Burkitt lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system B lymphocytes found in the germinal center. It is named after Denis Parsons Burkitt, the Irish surgeon who first described the disease in 1958 while working in equatorial Africa; the overall cure rate for Burkitt's lymphoma in developed countries is about 90%, but worse in low-income countries. Burkitt's lymphoma is uncommon in adults. Burkitt lymphoma can be divided into three main clinical variants: the endemic, the sporadic, the immunodeficiency-associated variants; the endemic variant most occurs in children living in malaria endemic regions of the world. Epstein–Barr virus infection is found in nearly all patients. Chronic malaria is believed to reduce resistance to EBV; the disease characteristically involves the jaw or other facial bone, distal ileum, ovaries, kidney, or breast. The sporadic type of Burkitt lymphoma is the most common variant found in places where malaria is not holoendemic; the tumor cells have a similar appearance to the cancer cells of classical endemic Burkitt lymphoma.
Sporadic lymphomas are associated with the Epstein–Barr virus. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, which includes Burkitt's, accounts for 30–50% of childhood lymphoma; the jaw is less involved, compared to the endemic variant. The ileocecal region is the common site of involvement. Immunodeficiency-associated Burkitt lymphoma is associated with HIV infection or occurs in the setting of post-transplant patients who are taking immunosuppressive drugs. Burkitt lymphoma can be one of the diseases associated with the initial manifestation of AIDS. By morphology or immunophenotype, it is impossible to differentiate these three clinical variants. Immunodeficiency-associated Burkitt lymphoma may demonstrate more plasmacytic appearance or more pleomorphism, but these features are not specific. Burkitt's lymphoma is associated with the infection of B cell lymphocytes with the Epstein–Barr virus and in these cases in considered to be one form of the Epstein–Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative diseases; the epidemic variant of Burkitt's lymphoma is in all cases associated with EBV infection.
However, the sporadic variant, which afflicts ~1,200 individuals/year in the US, is associated with the virus in only 10-15% of cases. The immunodeficiency-associated variant of Burkitt's lymphoma strikes 30-40% of individuals with HIV-induced AIDS and rare cases of patients who received a bone marrow or other organ transplant. About 30% of individuals with the immunodeficiency variant are infected with EBV; the fact that some Burkitt's lymphoma cases do not involve EBV allows that many cases of the disease are not caused and/or promoted by EBV, i.e. the virus may be an innocent passenger virus in these cases. However, the ubiquitous presence of the virus in the epidemic variant of Burkitt's lymphoma suggests that it contributes to the development and/or progression of this variant; the mutational landscape in BL has been found to differ between tumors with and without EBV infection, further strengthening the role of the virus in lymphomagenesis. All types of Burkitt lymphoma are characterized by dysregulation of the c-myc gene by one of three chromosomal translocations.
This gene is found at 8q24. The most common variant is t; this involves c-myc and IGH@. A variant of this, a three-way translocation, t, has been identified. A rare variant is at t; this involves IGK c-myc. Another rare variant is t; this involves IGL c-myc. Combined, the two less-common translocations, t and t, account for the remaining 15% of cases not due to the t translocation, it was described that short non-coding RNAs named microRNAs have important functions in lymphoma biology. In malignant B cells, miRNAs participate in pathways fundamental to B cell development, like B cell receptor signalling, B cell migration/adhesion, cell-cell interactions in immune niches, the production and class-switching of immunoglobulins. Normal B cells of a germinal center possess rearranged immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes, each isolated B cell possesses a unique IgH gene rearrangement. Since Burkitt lymphoma and other B-cell lymphomas are a clonal proliferative process, all tumor cells from one patient are supposed to possess identical IgH genes.
When the DNA of tumor cells is analyzed using electrophoresis, a clonal band can be demonstrated, since identical IgH genes will move to the same position. On the contrary, when a normal or reactive lymph node is analyzed using the same technique, a smear rather than a distinct band will be seen; this technique is useful since sometimes benign reactive processes and malignant lymphoma can be difficult to distinguish. The tumor consists of sheets of a monotonous population of medium-sized lymphoid cells with high proliferative and apoptotic activity; the "starry sky" appearance seen under low power is due to scattered tingible body-laden macrophages. The old descriptive term of "small non-cleaved cell" is misleading; the tumor cells are medium in size. "Small non-cleaved cells" are compared to "large non-cleaved cells" of normal germinal center lym
USS Cliffrose was an Ailanthus-class net laying ship which served with the U. S. Navy in the western Pacific Ocean theatre of operations during World War II, her career was without major incident, she returned home safely after the war with two battle stars to her credit. Cliffrose was launched 27 November 1943 by Everett-Pacific Shipbuilding & Dry Dock Company, Washington. Cliffrose sailed from San Pedro, California, 21 June 1944 for Pearl Harbor, arriving 4 July for local duty, she departed the invasion of Peleliu on 15 September. She carried out surveys for the installation of moorings, laid an anti-torpedo net across the western entrance of Kossol Passage, remaining in the Palau Islands until 8 December, when she sailed for Ulithi. Arriving 10 December, she was overhauled and had duty repairing nets. Cliffrose put out from Ulithi 25 March 1945 for the Okinawa invasion, arriving on 1 April, the day of the first landings, for duty installing and repairing nets until 5 August. After upkeep at Saipan, she returned to Okinawa 20 September, loaded supplies, cleared 25 October for Bungo Suido, arriving 29 October.
Here she laid navigational aids until the end of the year, sailing for Pearl Harbor and San Pedro, where she arrived 1 January 1946. Cliffrose cleared San Pedro, after local operations, 3 July 1946 for Pearl Harbor, where she operated from 16 July to 16 August, she served in Philippine waters until 25 December, when she cleared Subic Bay for Shanghai, arriving 31 December. Cliffrose was decommissioned 7 January 1947 and turned over to the Republic of China through the U. S. State Department. Cliffrose received two battle stars for World War II service; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here. NavSource Online: Service Ship Photo Archive - YN-61 / AN-42 Cliffrose
No. 1 Aircraft Depot was a maintenance unit of the Royal Australian Air Force. Formed in July 1921 at RAAF Point Cook, Victoria, it relocated to the nearby RAAF Laverton in March 1926; as well as servicing aircraft and other equipment, in its early years the depot supported survey flights in Australia and the Pacific region. It was responsible for training maintenance staff. No. 1 AD's strength increased from 350 staff in the 1930s to over 2,000 during World War II, when it assembled and repaired aircraft ranging from Tiger Moth trainers to Spitfire fighters to B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombers. It undertook aircraft research and development. Shortly after World War II, No. 1 AD introduced the first jets into RAAF service. In 1961, it continued to service aero engines. By the 1970s, the depot's main focus was ground-based equipment, though it still handled some aircraft components. No. 1 AD was disbanded in December 1994, its functions having been taken over by other units and private contractors.
At the time of its disbandment, it was the oldest RAAF unit in continuous operation. No. 1 Aircraft Depot was one of the first units formed by the Royal Australian Air Force after the new service was established on 31 March 1921. The original components of No. 1 AD became known as such in April 1921, though the unit did not formally come into existence until July. Prior to this it comprised two elements in Melbourne, one at Spotswood handling the equipment of the Imperial Gift, another at North Fitzroy responsible for motor vehicle repair; when No. 1 AD was established at RAAF Point Cook, Victoria, on 1 July, the Spotswood component was dissolved, while North Fitzroy continued to operate as a detachment. The unit's inaugural commanding officer was Squadron Leader Bill Anderson, in overall charge of Point Cook. In January 1922, the depot was organised into a headquarters that controlled stores, aircraft repair, engine repair sections; the vehicle repair section at North Fitzroy was transferred to Point Cook that April.
Point Cook's corrosive seaside atmosphere was however deemed an unsuitable long-term location for aircraft maintenance. In September 1921, the government had purchased land at Laverton, near a railway station eight kilometres inland from Point Cook, for the express purpose of constructing a dedicated home for No. 1 AD as the "warehouse of the Air Force". The depot, staffed by eight officers and seventy-seven other ranks, relocated to the new base on 1 March 1926, it occupied a large hangar that included an administration block, which along with living quarters and ancillary buildings had cost £300,000 to build. As well as receiving, assembling and maintaining RAAF equipment, No. 1 AD was responsible for supporting research flights. In July 1927, it was the departure point for the Northern Survey Flight, comprising a de Havilland DH.50 and two Airco DH.9s, which reconnoitred air routes and landing grounds in northern and central Australia under the command of the Chief of the Air Staff, Wing Commander Richard Williams.
The following month, No. 1 AD formed the Papuan Survey Flight, consisting of two Supermarine Seagull III amphibious biplanes under the command of Flight Lieutenant Ellis Wackett, which photographed the Papuan and New Guinean coasts as far north as Aitape. Anderson, now a wing commander, returned to command the depot from April to August 1929, handing over to Wing Commander Adrian Cole, who served in the post until December 1932. By the mid-1930s, No. 1 AD comprised 350 staff. The depot serviced a range of aircraft that included the Westland Wapiti, Bristol Bulldog, Hawker Demon, de Havilland Dragon Rapide, Avro Cadet, Avro Anson, North American NA-16; the NA-16 was augmented by the purchase of the more advanced North American NA-33, licensed and built in Australia by the Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation as the CAC Wirraway. To cope with the Government's decision to expand the RAAF, a Recruit Training Section, incorporating the nascent School of Armaments and Signals, was formed under the depot's auspices by Flight Lieutenant Charles Eaton on 1 March 1935.
No. 1 AD commenced formal training courses for aircraft fitters and riggers in 1935, leading to the formation of No. 1 School of Technical Training five years later. In December 1935, No. 1 AD's workshops, under the command of Squadron Leader Arthur Murphy, specially modified a Wapiti and a de Havilland Gipsy Moth for Antarctic conditions, to enable an Air Force team led by Flight Lieutenant Eric Douglas and Flying Officer Alister Murdoch to rescue explorer Lincoln Ellsworth, presumed lost on a journey across the continent. On 3 May 1937, Recruit Training Squadron acquired a new sub-unit, the Communications and Survey Flight, utilising Tugan Gannets and Dragon Rapides for ongoing photographic survey work. Coupled with its aircraft assembly and test facilities, the recruit training unit made Laverton an obvious choice for the establishment of future RAAF squadrons. No. 1 AD's commanding officers during this decade included Wing Commanders Frank McNamara, Frank Lukis, Arthur Murphy. Although many squadrons were raised at RAAF Station Laverton during World War II, the base's prime focus continued to be its aircraf
Hubert Bassett was an English first-class cricketer. Bassett was born at Stanton St. John in South Oxfordshire in October 1867, he was educated in Oxford at the Bedford House School, before going up to St Catherine's College, Oxford. While studying at Oxford he made his debut in first-class cricket for Oxford University against the touring Australians at Oxford in 1888, he played first-class cricket for Oxford until 1891. His left-arm medium bowling delivered him 78 wickets in his 21 matches, taken at an average of 22.07, with best figures of 6 for 50. One of four five wicket hauls he took, his best figures came against Lancashire in 1889. A useful lower-order batsman, Bassett scored 292 runs at an average of 8.84, with a high score of 54 not out. His time playing for Oxford University coincided with a lean period for the team, winning only twice in his 32 appearances for the team. Bassett appeared in minor counties cricket for Oxfordshire, playing for the county in the Minor Counties Championship between 1895–1906, making sixty appearances.
He played for Suffolk in the Minor Counties Championship between 1908–14, making sixteen appearances. Outside of cricket, Bassett worked as a teacher, he died at Oxford in June 1943. Hubert Bassett at ESPNcricinfo
Beamsley Hospital is an Almshouse building located near Skipton, in North Yorkshire, founded in 1593 by the Lady Margaret Russell, the Countess of Cumberland. She had intended for the construction of accommodation for 13 poor widows, a Mother and 12 Sisters, but by her death in 1616 only the hospital and chapel building had been completed, her daughter, Lady Anne Clifford, added the front range which provided accommodation for local widows of little means. The north range hospital and chapel building is circular in plan and is constructed as two stone drums, one inside the other, the inner drum rises through the roof of the main building, contains windows that provides daylight into a chapel that lies within the heart of the building. Around the perimeter there was accommodation for a Mother and six Sisters; the nearby south range almhouses block is built in two storeys with a seven bay frontage with three one storey units at one end. The buildings remained in use until the 1970s, after which point the Hospital Trustees passed the property to the Landmark Trust in 1983, which has restored and preserved the buildings and made them available as historical holiday accommodation.
The north wing of the complex is Grade I listed and the south wing listed Grade II*. Landmark Trust Website Landmark Trust history sheet for Beamsley Hospital
Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation, of San Rafael, United States, is an electronics company whose products range from pulse generators and digital delay generators to specialized handheld instruments and portal monitors capable of radiation detection and isotope identification. Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation is a manufacturer of precision electronic instrumentation for test and nuclear research. Founded in 1963, its corporate headquarters are in San Rafael, with additional manufacturing facilities and sales offices located throughout the United States. BNC maintains an international network of manufacturer's representatives—including Optilas, Canberra Packard, ORTEC, Seiko—to provide for precision instrumentation needs globally. BNC developed custom pulse generators, it became known for meeting stringent requirements for high precision and stability, for producing instruments of reliability and performance. BNC continues to develop custom pulse, signal and function generators, its designs incorporate the latest innovations in software and hardware engineering, surface mount production, automated testing procedures.
The Model 625A function generator was the recipient of several electronics industry awards, including the Cahners Electronics Group's ”T&M Product of the Year” award for 1999. BNC is known for its line of digital delay generators. To date, BNC has introduced 15 different DDGs with delay resolution as low as 250 femtoseconds. Annual media surveys rank BNC in the top echelon of producers of DDGs. In the mid-1990s, BNC created the Nuclear Products Group to develop radiation detection and analysis instrumentation. In 1997, it introduced the SAM 935 Surveillance and Measurement system, the first real-time analysis tool for identification and quantification of multiple radionuclides. BNC’s nuclear spectroscopy products are used by industries involved in environmental monitoring, health physics, emergency response, power generation, it offers an accredited program of training seminars in radiation detection and measurement at locations across the U. S. and online, providing attendees with an understanding of principles and techniques for isotope identification and analysis.
BNC was a co-sponsor for a training seminar on radiological detection for emergency response and anti-terrorism with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in fall 2002. BNC was recognized in 2010 by the U. S. Department of Energy and the U. S. Department of Defense for its isotope identification technology. Systems were deployed for field measurements both in vehicle-based applications; the technology was adopted by the Department of Defense after testing and evaluation in large-scale deployments. BNC responded to the Fukushima accident in 2011 by sending products and technicians to Japan to work with partners to develop processes for radiation screening. BNC received recognition from private organizations and governmental agencies in Japan and the U. S. for its contribution to the screening and cleanup processes. BNC staff worked with Japanese agencies to translate support documentation and radiation safety training materials into Japanese, which allowed non-technical users of personal radiation detectors understand the concepts of radiation detection and background measurements.
In 2011, BNC launched BNC Scientific, a new division to support customers' complex applications with some of the most advanced products in the industry. BNC Scientific operates as a manufacturer’s representative for technologies in microwave signal generation, lock-in amplifiers, spectrum analyzers, high-frequency arbitrary waveform generators. In 2012, BNC began development of its own line of RF/Microwave Signal Generators, Signal Analyzers, Spectrum Analysis tools to address industry growth in communications and data requirements. Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation sells a number of products, including: Electronic Products Digital delay generators Pulse generators - Optical and Electrical BNC 575 digital delay/pulse generator NIM Pulse Generators - Arbitrary waveform generators and Function generatorsRadiation Products Handheld radiation detection Isotope identification Portal and vehicle-based systems Networked radiation equipment Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation Official site. LaboratoryTalk.com - Profile of Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation Southern Scientific The Official Distributor of BNC products in the UK