Old Westmoreland Homestead
Old Westmoreland Homestead is a heritage-listed homestead at Westmoreland Station, Shire of Burke, Australia. It was built in c. 1882 by Thomas Brassey McIntosh. It was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 31 July 2008. Westmoreland Station, near the border with the Northern Territory and close to the Gulf of Carpentaria, was taken up in 1881 by Thomas and Robert McIntosh, Robert Philp and William Kirk, it comprised 640 square miles. Thomas Brassey McIntosh managed the property for the partners, c. 1882 constructed the two-roomed stone house now known as Old Westmoreland Homestead. It is believed by many local residents to be the oldest surviving home in the district; when Westmoreland was taken up in the early 1880s, guerrilla warfare between the indigenous owners of the land and the occupying pastoralists was being waged throughout the Gulf country. There are many conflict sites including Hells Gate, Massacre Inlet and Battle Creek; the c. 1882 homestead on Westmoreland station was constructed with thick stone walls, inward opening doors, few windows, to provide security for people and property during potential attacks by Aborigines.
By 1887 the South Australian Mortgage and Land Company had taken over the lease of Westmoreland, which by 1891 had been transferred to the Bank of Australasia. When consolidated in 1895, the station comprised Westmoreland and Westmoreland Nos. 1 to 4, 7 and 11. The main homestead was located on Westmoreland No. 3, where improvements included an iron-roofed stone homestead and outbuildings, the whole valued at £200. The block comprised 100 square miles, with rich creek flats, steep stony ridges and open forests of box and tea-tree. Much of the land was thickly grassed and had permanent water, was considered good cattle-fattening country in ordinary seasons. In the late 1890s Queensland entered a period of widespread drought; the Gulf country was affected and in 1897 the lease to the Westmoreland consolidated run was forfeited and the run remained unoccupied for about 15 years. From 1 October 1912 Westmoreland was let on a 30 year lease to John Norman McIntyre. At this time the consolidated run was estimated to comprise over 655 square miles.
In 1913 McIntyre complained that the valuations on the property were over 20 years old and many of the improvements no longer existed. On Westmoreland No.3 the roof structure to the stone homestead had been eaten by white ants and the kitchen had collapsed. In 1916 the Westmoreland Pastoral Company took over the lease, conducted the Westmoreland run in conjunction with its other properties: Cliffdale and Patterdale in Queensland and Wollogorang in the Northern Territory. A valuation inspection of Westmoreland undertaken in 1932 valued the stone homestead and outbuildings at £300, the homestead stockyards at £200 and total improvements at £1,210. In 1937, a further appraisal noted that the stone homestead was the only extant residential structure on Westmoreland. At this period the Westmoreland Board of Directors comprised Sir William Charles Angliss and Walter Sidney Palethorpe Kidman, two well-known Australian pastoralists; the lease passed to John Allan Fennell in 1938 and Thomas Staines Bernard Terry in 1939.
A new residence was constructed adjacent to the stone house during the second half of the twentieth century. It is not considered to be of cultural heritage significance. Old Westmoreland Homestead is located within the precinct of the present head station adjacent to dwellings, cold room and workshops, it is set amongst lawns to the south of the main sheds and a dwelling, east of the present homestead. The original two-roomed homestead is constructed from hewn sandstone blocks using ant bed mortar and fill, it measures 10 by 14 metres, inclusive of the surrounding verandah, 2.3 metres wide. The hipped roof of early corrugated galvanised iron is nailed with lead-head nails to bush timber roof rafters and purlins, it is secured to the external verandah posts with wire twitches. The roof is unlined. Several of the round timber posts supporting the verandah roof have been replaced due to termite damage; the original posts appear to have been replicated in style if not in size or timber species. The original doors have been replaced with some half - height.
Several have rim locks evident. The original timber door lintels are present but damaged by termites; the windows are voids with traces of the original joinery evident. Internally, the building is divided into two rooms by a partition of hardwood framing and single-skin corrugated iron to ceiling height, the roof space open above this. Centrally positioned in this wall is the doorway connecting the two rooms. Above the door is a ventilation panel in-filled with metal lattice; the floor was dirt or ant bed. At some stage prior to 1980 it was concreted inside. Antbed flooring remains on most of the south-east verandah, it was repaired in the period 1980 to 2004. The building is used for storage and outdoor entertainment. A kitchen, 3 by 4 metres, constructed of metal framing and cladding, is located on the south-western side of the homestead, it is not considered to be of cultural heritage significance. The original, separate kitchen, located to the north of the building, is no longer extant. A photograph taken in 1963-1964 shows an added skillion on the northeast side extending the full length of the building.
At some unknown date this has been truncated to its present size. There is no evidence to
The Gulf Country is the region of woodland and savanna grassland surrounding the Gulf of Carpentaria in north western Queensland and eastern Northern Territory on the north coast of Australia. The region is called the Gulf Savannah, it contains large reserves of zinc and silver. The Gulf Country is crossed by the Savannah Way highway; the Gulf Country is a block of dry savanna between the wetter areas of Arnhem Land and the Top End of the Northern territory to the west and the Cape York Peninsula of Far North Queensland to the east, while to the south and east lie upland plains of Mitchell grasses and the Einasleigh Uplands. The Northern Territory side of the area is the Gulf Fall area of sandstone slopes and gorges draining the interior uplands into the gulf; the main land uses in the Gulf Country are mining. The region covers an area of 186,000 km2; the landscape is flat and low-lying tropical savannah cut through with rivers that carry the monsoon rains to the gulf and feed coastal mudflats and patches of rainforest.
The Sir Edward Pellew Group of Islands and the Wellesley Islands lie off the gulf coast. The main settlements in the region include the city of Mount Isa and the towns of Doomadgee, Camooweal, Karumba and Burketown; the port at Karumba is one of Australia's main live cattle exporting ports. The oldest building in the region is the Burketown Hotel; the climate is hot with a monsoon. The dry season lasts from about April until November and is characterized by dry southeast to east winds, generated by migratory winter high pressure systems to the south; the wet season lasts from December to March and is characterised by humid northerly monsoonal airflows. This wet season can be erratic: at Burketown, typical of the region, the rainfall of various wet seasons has ranged from as little as 150 millimetres to as much as 2,000 millimetres. Overall rainfall is low but if the wet season is at all strong, low-lying areas are flooded and the few sealed roads are cut; the Gulf is a breeding ground for cyclones during the period between November and April.
In September and October the Morning Glory Cloud appears in the Southern Gulf. The best vantage point to see this phenomenon is in the Burketown area shortly after dawn; the first known European explorer to visit the region was the Dutch Willem Janszoon in his 1605–6 voyage. His fellow countryman Jan Carstenszoon visited in 1623 and named the gulf in honour of Pieter de Carpentier, at that time the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies. Abel Tasman explored the coast in 1644; the region was explored and charted by Matthew Flinders in 1802 and 1803. The first overland explorer in the area was the Prussian Ludwig Leichhardt who traversed the area in 1844 and 1845, he was followed by Augustus Gregory of the North Australian Expedition in 1856, Burke and Wills in 1861. John McKinlay, Frederick Walker and William Landsborough lead separate search parties into the Gulf looking for Burke and Wills in 1861 and 1862; as pastoralists settled in the area there were significant clashes with local aboriginal populations.
Historian Tony Roberts has described the nature of massacres and violent encounters in the Gulf Country in his book titled Frontier Justice. The 1964 Mount Isa Mines Strike was a prolonged strike between miners and management at Mount Isa Mines; the region is source of great mineral wealth such as copper, zinc and silver. Mount Isa Mines includes a number of copper, lead and silver mines in Mount Isa where production began in 1931. Century Mine, Australia's largest zinc mine began operations near Mount Isa in 1997 and is expected to be exhausted by 2016. Other mines in the region include Cannington Mine and Hilton Mine. Due to the lead production in the town, Mount Isa has one of the most intensive air quality monitoring systems in Australia. Concerns have been raised over childhood lead air pollution within the region. In the Gulf Country there are no mountains to restrict rainfall to the coastal band and the transition from the coastal mangroves through Acacia stenophylla woodlands to the arid scrubs of central Australia is gradual.
There are up to nineteen important areas for bird migration in rivermouths along the gulf coast including the Gregory River-Nicholson River estuary and the Roper River in Limmen Bight. The patches of rainforest habitat occur in parts. On the savanna dicanthium bluegrass grows tall after the monsoon rains as the Gulf Country is one of the largest areas of native grassland in Australia; the sandstone gorges of the Gulf Fall are home to a specific wildlife. The Pellew Islands have retained original mangroves and thick woodland.. The area is home to a number of endangered species including an endemic rodent, the Carpentarian rock rat and endemic reptiles such as the Carpentarian lerista skink; the mudflats and saltpans on the coast are home to waterbirds such as the magpie goose. One endemic grassland bird the Carpentarian grasswren is suffering as changing fire regimes are reducing their habitat. Much of the area is unspoilt vegetation but overgrazing of cattle and the introduction of feed grass species is changing both grasslands and wetlands while the woodlands are vulnerable to changing fire regimes.
Introduced weeds include the rubber vine. Protected areas include Staaten River National Park, Boodjamulla National Park, the World Heritage fossil finds at Riversleigh, Camooweal Caves National Park and Mitchell-Alice Rivers Na
Borroloola is a town in the Northern Territory of Australia. It is located on the McArthur River, about 50 km upstream from the Gulf of Carpentaria. Borroloola lies on the traditional country of the Yanyuwa people, on the coastal plain between the Barkly Tablelands and the Gulf of Carpentaria. Rivers that run from the Tablelands escarpment to the Gulf flood in the wet season, making travel on the unsealed section of Highway One along the coastal plain to Queensland impossible; the rivers of this region have carved spectacular gorges through sandstone deposits in their upper reaches. The rivers and coastal areas are host to barramundi, earning Borroloola a reputation among sports fisherman, to the deadly saltwater crocodile; the region has little rain from May to September and is characterised by treed Savanna grasslands. The'Coast Track' follows the path of cattle drovers of the late 19th century as they moved herds from north-west Queensland to stock the new stations of the Northern Territory and the Kimberley.
The drovers, in turn, followed a well-worn Aboriginal path. Tony Roberts writes a moving and well-researched history of the region, in which the local tribes went from total isolation from European Australians in 1870, to a decimated collection of displaced and defeated groups, over a single decade. Entire tribes such as the Wilangarra, including women and babies were massacred, most adult males were killed, by police and quasi-police groups, by drovers and station workers involved in the cattle droves of that era. Borroloola was declared a town on 10 September 1885. In the local Indigenous languages of Yanyuwa, Marra and Binbingka, Borroloola would be written as Burrulula; the name belongs to a small lagoon just to the east of the present day caravan park. The name Borrolooloo, translates borrow women, name of the lagoon and associated with the Hill Kangaroo, it was at this site. The white-barked gum trees in the area are said to be his body decorations as they flew from his body as he danced.
Other Indigenous names in the area of Borroloola are Wurrarawala this hill is associated with the backbone of the Hill Kangaroo Ancestor. Bunubunu, this creek is associated with a File Snake Ancestor. Warralungku and Mabunji, a set of specific rocks at the McArthur River Crossing that carries the imprint of the Hill Kangaroo's tail and feet; the area of Borroloola belongs to members of the Rrumburriya clan. In 1977, the Yanyuwa people were the first to lodge a claim under the new Federal Aboriginal Land Rights Act 1976 over Borroloola and the Pellew Islands; the claim was resolved in 2015. A second land claim in 2002, saw the remaining islands in the area handed back. At the 2016 census, Borroloola had a population of 871. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 76.1% of the population. 89.2% of people were born in Australia and 79.6% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 49.7% and Other Protestant 18.2%. The King Ash Bay fishing club is situated on the McArthur River about 40 km downstream from Borroloola by river, just over 40 km from Borroloola by road.
Their boat ramp provides access to the mangrove-lined waterways of the McArthur estuary and the Sir Edward Pellew Group of Islands in the Gulf of Carpentaria. The self-contained village houses a small permanent population during the wet season, but numbers swell as tourists retired and semi-retired, arrive in April and May to enjoy the mild dry season weather; the Fishing Classic competition, held over the Easter weekend each year, marks the end of the wet season. The Borroloola Community Education Centre contains a FAFT Centre, primary school and secondary school; the Borroloola CEC has a combined staff of more than 25. The staff is composed of out-of-state teachers and local indigenous teacher aides; the CEC has far more listed on its rolls. Two of the problems facing the school are a high staff turnover; the current Acting Principal is Stephen Pelizzo, who took over the school in 2017. Borroloola town has a remote clinic The Borroloola Airport is 1,149 metres long at an elevation of 55 feet.
The airport can be busy during the day and the occasional Careflight services the town during the night. One single-engine Cessna 210 aircraft from Katherine Aviation is based at the airport permanently, it services the region with chartered and government flights to towns and communities such as Robinson River, McArthur River Mine and Katherine, as well as offering scenic flights to the nearby Sir Edward Pellew Islands and surrounding attractions. There are refuelling services for both Avgas and Avtur at limited parking areas; the runway is lit up at night by solar-powered lights. Borroloola has a tropical savanna climate with the 3 distinct seasons of the Northern Territory, the wet season, the dry season and the build-up season. Extreme temperatures have ranged from 43.9 °C to 0.4 °C The main economic sectors in Borroloola are tourism and art. The controversial McArthur River mine, one of the world's largest zinc and silver mines, is located about 70km from Borroloola; as of 2006, 42 businesses are registered in the town and unemployment is 35%.
Waralungku Arts, an Aboriginal owned and controlled arts centre in Borroloola, was established in 2003. Cape Crawford, Northern Territory Numby Numby/Ngambingambi sinkhole
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders"; as of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to 65% of the state's population. Indigenous Australians have inhabited the Sydney area for at least 30,000 years, thousands of engravings remain throughout the region, making it one of the richest in Australia in terms of Aboriginal archaeological sites. During his first Pacific voyage in 1770, Lieutenant James Cook and his crew became the first Europeans to chart the eastern coast of Australia, making landfall at Botany Bay and inspiring British interest in the area.
In 1788, the First Fleet of convicts, led by Arthur Phillip, founded Sydney as a British penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Phillip named the city Sydney in recognition of 1st Viscount Sydney. Penal transportation to New South Wales ended soon after Sydney was incorporated as a city in 1842. A gold rush occurred in the colony in 1851, over the next century, Sydney transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural and economic centre. After World War II, it experienced mass migration and became one of the most multicultural cities in the world. At the time of the 2011 census, more than 250 different languages were spoken in Sydney. In the 2016 Census, about 35.8% of residents spoke a language other than English at home. Furthermore, 45.4% of the population reported having been born overseas, making Sydney the 3rd largest foreign born population of any city in the world after London and New York City, respectively. Despite being one of the most expensive cities in the world, the 2018 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks Sydney tenth in the world in terms of quality of living, making it one of the most livable cities.
It is classified as an Alpha+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world. Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has an advanced market economy with strengths in finance and tourism. There is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as Australia's financial capital and one of Asia Pacific's leading financial hubs. Established in 1850, the University of Sydney is Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities. Sydney is home to the oldest library in Australia, State Library of New South Wales, opened in 1826. Sydney has hosted major international sporting events such as the 2000 Summer Olympics; the city is among the top fifteen most-visited cities in the world, with millions of tourists coming each year to see the city's landmarks. Boasting over 1,000,000 ha of nature reserves and parks, its notable natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, Royal Botanic Garden and Hyde Park, the oldest parkland in the country.
Built attractions such as the Sydney Harbour Bridge and the World Heritage-listed Sydney Opera House are well known to international visitors. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Kingsford-Smith Airport, one of the world's oldest continually operating airports. Established in 1906, Central station, the largest and busiest railway station in the state, is the main hub of the city's rail network; the first people to inhabit the area now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia and before that from southeast Asia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago. However, numerous Aboriginal stone tools were found in Western Sydney's gravel sediments that were dated from 45,000 to 50,000 years BP, which would indicate that there was human settlement in Sydney earlier than thought; the first meeting between the native people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula and encountered the Gweagal clan.
He noted in his journal that they were somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors. Cook was not commissioned to start a settlement, he spent a short time collecting food and conducting scientific observations before continuing further north along the east coast of Australia and claiming the new land he had discovered for Britain. Prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans; the earliest British settlers called the natives Eora people. "Eora" is the term the indigenous population used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is "from this place". Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan; the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the indigenous people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells, cooking fish. Britain—before that, England—and Ireland had for a long time been sending their convicts across the Atlantic to the American colonies.
That trade was ended with the Declaration of Independence by the United States in 1776. Britain decided in 1786 to found a new penal outpost in the territory discovered by Cook some 16 years ear
Jakarta the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of the world's most populous island, Java, it is the centre of economics and politics of Indonesia, with a population of 10,075,310 as of 2014. Jakarta metropolitan area has an area of 6,392 square kilometers, known as Jabodetabek, it is the world's second largest urban agglomeration with a population of 30,214,303 as of 2010. Jakarta is predicted to reach 35.6 million people by 2030 to become the world's biggest megacity. Jakarta's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from across the Indonesian archipelago, combining many communities and cultures. Established in the 4th century as Sunda Kelapa, the city became an important trading port for the Sunda Kingdom, it was the de facto capital of the Dutch East Indies. Jakarta is a province with special capital region status, but is referred to as a city; the Jakarta provincial government consists of five administrative cities and one administrative regency.
Jakarta is nicknamed the Big Durian, the thorny strongly-odored fruit native to the region, as the city is seen as the Indonesian equivalent of New York. Jakarta is an alpha world city and is the seat of the ASEAN secretariat, making it an important city for international diplomacy. Important financial institutions such as Bank of Indonesia, Indonesia Stock Exchange, corporate headquarters of numerous Indonesian companies and multinational corporations are located in the city; as of 2017, the city is home for two Fortune 500 and four Unicorn companies. In 2017, the city's GRP PPP was estimated at US$483.4 billion. Jakarta has grown more than Kuala Lumpur and Beijing. Jakarta's major challenges include rapid urban growth, ecological breakdown, gridlock traffic and congestion and inequality, potential crimes and flooding. Jakarta is sinking up to 17 cm per year, coupled with the rising of sea level, has made the city more prone to flooding. Jakarta has been home to multiple settlements: Sunda Kelapa, Batavia, Jakarta.
Its current name "Jakarta" derives from the word Jayakarta, derived from Sanskrit language. It was named after troops of Fatahillah defeated and drove away Portuguese invaders from the city in 1527. Before it was named "Jayakarta", the city was known as "Sunda Kelapa". In the colonial era, the city was known as Koningin van het Oosten in the 17th century for the urban beauty of downtown Batavia's canals and ordered city layout. After expanding to the south in the 19th century, this nickname came to be more associated with the suburbs, with their wide lanes, green spaces and villas. During Japanese occupation the city was renamed as Jakarta Tokubetsu Shi; the north coast area of western Java including Jakarta, was the location of prehistoric Buni culture that flourished from 400 BC to 100 AD. The area in and around modern Jakarta was part of the 4th century Sundanese kingdom of Tarumanagara, one of the oldest Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia; the area of North Jakarta around Tugu became a populated settlement at least in the early 5th century.
The Tugu inscription discovered in Batutumbuh hamlet, Tugu village, North Jakarta, mentions that King Purnawarman of Tarumanagara undertook hydraulic projects. Following the decline of Tarumanagara, its territories, including the Jakarta area, became part of the Hindu Kingdom of Sunda. From the 7th to the early 13th century, the port of Sunda was under the Srivijaya maritime empire. According to the Chinese source, Chu-fan-chi, written circa 1225, Chou Ju-kua reported in the early 13th century Srivijaya still ruled Sumatra, the Malay peninsula and western Java; the source reports the port of Sunda as strategic and thriving, mentioning pepper from Sunda as among the best in quality. The people worked in agriculture and their houses were built on wooden piles; the harbour area became known as Sunda Kelapa and by the 14th century, it was a major trading port for the Sunda kingdom. The first European fleet, four Portuguese ships from Malacca, arrived in 1513, while looking for a route for spices.
The Sunda Kingdom made an alliance treaty with the Portuguese by allowing them to build a port in 1522 to defend against the rising power of Demak Sultanate from central Java. In 1527, Fatahillah, a Javanese general from Demak attacked and conquered Sunda Kelapa, driving out the Portuguese. Sunda Kelapa was renamed Jayakarta, became a fiefdom of the Banten Sultanate, which became a major Southeast Asia trading centre. Through the relationship with Prince Jayawikarta of Banten Sultanate, Dutch ships arrived in 1596. In 1602, the English East India Company's first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh and sailed on to Banten where they were allowed to build a trading post; this site became the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682. Jayawikarta is thought to have made trading connections with
Robert O'Hara Burke
Robert O'Hara Burke was an Irish soldier and police officer who achieved fame as an Australian explorer. He was the leader of the ill-fated Burke and Wills expedition, the first expedition to cross Australia from south to north, finding a route across the continent from the settled areas of Victoria to the Gulf of Carpentaria; the expedition party was well equipped. A Royal Commission report conducted upon the failure of the expedition was a censure of Burke's judgement. Burke was born in St Clerens, County Galway, Ireland in May 1821, he was the second of three sons of James Hardiman Burke, an officer in the British army 7th Royal Fusiliers, Anne Louisa Burke nee O'Hara. Robert O'Hara was one of seven children. Burke entered the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich in May 1835. In December 1836 he went to Belgium to further his education. In 1841, at the age of twenty he entered the Austrian army and in August 1842 was promoted to Second Lieutenant in the Prince Regent's 7th Reuss Regiment of the Hungarian Hussars.
He spent most of his time in the Imperial Austrian Army posted to northern Italy and in April 1847 was promoted to 1st Lieutenant. Towards the end of 1847 he suffered health problems and went to Recoaro spa in northern Italy Gräfenberg and Aachen before resigning from the Austrian army in June 1848 after charges against him relating to debts and absence without leave were dropped. After returning to Ireland in 1848, he joined the Irish Constabulary, he did his cadet training at Phoenix Park Depot in Dublin between November 1849 and January 1850, was promoted to 3rd Class Sub-Inspector and stationed in County Kildare. At the end of 1850 he transferred to the Mounted Police in Dublin. Burke migrated to Australia in 1853, he left Queenstown, County Cork on 24 November 1852 on the S. S. Rodney, carrying 342 convicts, he promptly sailed for Melbourne. On 1 April 1853 he joined the established Victoria police force, he worked as Acting Inspector under the Chief Commissioner William Henry Fancourt Mitchell in the Parish of Jika Jika in the northern suburbs of Melbourne, but on 1 November 1853 he was appointed a magistrate, promoted to Police Inspector, was posted to Carlsruhe.
On 31 December 1853 he was promoted to District Inspector of the Ovens District and early in 1854 he moved to Beechworth to relieve Inspector John Giles Price. After the death of his brother, James Thomas, in the Crimean War, Burke decided to enlist, he left Australia on the S. S. Marco Polo on 25 March 1856 for England, but, by the time he arrived in Liverpool in June, peace had been declared and the war ended. Burke re-boarded the Marco Polo and returned to Victoria, arriving in Melbourne on 2 December 1856, he resumed his posting at Beechworth and from there attended the "Buckland Valley" riots near Bright against the Chinese gold miners in 1857. In November 1858 he was transferred to Castlemaine as Police Superintendent on £550 p.a. plus a groom and quarters at Broadoaks on Gingell Street. After the South Australian explorer, John McDouall Stuart had reached the centre of Australia, the South Australian parliament offered a reward of £2,000 for the promotion of an expedition to cross the continent from south to north following Stuart's route.
He partnered with another explorer who wanted to discover things about Australia. In June 1860, Burke was appointed to lead the Victorian Exploring Expedition with William John Wills, his third-in-command, as surveyor and astronomical observer; the expedition left Melbourne on Monday, 20 August 1860 with a total of 19 men, 27 camels and 23 horses. They reached Menindee on 23 September 1860 where several people resigned, including the second-in-command, George James Landells and the medical officer, Dr. Hermann Beckler. Cooper Creek, 400 miles further on, was reached on 11 November 1860 by the advance group, the remainder being intended to catch up. After a break, Burke decided to make a dash to the Gulf of Carpentaria, leaving on 16 December 1860. William Brahe was left in charge of the remaining party; the small team of Burke, William Wills, John King and Charley Gray reached the mangroves on the estuary of the Flinders River, near where the town of Normanton now stands, on 9 February 1861. Flooding rains and swamps meant.
Weakened by starvation and exposure, progress on the return journey was slow and hampered by the tropical monsoon downpours of the wet season. Gray died four days; the other three rested for a day. They reached the rendezvous point on 21 April 1861, 9 hours after the rest of the party had given up waiting and left, leaving a note and some food, as they had not been relieved by the party supposed to be returning from Menindee, they attempted to reach Mount Hopeless, the furthest outpost of pastoral settlement in South Australia, closer than Menindee, but failed and returned to Cooper Creek. While waiting for rescue Wills died of exhaustion and starvation. Soon after, Burke died, at a place now called Burke's Water
Boiling Down Works, Burketown
Boiling Down Works is a heritage-listed boiling down works at Truganinni Road, Shire of Burke, Australia. It was built from 1891 to 1901, it was added to the Queensland Heritage Register on 21 August 1992. The first boiling down works was established in 1867; the plan was to cure beef in brine for export to Batavia. However, the business was not successful and closed in 1870. Construction of a new boiling down works commenced in November 1891 and was operational in July 1892. However, it closed for a period around 1893-4 due to the drought. In February 1896 it shut down again after a quarantine order to prevent the spread of disease and cattle tick. In April 1898 it was announced that the Endeavour Meat Export Agency would re-open the Burketown meatworks. However, the meatworks burned down in June 1898 and had to be rebuilt in order to re-open in June 1899. In February 1901, the works was doing well. However, the business had losses from its decision to operate its own ships. In October 1901, the works closed temporarily due to a shortage of cattle because of the high prices being paid for cattle by Kidman Brothers and Elder, Smith & Co.
In November 1902, the Queensland Government withdrew its meat inspectors from the works because of "the closing down of the meatworks and the uncertainty of about their reopening". In 1911, in a bid to get a railway link from Burketown in order to ship cattle for processing on the east coast, it was claimed that it was no longer possible to process the cattle in Burketown as "the white ants are making havoc with all that remains of the Burketown works"; this Wikipedia article was based on "The Queensland heritage register" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. The geo-coordinates were computed from the "Queensland heritage register boundaries" published by the State of Queensland under CC-BY 3.0 AU licence. Media related to Boiling Down Works, Burketown at Wikimedia Commons