 9500 BC, may be regarded as the beginning of the period; this site was developed by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, as evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity, may be the oldest known human-made place of worship. At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals and birds. Stone tools were used by as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, West Bank, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, Byblos, Lebanon; the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming. In the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, early seed selection and re-seeding occurred; the grain was ground into flour. Emmer wheat was domesticated, animals were herded and domesticated.
In 2006, remains of figs were discovered in a house in Jericho dated to 9400 BC. The figs are of a mutant variety that cannot be pollinated by insects, therefore the trees can only reproduce from cuttings; this evidence suggests that figs were the first cultivated crop and mark the invention of the technology of farming. This occurred centuries before the first cultivation of grains. Settlements became more permanent, with circular houses, much like those of the Natufians, with single rooms. However, these houses were for the first time made of mudbrick; the settlement had a surrounding stone wall and a stone tower. The wall served as protection from nearby groups, as protection from floods, or to keep animals penned; some of the enclosures suggest grain and meat storage. The Neolithic 2 began around 8800 BC according to the ASPRO chronology in the Levant; as with the PPNA dates, there are two versions from the same laboratories noted above. This system of terminology, however, is not convenient for southeast Anatolia and settlements of the middle Anatolia basin.
A settlement of 3,000 inhabitants was found in th
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding to Tuscany, south of the Arno river, western Umbria and central Lazio, with offshoots to the north in the Po Valley, in the current Emilia-Romagna, south-eastern Lombardy and southern Veneto, to the south, in some areas of Campania. As distinguished by its unique language, this civilization endured from before the time of the earliest Etruscan inscriptions until its assimilation into the Roman Republic, beginning in the late 4th century BC with the Roman–Etruscan Wars. Culture, identifiably Etruscan developed in Italy after about 900 BC with the Iron Age Villanovan culture, regarded as the oldest phase of Etruscan civilization; the latter gave way in the 7th century BCE to a culture, influenced by Ancient Greek culture, during the Archaic and the Hellenistic period. At its maximum extent, during the foundational period of Rome and the Roman Kingdom, Etruscan civilization flourished in three confederacies of cities: of Etruria, of the Po Valley with the eastern Alps, of Campania.
The league in northern Italy is mentioned in Livy. The decline was gradual, but by 500 BCE the political destiny of Italy had passed out of Etruscan hands; the last Etruscan cities were formally absorbed by Rome around 100 BCE. Although the Etruscans developed a system of writing, the Etruscan language remains only understood, only a handful of texts of any length survive, making modern understanding of their society and culture dependent on much and disapproving Roman and Greek sources. Politics was based on the small city and the family unit. In their heyday, the Etruscan elite grew rich through trade with the Celtic world to the north and the Greeks to the south and filled their large family tombs with imported luxuries. Archaic Greece had a huge influence on their art and architecture, Greek mythology was evidently familiar to them; the Etruscans called themselves Rasenna, syncopated to Rasna or Raśna, while the ancient Romans referred to the Etruscans as the Tuscī or Etruscī. Their Roman name is the origin of the terms "Toscana", which refers to their heartland, "Etruria", which can refer to their wider region.
In Attic Greek, the Etruscans were known as Tyrrhenians, from which the Romans derived the names Tyrrhēnī, Tyrrhēnia, Mare Tyrrhēnum, prompting some to associate them with the Teresh. The origins of the Etruscans are lost in prehistory, although Greek historians as early as the 5th century BC associated the Tyrrhenians with Pelasgians, which could both be broad descriptive terms. Strabo and the Homeric Hymn to Dionysus make mention of the Tyrrhenians as pirates. Thucydides and Strabo all denote Lemnos as settled by Pelasgians, whom Thucydides identifies as "belonging to the Tyrrhenians". Although both Strabo and Herodotus agree that Tyrrhenus / Tyrsenos, son of Atys, king of Lydia, led the migration, Strabo specifies that it was the Pelasgians of Lemnos and Imbros who followed Tyrrhenus to the Italian Peninsula. A link between Lemnos and the Tyrrhenians was further manifested by the discovery of the Lemnos Stele, whose inscriptions were written in a language which shows strong structural resemblances to the language of the Etruscans.
This has led to the suggestion of a "Tyrrhenian language group" comprising Etruscan and the Raetic spoken in the Alps. Hellanicus of Lesbos records a Pelasgian migration from Thessaly to the Italian peninsula, noting that "the Pelasgi made themselves masters of some of the lands belonging to the Umbri". By contrast, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, a Greek writer living in Rome, dismisses many of the ancient theories of the other Greek historians and postulates that the Etruscans were indigenous people who had always lived in Etruria. For this reason, therefore, I am persuaded that the Pelasgians are a different people from the Tyrrhenians, and I do not believe, that the Tyrrhenians were a colony of the Lydians. For they neither worship the same gods as the Lydians nor make use of similar laws or institutions, but in these respects they differ more from the Lydians than from the Pelasgians. Indeed, those come nearest to the truth who declare that the nation migrated from nowhere else, but was native to the country, since it is found to be a ancient nation and to agree with no other either in its language or in its manner of living.
Furthermore, Dionysius of Halicarnassus is the first ancient writer who reports the endonym of the Etruscans: Rasenna. The Romans, give them other names: from the country they once inhabited, named Etruria, they call them Etruscans, from their knowledge of the ceremonies relating to divine worship, in which they excel others, they now call them, rather inaccurately, but with the same accuracy as the Greeks, they called them Thyoscoï, their own name for themselves, however, is the same as that of one of Rasenna. Livy in his Ab Urbe Condita Libri says the Rhaetians were Etruscans driven into the mountains by the invading Gauls, asserts that the inhabitants of Raetia were of Etruscan origin; the Alpine tribes have no doubt, the same origin the Raetians.
Gleinstätten is a market community in southern Austria which had 2,831 inhabitants in 2015. Gleinstätten is situated west of the Sausal hill range, about halfway between the district cities of Leibnitz and Deutschlandsberg, 35 km to the south of Styria’s capital, Graz, its oldest part, with the prominent Renaissance castle, is centered on the eastern and southern edge of a terrace that provides protection against the floods of the river. The villages Prarath and Forst are part of the Gleinstätten community. There are few neolithic finds, no Bronze Age finds, at Gleinstätten. However, at this time the hill ranges hemming in the Sulm river were used as an east-to-west transit route between the Balkans, the southern parts of the Basin of Graz and what would much become the Austrian’s southernmost province, Carinthia. In the early alpine Iron Age, from the early 8th century BC to the early 600s BC, a significant Hallstatt culture settlement of more than regional importance existed on the Burgstallkogel, a prominent hill just across the Sulm valley.
The inhabitants of this settlement maintained long-range trade relations, it would have been reasonable for them to keep at least a watch post on the terrace on the opposite side of the valley. Only in the 5th century B. C. when the Burgstallkogel settlement was abandoned, a small and rather poor habitation was present north of Gleinstätten. There is no proof of a settlement at Gleinstätten during Roman rule when the area was part of the province of Noricum, although the remains of a Villa rustica have been identified near the former Burgstallkogel settlement; the village is first mentioned in 1245 as Micheldorf, a name which could refer to the Archangel Michael to whom many contemporary churches and chapels in the vicinity were dedicated. It could simply mean "large village" or "the larger village" because in medieval German the prefix "Michel-" stood for "large"; the fact that the first known document referring to the adjacent villages Haslach and Prarath dates from 1136 suggests at least a similar age for Gleinstätten which has a much more prominent location.
However it seems quite that all these settlements date back to the 9th century when the early Bavarians reclaimed the region from the predecessors of the current Slovenians who had loosely settled it after the rule of the Avars had succumbed to Charlemagne. From the Rationarium Styriae we know that 18 houses in Micheldorf were obliged to pay taxes to king Premysl II Ottokar. In 1285 ownership of the village passed from the Micheldorfer family to the related Gleinzer family which reported to the archbishop of Salzburg, their name most traces back to the Old Slavic word root glina, which refers to the abundant clay deposits near the village. In 1523 Balthasar Gleinzer, who had owned Micheldorf since 1515, obtained permission to rename his village Gleinzstätten, from which the current name evolved; the year 1556 marked the conversion of the small medieval fortification at the center of the village to one of the most significant castles in the style of the Italian Renaissance that have been preserved in Austria.
It grew toward its current four-wing, three-storey design from 1622 onward when the Zeller family assumed ownership of Gleinstätten. Modifications were made around 1640 and after a fire in 1666, again around 1740 after another line of Salzburg nobility, the Khuenburg family had taken over; this line held formal rule until the Revolutions of 1848, maintained effective ownership of Gleinstätten until 1870. In 1907, Pistorf and Prarath seceded from Gleinstätten to form their own municipalities. During these centuries Gleinstätten experienced war, natural disaster, epidemics to the same extent as most other places in Austria. Among the most serious events were the following ones: 1532 Turkish troops retreating from their abortive Siege of Vienna lay waste to the area 1680-1681 The last outbreak of the Black Death claims numerous victims In 1734 and 1822 fires devastated Gleinstätten In 1805 the village suffered from military action and marauding during the War of the Third Coalition In 1853 massive hail destroyed the entire harvest The year 1916 saw a flood that ruined the agriculture and caused severe damage to traffic routesWorld War I claimed a heavy toll on the population of Gleinstätten, the subsequent loss of Lower Styria in 1919 transformed the entire area into a border district with limited economic perspectives.
Although nobility had been abolished in Austria, the Wucherer von Huldenfeld family which owned the castle along with many of the local assets enjoyed considerable popularity. They managed to hold on to their estate for some time, initiated the first wave of industrialization. However, by 1931 their economic situation had deteriorated so much that the Baron’s creditors expelled the family from the castle, which started to fall into disrepair. General economic recovery in Austria, increasing attention of the Styrian provincial government to its border regions, relaxing political relations with Yugoslavia all contributed to a favorable development of the region during the 1960s and 1970s. By this time the decay of the castle had progressed to such a degree that its demolition was acutely considered. However, a strong grass-roots initiative that pushed for preservation was successful politically as well as in securing financing. Refurbishment commenced in 1976, in 1978 the restored
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age division of the prehistory and protohistory of humankind. It was preceded by the Bronze Age; the concept has been applied to Europe and the Ancient Near East, and, by analogy to other parts of the Old World. The duration of the Iron Age varies depending on the region under consideration, it is defined by archaeological convention, the mere presence of some cast or wrought iron is not sufficient to represent an Iron Age culture. For example, Tutankhamun's meteoric iron dagger comes from the Bronze Age. In the Ancient Near East, this transition takes place in the wake of the so-called Bronze Age collapse, in the 12th century BC; the technology soon spread to South Asia. Its further spread to Central Asia, Eastern Europe, Central Europe is somewhat delayed, Northern Europe is reached still by about 500 BC; the Iron Age is taken to end by convention, with the beginning of the historiographical record. This does not represent a clear break in the archaeological record.
The Germanic Iron Age of Scandinavia is taken to end c. AD 800, with the beginning of the Viking Age. In South Asia, the Iron Age is taken to begin with the ironworking Painted Gray Ware culture and to end with the reign of Ashoka; the use of the term "Iron Age" in the archaeology of South and Southeast Asia is more recent, less common, than for western Eurasia. The Sahel and Sub-Saharan Africa are outside of the three-age system, there being no Bronze Age, but the term "Iron Age" is sometimes used in reference to early cultures practicing ironworking such as the Nok culture of Nigeria; the three-age system was introduced in the first half of the 19th century for the archaeology of Europe in particular, by the 19th century expanded to the archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Its name harks back to the mythological "Ages of Man" of Hesiod; as an archaeological era it was first introduced for Scandinavia by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen in the 1830s. By the 1860s, it was embraced as a useful division of the "earliest history of mankind" in general and began to be applied in Assyriology.
The development of the now-conventional periodization in the archaeology of the Ancient Near East was developed in the 1920s to 1930s. As its name suggests, Iron Age technology is characterized by the production of tools and weaponry by ferrous metallurgy, more from carbon steel; the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe and the 6th century BC in Northern Europe; the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II. Iron I illustrates both discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age. There is no definitive cultural break between the 13th and 12th centuries BC throughout the entire region, although certain new features in the hill country and coastal region may suggest the appearance of the Aramaean and Sea People groups. There is evidence, however, of strong continuity with Bronze Age culture, although as one moves into Iron I the culture begins to diverge more from that of the late 2nd millennium.
The Iron Age as an archaeological period is defined as that part of the prehistory of a culture or region during which ferrous metallurgy was the dominant technology of metalworking. The periodization is not tied to the presence of ferrous metallurgy and is to some extent a matter of convention; the characteristic of an Iron Age culture is mass production of tools and weapons made from steel alloys with a carbon content between 0.30% and 1.2% by weight. Only with the capability of the production of carbon steel does ferrous metallurgy result in tools or weapons that are equal or superior to bronze. To this day bronze and brass have not been replaced in many applications, with the spread of steel being based as much on economics as on metallurgical advancements. A range of techniques have been used to produce steel from smelted iron, including techniques such as case-hardening and forge welding that were used to make cutting edges stronger. By convention, the Iron Age in the Ancient Near East is taken to last from c. 1200 BC to c. 550 BC, taken as the beginning of historiography or the end of the proto-historical period.
In Central and Western Europe, the Iron Age is taken to last from c. 800 BC to c. 1 BC, in Northern Europe from c. 500 BC to 800 AD. In China, there is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age China transitions directly into the Qin dynasty of imperial China; the following gives an overview over the