A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places, paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, bicycle, or horse. Roads consist of one or two roadways, each with one or more lanes and any associated sidewalks and road verges. There is sometimes a bike path. Other names for roads include parkways, freeways, interstates, highways, or primary and tertiary local roads. Many roads were recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance; the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development defines a road as "a line of communication using a stabilized base other than rails or air strips open to public traffic for the use of road motor vehicles running on their own wheels", which includes "bridges, supporting structures, crossings and toll roads, but not cycle paths". The Eurostat, ITF and UNECE Glossary for Transport Statistics Illustrated defines a road as a "Line of communication open to public traffic for the use of road motor vehicles, using a stabilized base other than rails or air strips.
Included are paved other roads with a stabilized base, e.g. gravel roads. Roads cover streets, tunnels, supporting structures, junctions and interchanges. Toll roads are included. Excluded are dedicated cycle lanes."The 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic defines a road as the entire surface of any way or street open to public traffic. In urban areas roads may diverge through a city or village and be named as streets, serving a dual function as urban space easement and route. Modern roads are smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel. In the United Kingdom The Highway Code details rules for "road users", but there is some ambiguity between the terms highway and road. For the purposes of the English law, Highways Act 1980, which covers England and Wales but not Scotland or Northern Ireland, road is "any length of highway or of any other road to which the public has access, includes bridges over which a road passes"; this includes footpaths and cycle tracks, road and driveways on private land and many car parks.
Vehicle Excise Duty, a road use tax, is payable on some vehicles used on the public road. The definition of a road depends on the definition of a highway. A 1984 ruling said. Another legal view is that while a highway included footpaths, driftways, etc. it can now be used to mean those ways that allow the movement of motor-vehicles, the term rights of way can be used to cover the wider usage. In the United States, laws distinguish between public roads, which are open to public use, private roads, which are controlled. Maintenance is becoming an increasing problem in the United States. Between 1997 and 2018, the number of existing roads too bumpy to drive on compared to roads with decent surfaces has increased by 11% due to potholes that are not being properly addressed; the assertion that the first pathways were the trails made by animals has not been universally accepted. Some believe; the Icknield Way may examplify this type of road origination, where human and animal both selected the same natural line.
By about 10,000 BC human travelers used rough roads/pathways. The world's oldest known paved road was constructed in Egypt some time between 2600 and 2200 BC. Stone- paved streets appear in the city of Ur in the Middle East dating back to 4000 BC. Corduroy roads are found dating to 4000 BC in England; the Sweet Track, a timber track causeway in England, is one of the oldest engineered roads discovered and the oldest timber trackway discovered in Northern Europe. Built in winter 3807 BC or spring 3806 BC, it was claimed to be the oldest road in the world until the 2009 discovery of a 6,000-year-old trackway in Plumstead, London. Brick-paved streets appeared in India as early as 3000 BC. c. 1995 BC: an early subdividing of roadways evidenced with sidewalks built in Anatolia. In 500 BC, Darius I the Great started an extensive road system for the Achaemenid Empire, including the Royal Road, one of the finest highways of its time, connecting Sardis to Susa; the road remained in use after Roman times.
These road systems reached as far east as India. In ancient times, transport by river was far easier and faster than transport by road considering the cost of road construction and the difference in carrying capacity between carts and river barges. A hybrid of road transport and ship transport beginning in about 1740 is the horse-drawn boat in which the horse follows a cleared path along the river bank. From about 312 BC, the Roman Empire built straight strong stone Roman roads throughout Europe and North Africa, in support of its military campaigns. At its peak the Roman Empire was connected by 29 major roads moving out from Rome and covering 78,000 kilometers or 52,964 Roman miles of paved roads. In the 8th century AD, many roads were built throughout the Arab Empire; the most sophisticated roads were those in Baghdad, which were paved wit
Melbourne tram route 72
Melbourne tram route 72 is operated by Yarra Trams on the Melbourne tram network. It operates from Melbourne University to Camberwell; the 16.8 kilometre route is operated by Z and D class trams from Malvern depot. Route 72 was first allocated to the line between Camberwell and the City on 1 November 1970. Prior to that, the line to Camberwell was serviced by Route 7; the change was at first due to operations of the Camberwell line being shifted from Malvern Depot to Camberwell Depot. Though the route was subsequently returned to Malvern in 1979, the number 72 was kept. Before 1970, Route 72 was a short-working of the Wattle Park line, for trams that terminated at Riversdale instead of Wattle Park. Trams traditionally terminated at the Victoria St terminus, but following an accident in 1991, trams instead terminated at the Queensberry St crossover. Due to congestion during peak hours at the crossover, some trams continued north to Melbourne University. On 17 January 1996, a permanent shunt was built at Melbourne University.
From on, Route 72 trams were altered run full-time to Melbourne University. The origins of route 72 lie in separate tram lines; the section of track between Queensberry Street and Commercial Road is the oldest section of this route, dating back to the Brighton Road cable tram which opened on 11 October 1888 by the Melbourne Tramway & Omnibus Company. This cable tram line was electrified in stages by the Metropolitan Tramways Board; the section between Domain Interchange and Commercial Road was electrified on 27 December 1925. The section between Queensberry Street and City Road was electrified on the same day; the line between City Road and Domain Interchange was electrified on 24 January 1926. The Prahran & Malvern Tramways Trust constructed the Malvern Road line between St Kilda Road and Gardiner on 8 April 1915; this line was extended to Camberwell Railway Station on 6 December 1917, to Cotham Road on 7 March 1918. In response to the State Government's Melbourne 2030 planning policy, the Public Transport Users Association lobbied to extend route 72 north to Doncaster Road and Ivanhoe station, south to Caulfield.
Media related to Melbourne tram route 72 at Wikimedia Commons Route 72 timetable and map
The Monash Freeway is a major urban freeway in Victoria, linking Melbourne's CBD to its south-eastern suburbs and beyond to the Gippsland region. It is one of Australia's busiest freeways; the entire stretch of the Monash Freeway bears the designation M1. The freeway was shown in the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan as part of the F9 and F14 Freeway corridors; the freeway is named in honour of General Sir John Monash, an esteemed Australian military commander for the allies during World War I. The Monash Freeway is an amalgamation of two separate freeways: the Mulgrave Freeway linking Warrigal Road, Chadstone to the Princes Highway in Eumemmerring; the initial section of the Mulgrave Freeway was opened to traffic in 1972, with bi-directional interchanges with Heatherton and Stud Roads. In the 1970s and in the early 1980s it was progressively extended Eastward to Forster Road - with additional interchanges at Blackburn, Ferntree Gully and Jacksons Roads - to Huntingdale Road, to Warrigal Road in Chadstone.
Construction at the Hallam end extended underneath an interchange at the Princes Highway and southwards along the old alignment of the South Gippsland Highway to the interchange with Dandenong-Hastings Road, now the Westernport Highway at Lyndhurst. The Freeway Route 81 designation was dropped in 1988, coinciding with the opening of the South Eastern Arterial. At this time the Tullamarine Freeway carried the Freeway Route 81 route shield; this was due to the 1969 Melbourne Transportation Plan having the two freeways linked to each other from around East Malvern and at Flemington, sweeping through the St Kilda area. The plan never came to fruition, but the two freeways have since been linked by the West Gate Freeway extension and the CityLink project. 1972 - Mulgrave and Eumemmerring Freeways - 5.6 km from the Princes Highway, Hallam to Stud Road, Dandenong North, opened 21 November 1972. 1974 - 7.5 km opened 1974 from Springvale Road to Stud Road $9.3 million. 1976 - Opened from Springvale Road to Blackburn Road, 15 December 1976.
1977 - Opened from Blackburn to Forster Road, 5 April 1977, by the Hon J A Rafferty, Minister for Transport. This section along with the previous section opened in 1976 cost a total of $13m. 1979 - 2.1 km from Huntingdale Road to Forster Road, with three lanes each direction, plus emergency stopping lanes, opened 12 December 1979, by Minister for Transport, the Hon Robert Maclellan MLA, at a cost of $8.7m. 1981 - 1.6 km from Huntingdale Road to Warrigal Road, with two lanes each direction, plus emergency stopping lanes — opened 24 June 1981, by Minister for Transport, the Hon Robert Maclellan MLA, at a cost of $11m. ‘Opened one week after the 20th anniversary of the opening of Victoria's first freeway, the Maltby Bypass Road near Werribee, on 16 June 1961'. Initial construction of the South Eastern Freeway had been completed by the mid-1960s, connecting Burnley to Olympic Park at Harcourt Parade, which fed traffic to Punt Road at the Hoddle Bridge: an overpass across Punt Road followed to end at Anderson Street and the Morell Bridge, with a single-carriageway feeder road to the Swan Street Bridge 800 metres beyond.
The freeway was further extended east from Burnley under the MacRobertson Bridge along the Yarra, to Toorak Road, with a single-carriageway feeder road taking excess traffic to Tooronga Road. The Punt Road overpass and elevated section of road over the Yarra River and Gardiners Creek were designed by Melbourne engineer Bruce Day; the first and second stages were completed in 1971. Designated State Route 80 in the 1960s, it was signed as Freeway Route 80 until 1988, when the South Eastern Arterial was completed; the resulting gap between the Toorak / Burke Road end of the South Eastern Freeway and the Warrigal Road end of the Mulgrave Freeway frustrated drivers for many years. Motorists had to rely on inadequate feeder roads to connect between the two freeways. Construction on a dual-carriageway at-grade road link between the two freeways began in the mid-1980s; the link opened to traffic on 21 December 1988 at a cost of A$152 million with two lanes in each direction. Soon after opening, the link, as well as the South Eastern Freeway and the Mulgrave Freeway, were renamed the South Eastern Arterial.
This road assumed the National Route 1 route number from the Princes Highway, which became an alternative route. The project attracted a great deal of controversy just before it opened and well afterwards: in order to save costs, only one freeway-style interchange had been constructed; every other interchange with major roads along the route was an at-grade intersection controlled by traffic-lights, because the road was constructed through residential areas, reduced speed limits were enforced. This led to heavy congestion kilometres long, on the freeway, fuelling anger and frustration, attracting a rather-apt moniker of "the South-Eastern Carpark". With a change of government several years and a lot of political showmanship, more money was poured into the link road, constructing underpass interchanges at Toorak and Burk
Camberwell is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 10 km east of Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Boroondara. At the 2016 Census, Camberwell had a population of 22,081; the western and eastern boundaries of the suburb follow Burke Road, Toorak Road and Warrigal Road respectively. The northern boundary follows Riversdale Road, except for an area in the northwest where it extends upwards to Canterbury Road, incorporating Camberwell, East Camberwell and Riversdale railway stations. Known for grand, historic residences and tranquil, leafy streets, Camberwell is regarded as one of Melbourne's most prestigious and exclusive suburbs. Camberwell is designated one of 26 Principal Activity Centres in the Melbourne 2030 Metropolitan Strategy. A feature of Camberwell is the Burke Road shopping strip, which stretches north 600 m from Camberwell Junction, where three tram routes converge—the 70, 72, 75. Halfway up the shopping strip is Camberwell railway station, which services the Belgrave and Alamein train lines.
East Camberwell, Riversdale and Hartwell stations lie within the suburb's boundaries. Several bus routes cover the area; the historic Rivoli Cinemas sit just west of Camberwell Junction, in the adjacent suburb of Hawthorn East. Camberwell has several parks and playgrounds, most notably, Frog Hollow Reserve, Fordham Gardens, Cooper Reserve, Bowen Gardens, Lynden Park, Highfield Park, Riversdale Park and Willison Park. Camberwell is home to a number including Pacific Brands and Bakers Delight. Camberwell received its name as a result of an early settler being reminded of the way three roads intersected in the south London district of Camberwell; this intersection is now known as Camberwell Junction. The development that followed was a product of the expansion of Melbourne's suburban rail network in the 1880s. Camberwell Post Office opened on 12 October 1864; the Prospect Hill Road Precinct area is adjacent to the railway station and is the oldest part of the suburb. The original subdivision was generous blocks, which were filled with fine Victorian and Edwardian houses.
Due to its hilly topography, many east-west streets in the Prospect Hill area have an excellent view of Melbourne's Central Business District. Its main commercial centre developed along Burke Road from its railway station to Camberwell Junction, 500 m to the south. Several tram routes converge on this point. Though the area was agricultural, Camberwell is now one of the most well-established of Melbourne's affluent suburbs, it is part of the City of Boroondara, the local government area with the lowest socio-economic disadvantage index in Australia. There is no industrial land in Camberwell, commercial uses are concentrated near the Burke Road precinct, which has long been one of the busiest in suburban Melbourne. House prices in Boroondara are well above the metropolitan median and those in the Prospect Hill Road Precinct are several times the Boroondara median; the median price of a four bedroom detached house in Camberwell in April 2018 stood at a little over A$2.5 million while the median rent was A$895 a week.
In the 1980s a planned major development to the east of the Burke Road shopping strip met substantial opposition from local residents. National Mutual Life Association proposed a 24,000 sq.m. three-storey enclosed shopping centre, which drew substantial objection. Developer Floyd Podgornik's Podgor Group purchased the site from National Mutual in 1987 and submitted revised plans to Camberwell Council; when the Council approved Podgor's plans in 1988, 400 residents stormed the meeting. At elections that year, anti-development protesters won control of the Council and although the developer subsequently proposed a lesser development, in 1990 it rescinded its decision to approve the shopping centre. Subsequently, Podgor was awarded $25m in damages. Similar opposition was mounted regarding plans dating from 1999 to develop Camberwell railway station to incorporate retail and office development. High-profile present and past residents Geoffrey Rush and Barry Humphries supported the protest action, but the development was approved in 2009.
East Camberwell, Hartwell and Willison are four named neighbourhoods, within the general area of the railway stations of the same name. The southern areas of the Prospect Hill Precinct were developed for the Riversdale Estate, Kasouka Estate and Gladstone Park Estates from the late nineteenth century; the Kasouka Estate was created in 1891 and included Kasouka Road, Prospect Hill and Riversdale Roads. Kasouka Road has a high level of visual cohesion and is dominated by Victorian and Edwardian period villas. According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 22,081 people in Camberwell. 66.9% of people were born in Australia. The next most common countries of birth were China 5.4%, England 3.5%, India 2.2%, New Zealand 1.9% and Malaysia 1.7%. 72.6% of people spoke only English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Mandarin 6.8%, Greek 2.6%, Cantonese 2.0%, Italian 1.6% and French 1.2%. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 36.2%, Catholic 22.1% and Anglican 11.0%.
Marie Collier, soprano Peter Costello, Former Federal Treasurer and former MP for Higgins Sir Rupert Hamer, Victorian Premier 1971–1981 Barry Humphries, Australian comedian, best known for his alter ego Dame Edna Everage.
Ivanhoe is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 10 km north-east of Melbourne's Central Business District. Its local government area is the City of Banyule. At the 2016 Census, Ivanhoe had a population of 12,171. Ivanhoe Post Office opened on 1 September 1874. Ivanhoe North Post Office, on Waterdale Road near Banksia Street opened on 17 May 1926. An Ivanhoe West Post Office was open from 1955 until 1988; the Yarra River forms the southern boundary of the suburb, with a golf course and a narrow riparian strip reserve. Darebin Creek runs along the western boundary of the suburb. Upper Heidelberg Road is the suburb's centre and the location of the former Heidelberg Town Hall, now known as The Centre Ivanhoe; the town hall is a classic'art-deco' building on top of a hill, with a green neon clockface on a tower. Due to historical considerations, the town hall continues to host Banyule City Council meetings notwithstanding their main offices moving to Greensborough in 2017; the suburb has two railway stations.
The suburb hosts two elite private schools. It is home to one of Victoria's oldest state schools, Ivanhoe Primary School, established in 1853. Ivanhoe City Soccer Club est. 2015 Ivanhoe Amateur Football Club since 1910 Old Ivanhoe Grammarians Football Club est.1964 Ivanhoe Knights Basketball Club Ivanhoe Junior Football Club Old Ivanhoe Grammarians Cricket Club West Ivanhoe United Cricket Club East Ivanhoe Saints Cricket Club Ivanhoe Cricket Club Ivanhoe Bowls Club est. 1912 Ivanhoe Golf Course on Vasey Street. Cate Blanchett - Grew up in Ivanhoe. Carrie Bickmore - Ivanhoe resident. Peter Helliar - Ivanhoe resident. Sam Bramham - Paralympic gold medalist lives in Ivanhoe. Carol Jerrems - photographer and grew up in Ivanhoe; the Nervo Twins City of Heidelberg - Ivanhoe was within this local government area. Ivanhoe House Hessel, Michelle. Boulevard of Christmas Dreams <http://www.apapublishing.com.au/articles/56.asp> APA Publishing: 13 December 1999 retrieved 28 November 2005. Local History of Ivanhoe
High Street is a metonym for the concept of the primary business street of towns or cities in the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Nations. To distinguish it from "centres" of nearby places it is preceded unofficially by the name of its settlement. In a town it implies the focal point for business shops and street stalls in town and city centres; as a generic shorthand presupposed upon linear settlements it may be used to denote more precise concepts such as the urban retail sector, town centre sectors of employment, all small shops and services outlets and wider concepts taking in social concepts. The number of High Streets reached a peak in Victorian England. Since the 20th-century, the prosperity of High Streets has been in decline, forcing many shop closures and prompting the UK Government to consider initiatives to reinvigorate and preserve the High Street. High Street is the most common street name in the UK, which according to a 2009 statistical compilation has 5,410 High Streets, 3,811 Station Roads and 2,702 Main Streets.
The smallest High Street in Britain is located in the small market town of Holsworthy in Devon. The street itself consists of only three shops. In Middle English the word "high" denoted a meaning of excellence or superior rank. "High" applied to roads as they improved: "highway" was a new term taken up by the church and their vestries to during the 17th century as a term for all public roads between settlements. From the 19th-century, which saw a proliferation in the number of public roads, in countries using the term motorway, the term highway fell out of common speech and was supplanted by the legal definition, denoting any public road, as in the Highway Code, thus the term "High Street" assumed a different meaning. In Britain, the term, ` High Street', has both a specific meaning. People refer to shopping on the high street when they mean the main retail precinct, but refer to shopping on the High Street when they mean a specific street carrying the name of High Street or one of its variants.
Many British colonies, including Canada and New Zealand, adopted the term to refer to the main retail shopping precinct in a given city or town. In Britain, some 3,000 streets called "High Street" and about 2,300 streets with variations on the name have been identified, giving a grand total of 5,300. Of these, more than 600 High Streets are located in London's boroughs. Following the Great Fire of London, the city of London was rebuilt. New planning laws, governing rebuilding, designated four types of street based on the size of their carriageways and the types of buildings. Shops were permitted in the principal street or'high street', but not in the by-lanes or back streets; this may have been based on the need for high visibility in order to regulate retail trade, as well as to avoid congestion in the narrow lanes and back streets. Accordingly, from the 17th-century, the term "High Street" assumed a narrower meaning and came to describe thoroughfares with significant retail in large villages and towns.
In the late 17th and 18th-centuries, the number of High Streets increased markedly. The 19th-century was a "golden era" for High Street shops; the rise of the middle class in Victorian England contributed to a more favourable attitude to shopping and consumption. Shopping centres became the places to see and be seen - places for recreational shopping and promenading. By the 20th century, the viability of high streets began to decline. In the second half of the 20th-century, traditional British High Street precincts came under pressure from out-of-town shopping malls, with the balance shifting towards the latter. In the late 20th-century and mortar retailers confronted another major threat - from online retailers operating in a global marketplace. To confront this threat, High Street precincts have been forced to evolve - some have become smaller as shops shut their doors, others have become more like social spaces with a concentration of retail services including cafes and entertainment venues while yet others have positioned themselves as more up-market shopping precincts with a preponderance of stores selling luxury branded goods.
In the United Kingdom geographic concentration of goods and services has reduced the share of the economy contributed to by workers in the high street. High street refers to only a part of commerce; the town centre in many British towns combines a group of outdoor shopping streets, with an adjacent indoor shopping centre. High Streets through the centuries Initiatives to preserve the traditional British High Street are evident. Research into the customer's shopping preferences and patterns reveals that the continued vitality of towns is predicated on a number of different variables. Research has highlighted the ongoing challenges faced by towns and cities and suggested that "he town centre serves not only social, utilitarian or hedonic shopping purposes but supports out-of-hours entertainment and leisure services; the way that consumers perceive and use town centres has fundamentally changed." In order to address the issues threatening the sustainability of towns it is important to consider consumer behaviour and customer experience.
This is in line with research that proposes that for high street retail to thriv
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a