Eritrea–United States relations
Eritrea–United States relations are bilateral relations between Eritrea and the United States. Natalie E. Brown is the current U. S. Ambassador to Eritrea; the U. S. government established a consulate in Asmara in 1942. In 1953, the USG signed a Mutual Defense Treaty with Ethiopia; the treaty granted the United States control and expansion of the important British military communications base at Kagnew near Asmara. In the 1960s, as many as 1,700 U. S. military personnel were stationed at Kagnew. In the 1970s, technological advances in the satellite and communications fields were making the communications station at Kagnew obsolete. In 1974, Kagnew Station drastically reduced its personnel complement. In early 1977, the United States informed the Ethiopian government that it intended to close Kagnew Station permanently by September 30, 1977. In the meantime, U. S. relations with the Mengistu regime worsened. In April 1977, Mengistu abrogated the 1953 mutual defense treaty and ordered a reduction of U.
S. personnel in Ethiopia, including the closure of Kagnew Communications Center and the consulate in Asmara. In August 1992, the United States reopened its consulate in Asmara, staffed with one officer. On April 27, 1993, the United States recognized Eritrea as an independent state, on June 11, diplomatic relations were established with the appointment of a chargé d'affaires; the first U. S. Ambassador arrived that year. U. S. interests in Eritrea include consolidating the peace with Ethiopia, encouraging progress toward establishing a democratic political culture, supporting Eritrean efforts to become constructively involved in solving regional problems, promoting economic reform. The U. S. Embassy is in Asmara. Micheal Veasy is the Deputy Chief of Mission. Foreign relations of the United States Foreign relations of Eritrea This article incorporates public domain material from the United States Department of State website https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/index.htm. History of Eritrea - U. S. relations
Ethiopia–United States relations
Ethiopia–United States relations are bilateral relations between Ethiopia and the United States. Ethiopia is a strategic partner of the United States in the Global War on Terrorism; the United States is the largest donor to Ethiopia: in 2008 U. S. foreign aid to Ethiopia totaled US$969 million, in 2009 US$916, with 2010 estimated at US$513 and US$586 requested for 2011. U. S. development assistance to Ethiopia is focused on reducing famine vulnerability and poverty and emphasizes economic and social sector policy reforms. Some military training funds, including training in such issues as the laws of war and observance of human rights are provided; the Ethiopian government has been criticized for severe human rights violations. According to Human Rights Watch, the aid given by the United States is being abused to erode democracy in Ethiopia; the current Ambassador of Ethiopia to the United States is Girma Birru. Principal U. S. Officials include Ambassador Michael A. Deputy Chief of Mission Troy Fitrell.
The U. S. Embassy in Ethiopia is located in Addis Ababa. According to the 2016 U. S. Global Leadership Report, 29% of Ethiopians approve of U. S. leadership, with 4% disapproving and 67% uncertain. U. S.-Ethiopian relations were established in 1903, after nine days of meetings in Ethiopia between Emperor Menelik II and Robert P. Skinner, an emissary of President Theodore Roosevelt; this first step was augmented with treaties of arbitration and conciliation signed at Addis Ababa 26 January 1929. These formal relations included a grant of Most Favored Nation status, were good up to the Italian occupation in 1935. Warqenah Eshate, while visiting the United States in 1927, visited Harlem, where he delivered Ras Tafari's greetings to the African-American community and Tafari's invitation to skilled African Americans to settle in Ethiopia. A number of African-Americans did travel to Ethiopia, such as John Robinson who became the commander of the Ethiopian Air force, where they played a number of roles in the modernization of the country before the Italian conquest in 1935.
In his autobiography, Emperor Haile Selassie notes that the United States was one of only five countries which refused to recognize the Italian conquest of his country. Following the return of Emperor Haile Selassie to Ethiopia, the United States certified Ethiopia for participation in Lend-Lease; this was followed on 16 May 1944 by the arrival of what was called the Fellows Mission, led by James M. Landis. Another significant event transpired in January 1944, when President Franklin Roosevelt met with Emperor Haile Selassie aboard the USS Quincy in the Great Bitter Lake of Egypt. Although no matters of substance were resolved, the meeting both strengthened the Emperor's strong predilection towards the United States, as well as discomforted the British, at odds with the Ethiopian government over the disposition of Eritrea and the Ogaden; these ties were strengthened with the signing of the September 1951 treaty of amity and economic relations. In 1953, a further two agreements were signed: a mutual defense assistance agreement, under which the United States agreed to furnish military equipment and training, an accord regularizing the operations of a U.
S. communication facility at Kagnew Station. In 1957 U. S. Vice President Richard Nixon visited Ethiopia and called it "one of the United States' most stalwart and consistent allies". In addition, during the 1960s the U. S. Army provided mapping for much of the country of Ethiopia in an operation known as the Ethiopia-United States Mapping Mission. Through fiscal year 1978, the United States provided Ethiopia with $282 million in military assistance and $366 million in economic assistance in agriculture, public health, transportation. Ethiopia was one of the first countries to take part in the American Peace Corps program, which emphasized agriculture, basic education, health, economic development and teaching English as a foreign language; the Peace Corps reports that since 1962, when its first volunteers arrived in Ethiopia, a total of 2,934 volunteers have served in that country. U. S. Information Service educational and cultural exchanges were an important part of their relations. After the Ethiopian Revolution, the bilateral relationship began to cool due to the Derg's linking with international communism and U.
S. revulsion at the junta's human rights abuses. The United States rebuffed Ethiopia's request for increased military assistance to intensify its fight against the Eritrean secessionist movement and to repel the Somali invasion; the International Security and Development Act of 1985 prohibited all U. S. economic assistance to Ethiopia with the exception of humanitarian disaster and emergency relief. In July 1980, the U. S. Ambassador to Ethiopia was recalled at the request of the Ethiopian Government, the U. S. Embassy in Ethiopia and the Ethiopian Embassy in the United States were headed subsequently by Charges d'Affaires. With the downfall of Mengistu Haile Mariam, U. S.-Ethiopian relations improved as legislative restrictions on non-humanitarian assistance to Ethiopia were lifted. Diplomatic relations were upgraded to the ambassadorial level in 1992. Total U. S. government assistance, including food aid, between 1991 and 2003 was $2.3 billion. During the severe drought year of 2003, the U. S. provided a record $553.1 million in assistance.
The U. S. Congress, attempted to set conditions, over the objections of the Bush Administration. In October, 2007, the House of Representatives passed the Ethiopia Democracy and Accountability Act of 2007, banning military aid, for other th
Burkina Faso–Sweden relations
Burkina Faso–Sweden relations refers to the current and historical relationship between Sweden and Burkina Faso. Burkina Faso has a non resident ambassador located in Copenhagen, Denmark and an honorary consulate in Uppsala. Sweden has an embassy in Ouagadougou, opened in 2010; the current ambassador since 2013 is Eva Emnéus, although she is stationed in the Malian capital of Bamako instead. Sweden accredited its first ambassador to Burkina Faso known as the Republic of Upper Volta, in 1969; the ambassador was stationed in Lagos, Nigeria. The relations between Burkina Faso and Sweden have, due to the large distance between the two countries and the only minor bilateral trade been defined by economic aid, in addition to some cultural and scientific exchange. A first Burkinabé student arrived in Sweden during the early 1970s, have been followed by many more. Sweden participated in several exchange programmes with the country during the 1980s, with the first direct cooperation starting following a visit to the Sahel region by Foreign Minister Hans Blix.
In 1986 – during the rule of Captain Thomas Sankara – the Burkina Faso–Sweden Friendship Association was formed. Burkinabé–Swedish cooperation in the 21st century takes many forms. In the field of science, Swedish universities have educated dozens of Burkinabé doctoral students, worked together with Burkinabé universities on research in fields such as agroforestry, cultural geography, rural development. Culturally, several Burkinabé film festivals and art exhibitions have been held in Sweden. While the level of bilateral trade is low, some Swedish companies have established a presence in Burkina Faso, in industries such as mining and energy. Several Swedish political parties have fraternal relations with Burkinabé opposition parties, have established political cooperation, among the Centre Party, the Christian Democrats and the Left Party. Sweden's government has been a major donor of aid to Burkina Faso in recent years, one of the six largest of all international contributors. A large-scale cooperation programme was launched in 2001.
In 2012, the right-wing government of Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt announced it would decrease aid to Burkina Faso, cut the cooperation programme by 2016. This decision faced criticism, was retracted in 2014 by a new centre-left government. Left Party foreign affairs spokesperson Hans Linde described this change in policy as an effect of political pressure from his party. Foreign relations of Burkina Faso Foreign relations of Sweden Burkina Faso–Denmark relations
Blaise Compaoré is a Burkinabé politician, president of Burkina Faso from 1987 to 2014. He was a top associate of President Thomas Sankara during the 1980s, in October 1987, he led a coup d'état during which Sankara was killed. Subsequently, he introduced a policy of "rectification", overturning the leftist and Third Worldist policies pursued by Sankara, he won elections in 1991, 1998, 2005, 2010 in what were considered unfair circumstances. His attempt to amend the constitution to extend his 27-year term caused the 2014 Burkinabé uprising. On 31 October 2014, Compaoré resigned. Compaoré was born in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso and grew up in nearby Ziniaré, he reached the rank of captain in the Voltaïc army. Compaoré met Thomas Sankara in 1976 in a military training center in Morocco, subsequently Compaoré and Sankara were considered close friends. Compaoré played a major role in the coups d'état against Jean-Baptiste Ouedraogo, he has been married to Chantal Compaoré since 1985. Under Sankara's leadership, which lasted from 1983 to 1987, Compaoré was his deputy and was a member of the National Revolutionary Council.
He served as Minister of State subsequently as Minister of State for Justice. Compaoré was involved in the 1983 and 1987 coups, taking power after the second in which his predecessor Sankara was killed, he was elected President in 1991, in an election, boycotted by the opposition, re-elected in 1998, 2005, 2010. At the age of 33, Compaoré organized a Coup d'état, which deposed Major Jean-Baptiste Ouedraogo on 4 August 1983; the coup d'état was supported by Libya, which was, at the time, on the verge of war with France in Chad. Other key participants were Captain Henri Zongo, Major Jean-Baptiste Boukary Lingani and the charismatic Captain Thomas Sankara—who was pronounced President. Compaoré took power on 15 October 1987 in a coup. Deteriorating relations with France and neighboring Ivory Coast was the reason given for the coup. Compaoré described the killing of Sankara as an "accident", but the circumstances have never been properly investigated. Upon taking the presidency, he reverted many of the policies of Sankara, claiming that his policy was a "rectification" of the Burkinabé revolution.
Ruling in a triumvirate with Henri Zongo and Jean-Baptiste Boukary Lingani, in September 1989 these two were arrested, charged with plotting to overthrow the government, summarily tried, executed. Compaoré was elected as president in 1991 in an election boycotted by the main opposition parties in protest at the questionable means Compaoré had used to take office in the first place. Only 25 percent of the electorate voted. In 1998, he was re-elected for the first time. In 2003, numerous alleged plotters were arrested, following accusations of a coup plot against Compaoré. In August 2005, he announced his intention to contest the next presidential election. Opposition politicians regarded this as unconstitutional due to a constitutional amendment in 2000 limiting a president to two terms, reducing term lengths from seven to five years. Compaoré's supporters disputed this, saying that the amendment could not be applied retroactively, in October 2005, the constitutional council ruled that because Compaoré was a sitting president in 2000, the amendment would not apply until the end of his second term in office, thereby allowing him to present his candidacy for the 2005 election.
On 13 November 2005, Compaoré was re-elected as president, defeating 12 opponents and winning 80.35 percent of the vote. Although sixteen opposition parties announced a coalition to unseat Compaoré early on in the race nobody wanted to give up their spot in the race to another leader in the coalition, the pact fell through. Following Compaoré's victory, he was sworn in for another term on 20 December 2005. On 14 April 2011, Compaoré was reported to have fled from the capital Ouagadougou to his hometown of Ziniare after mutineering military bodyguards began a revolt in their barracks over unpaid allowances, their actions spread to the presidential compound and other army bases. In the night, gunfire was reported at the presidential compound and an ambulance was seen leaving the compound. Soldiers looted shops in the city through the night. In June 2014 Compaoré's ruling party, the Congress for Democracy and Progress, called on him to organise a referendum that would allow him to alter the constitution in order to seek re-election in 2015.
Otherwise, he would be forced to step down due to term limits. On 30 October 2014, the National Assembly was scheduled to debate an amendment to the constitution that would have enabled Compaoré to stand for re-election as president in 2015. Opponents protested this by storming the parliament building in Ouagadougou, starting fires inside it and looting offices. Billowing smoke was reported by the BBC to be coming from the building. Opposition spokesman Pargui Emile Paré, of the People's Movement for Socialism / Federal Party described the protests as "Burkina Faso's black spring, like the Arab spring". Compaoré reacted to the events by shelving the proposed constitutional changes, dissolving the government, declaring a state of emergency, offering to work with the opposition to resolve the crisis. In the day, the military, under General Honore Traore, announced that it would install a transitional government "in consultation with all parties" and that the National Assembly was dissolved, he did not make clear.