Korean shamanism known as Shinism or Shindo or Shinism or Muism, is the polytheistic and animistic ethnic religion of Korea which date back to prehistory and consist in the worship of gods and ancestors. When referring to the shamanic practice, the term Muism is used; the general word for "shaman" in Korean language is mu. In contemporary terminology, they are called mudang if female or baksu if male, although other terms are used locally; the Korean word mu is synonymous of the Chinese word wu 巫, which defines both male and female shamans. The role of the mudang is to act as intermediary between the spirits or gods and humanity in order to solve hitches in the development of life, through the practice of gut rituals. Central to Korean shamanism is the belief in many different gods, supernatural beings and ancestor worship; the mu are described as chosen persons. Muism is related to Chinese Wuism, Japanese Shinto and to the Siberian and Manchurian shamanic traditions. According to some scholars, the Korean ancestral king and mountain god Dangun is related to the north Asian sky god Tengri.
Hereditary shamans, who are typical of South Korea, are called tangol or tangur-ari, a word considered related to the Siberian word Tengri. Mudang are similar to Ryukyuan yuta. Korean shamanism has influenced some Korean new religions, such as Cheondoism and Jeungsanism, some Christian churches in Korea make use of practices rooted in shamanism. Besides "Shinism" and "Muism", other terms used to define Korean shamanism include Goshindo, used in the context of the new religious movement of Daejongism, Pungwoldo, used by the Confucian scholar Choe Chiwon between the 9th and the 10th century. Shamanic associations in modern South Korea use the terms Shindo or Mushindo to define their congregations or membership, musogin to define the shamans; the Korean word 무 mu is related to the Chinese term 巫 wu, which defines shamans of either sex, also to the Mongolic "Bo" and Tibetan "Bon". In records from the Yi dynasty, mudang has a prevalent usage. Mudang itself is explained in relation to Chinese characters, as referring to the "hall", 堂 tang, of a shaman.
A different etymology, explains mudang as stemming directly from the Siberian term for female shamans, utagan or utakan. Mudang is used but not for female shamans. Male shamans are called by a variety of names, including sana mudang in the Seoul area, or baksu mudang shortened baksu, in the Pyongyang area. According to some scholars, baksu is an ancient authentic designation of male shamans, locutions like sana mudang or baksu mudang are recent coinages due to the prevalence of female shamans in recent centuries. Baksu may be a Korean adaptation of terms loaned from Siberian languages, such as baksi, balsi or bahsih; the theory of a indigenous or Siberian origin of Korean shamanic terminology is more reasonable than theories which explain such terminology as originating in Chinese, given that Chinese culture influenced Korea only at a recent stage of Korean history. When Koreans adopted Chinese characters they filtered their oral religious culture through the sieve of Chinese culture. Korean shamans may be classified into two categories: sessǔmu or tangol, people who are shamans and have the right to perform rites by family lineage.
Hereditary shamans were concentrated in the southern part of the Korean peninsula, while initiated shamans were found throughout the entire peninsula but were peculiar to the northern half, the contiguous areas of China inhabited by Koreans, the central regions along the Han River. The work of the mu is based on the holistic model, which takes into consideration, not only the whole person, but the individual's interaction with his environment, thus both the inner and outer world; the soul is considered the source of life breath, any physical illness is considered to be inextricably linked with sickness of the soul. Illness of the mind has its cause in soul intrusion or possession by malevolent spirits; the gut rites practised by Korean shamans, have gone through a number of changes since the Silla and Goryeo periods. During the Joseon dynasty, which established Korean Confucianism as the state religion, shamanic rites persisted. In the past, such rites included agricultural rites, such as prayers for abundant harvest.
With a shift away from agriculture in modern Korea, agricultural rites have been lost and modern-day shamans are more focused on the spiritual issues of urban life. But government promotions support the revival of ancient rites. People who become shamans are believed to be "chosen" by gods or spirits through a spiritual experience known as shinbyeong, a form of ecstasy, which entails the possession from a god and a "self-loss"; this state is said to manifest in symptoms of physical pain and psychosis. Believers assert that the physical and mental symptoms are not subject to medical treatment, but are healed only when the possessed accepts a full communion with the spirit; the illness is characterised by a loss of appetite, insomnia and auditory hallucinations. The possessed undergoes the naerim-gut, a ritual which s
Malaysian folk religion
Malaysian folk religion refers to the animistic and polytheistic beliefs and practices that are still held by many in the Islamic-majority country of Malaysia. Malaysian folk faith is practiced either or covertly depending on the type of rituals performed; some forms of belief are not recognised by the government as a religion for statistical purposes although such practices are not outlawed. There is a deep interaction between the Chinese folk religion of the large Malaysian Chinese population, the indigenous Malaysian folk religion. There are different types of Malaysian folk religion practised throughout the country. Shamanic performances are held by people known as dukuns, otherwise known as dukun or pawang. Most Orang Asli believe in spirits residing in certain objects. However, some have converted to mainstream religions due to state-sponsored Muslim dawah or evangelism by Christian missionaries. In Indonesia, indigenous religions are practised by various Bornean tribal groups. Chinese Indonesians practice folk religion, animistic in nature.
The word bomoh has been used throughout the country to describe any person with knowledge or power to perform certain spiritual rituals including traditional healing, as a substitute for the word "shaman". Speaking, Indonesians have deep superstitious beliefs more so in the rural areas. Before the arrival and spread of Islam in the 15th century, the spread of Christianity from the 19th century, the inhabitants in the land were either Hindu or practiced indigenous faiths. In the peninsula, widespread Islamization is said to have begun in 1409 after Parameswara became Sultan of Malacca and converted to Islam after marrying a princess from the Samudera Pasai Sultanate. Since other Sultanates in the Malay peninsula have adopted Islam. Since and continuing after the independence of Malaysia, Islam played a central role in Malaysian society. In East Malaysia, folk religion was widespread prior to the arrival of Christian missionaries from Europe; the practice of headhunting was quite common in these societies.
In Sabah are still the followers of the indigenous religion Momolianism: the Kadazan-Dusuns worshipped Kinoingan, a rice deity, celebrate Kaamatan, the harvest festival, every year. During Kaamatan, there are certain rituals which has to be carried out by the high priestesses known as bobohizans. Today, most Kadazan-Dusuns have adopted Christianity. However, the number of bobohizans has tremendously dropped and this role is on the brink of extinction. In Sarawak, it has been said that the animism practised by the Ibans and other related groups is the most developed and intellectualised in the world. Folk religious practice in East Malaysia is related to the religion of Kaharingan in Kalimantan, recognised as an official religion by the Indonesian government. However, the rituals involved are not similar with variations depending on the ethnic subgroups which practices it; the shamans bomohs or witch doctors still practice their craft in Malaysia. The bomoh practice by Malays is not forbidden, they are known as traditional healers and sometimes serve as an alternative to conventional modern medicine.
However, the practice has sometimes been viewed negatively by Malaysian society as in some instances bomohs have the power to cast spells and have used them on other people with ill effects. The number practitioners of bomohs has dropped; the bobohizans of Sabah are shamans and are traditional healers. They act as a medium to communicate with spirits and play an important role in the rituals involved during Kaamatan, a harvest festival celebration of the Kadazan-Dusun. There has been suggestions for the need and importance to preserve the practice of bomohs and other shamans as traditional healers and to complement or substitute conventional modern medicine. Tua Pek Kong is one of the pantheon of Malaysian Chinese deities, he is believed to have arrived in Penang 40 years before Francis Light in 1746. Tua Pek Kong is said to have been a Hakka named Zhang Li, his Sumatra-bound boat was struck by wind and accidentally landed on Penang off Malaysia, which at that time had only 50 inhabitants. After his death, the local people built the Tua Pek Kong temple there.
Today Tua Pek Kong is worshipped by Malaysian Chinese throughout the country. Today most of the Chinese population in Malaysia are Mahayana Buddhist, while the rest are Confucianist, Christians, a small number of Muslims and Hindus. Most Chinese Malaysians still adhere to Chinese folk religion or veneration of the dead in tandem with mainstream religious practices; some have stopped practising this religion after adopting a mainstream religion which prohibits animism or idolatry. As is the case in China, the practice of this religion is not documented by the government for statistics purpose, thus the number of followers in Malaysia can only be estimated. Kusu Island Satsana Phi Religion in Malaysia MomolianismRegional: Burmese folk religion Chinese folk religion Vietnamese folk religion
Polytheism is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals. In most religions which accept polytheism, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles, can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator deity or transcendental absolute principle, which manifests immanently in nature. Most of the polytheistic deities of ancient religions, with the notable exceptions of the Ancient Egyptian and Hindu deities, were conceived as having physical bodies. Polytheism is a type of theism. Within theism, it contrasts with monotheism, the belief in a singular God, in most cases transcendent. Polytheists do not always worship all the gods but they can be henotheists, specializing in the worship of one particular deity. Other polytheists can be kathenotheists. Polytheism was the typical form of religion during the Bronze Age and Iron Age up to the Axial Age and the development of Abrahamic religions, the latter of which enforced strict monotheism.
It is well documented in historical religions of Classical antiquity ancient Greek religion and ancient Roman religion, after the decline of Greco-Roman polytheism in tribal religions such as Germanic and Baltic paganism. Important polytheistic religions practiced today include Chinese traditional religion, Japanese Shinto and various neopagan faiths; the term comes from the Greek πολύ poly and θεός theos and was first invented by the Jewish writer Philo of Alexandria to argue with the Greeks. When Christianity spread throughout Europe and the Mediterranean, non-Christians were just called Gentiles or pagans or by the pejorative term idolaters; the modern usage of the term is first revived in French through Jean Bodin in 1580, followed by Samuel Purchas's usage in English in 1614. A central, main division in polytheism is between soft polytheism and hard polytheism."Hard" polytheism is the belief that gods are distinct, real divine beings, rather than psychological archetypes or personifications of natural forces.
Hard polytheists reject the idea that "all gods are one god." "Hard" polytheists do not consider the gods of all cultures as being real, a theological position formally known as integrational polytheism or omnism. This is contrasted with "soft" polytheism, which holds that gods may be aspects of only one god, that the pantheons of other cultures are representative of one single pantheon, psychological archetypes or personifications of natural forces; the deities of polytheism are portrayed as complex personages of greater or lesser status, with individual skills, needs and histories. Polytheism cannot be cleanly separated from the animist beliefs prevalent in most folk religions; the gods of polytheism are in many cases the highest order of a continuum of supernatural beings or spirits, which may include ancestors, demons and others. In some cases these spirits are divided into celestial or chthonic classes, belief in the existence of all these beings does not imply that all are worshipped. Types of deities found in polytheism may include Creator deity Culture hero Death deity Life-death-rebirth deity Love goddess Mother goddess Political deity Sky deity Solar deity Trickster deity Water deity Gods of music, science, farming or other endeavors.
In the Classical era, Sallustius categorised mythology into five types: Theological Physical Psychological Material MixedThe theological are those myths which use no bodily form but contemplate the essence of the gods: e.g. Cronus swallowing his children. Since divinity is intellectual, all intellect returns into itself, this myth expresses in allegory the essence of divinity. Myths may be regarded physically; the psychological way is to regard the activities of the soul itself and or the soul's acts of thought. The material is to regard material objects to be gods, for example: to call the earth Gaia, ocean Okeanos, or heat Typhon; some well-known historical polytheistic pantheons include the Sumerian gods and the Egyptian gods, the classical-attested pantheon which includes the ancient Greek religion and Roman religion. Post-classical polytheistic religions include Norse Æsir and Vanir, the Yoruba Orisha, the Aztec gods, many others. Today, most historical polytheistic religions are referred to as "mythology", though the stories cultures tell about their gods should be distinguished from their worship or religious practice.
For instance deities portrayed in conflict in mythology would still be worshipped sometimes in the same temple side by side, illustrating the distinction in the devotees mind between the myth and the reality. Scholars such as Jaan Puhvel, J. P. Mallory, Douglas Q. Adams have reconstructed aspects of the ancient Proto-Indo-European religion, from which the religions of the various Indo-European peoples derive, that this religion was an naturalist numenistic religion. An example of a religious notion from this shared past is the concept of *dyēus, attested in several distinct religious systems. In many civilizations, pantheons tended to grow over time. Deities first
Religion in Myanmar
Myanmar is a multi-religious country. There is no official state religion, but the government shows preference for Theravada Buddhism, the majority religion of the nation. According to both the 2014 census of the Burmese government Buddhism is the dominant religion, of 88% of the population, practiced by the Bamar, Shan, Karen people and Chinese ethnic groups. Bamar people practice the Burmese folk religion under the name of Buddhism; the new constitution provides for the freedom of religion. Ethnic minorities practice Christianity and Hinduism. Nat worship is common in Myanmar. Nats are named spirits and shrines can be seen around the country, either standing alone, or as part of Buddhist temples. Nat worship has a relationship with Myanmar Buddhism and there is a recognised pantheon of 37 nats. Note: the figures of Burma's Muslim population is divided into two. One that ignores the people who are believed to be not citizens of Burma and the other that includes them. Without these people in the demographics the Muslim population will only be as low as 2.3℅ of the whole population of Burma.
Many minority religions claim that they have a greater following than the official statistics but they tend to over-represent the number of adherents. Buddhism in Myanmar is predominantly of the Theravada tradition, practised by 88% of the country's population, it is the most religious Buddhist country in terms of the proportion of monks in the population and proportion of income spent on religion. Adherents are most found among the dominant ethnic Bamar, Rakhine, Mon and Chinese who are well integrated into Burmese society. Monks, collectively known as the Sangha, are venerated members of Burmese society. Among many ethnic groups in Myanmar, including the Bamar and Shan, Theravada Buddhism is practised in conjunction with nat worship, which involves the placation of spirits who can intercede in worldly affairs. Buddhists, although professed by the majority of people in Myanmar, have their complaints regarding religious freedom. A political party, the Democratic Karen Buddhist Army, split from the main Karen nationalist movement, the Karen National Union, after the Buddhists were denied to rebuild and repair the stupas at Manerplaw.
The top leadership of the KNU were dominated by Christians, although 65% of the Karen are Buddhist. Many monks took part in the 2007 Saffron Revolution and were arrested by government security forces; some of the leading monks are still detained in various prisons across the country. Christianity is practised by 6.2% of the population among the Kachin and Karen people, Eurasians because of missionary work in their respective areas. About four-fifths of the country’s Christians are Protestants, in particular Baptists of the Myanmar Baptist Convention. Christians were the fastest growing religious group in Burma for the last 3 decades, still though that growth gap have narrowed close to the general population they still are the fastest growing religious group. Hinduism is practised by 0.5% of the population. Most Hindus in Myanmar are Burmese Indians. Hinduism, along with Buddhism, arrived in Burma during ancient times. Both names of the country are rooted in Hinduism. Brahma is part of Hindu trinity, a deity with four heads.
The name Myanmar is regional language transliteration of Brahma, where m are interchangeable. Arakan Yoma is a significant natural mountainous barrier between Burma and India, the migration of Hinduism and Buddhism into Burma occurred through Manipur and by South Asian seaborne traders. Hinduism influenced the royal court of Burmese kings in pre-colonial times, as seen in the architecture of cities such as Bagan; the Burmese language adopted many words from Sanskrit and Pali, many of which relate to religion. While ancient and medieval arrival of ideas and culture fusion transformed Burma over time, it is in 19th and 20th century that over a million Hindu workers were brought in by British colonial government to serve in plantations and mines; the British felt that surrounding the European residential centre with Indian immigrants provided a buffer and a degree of security from tribal theft and raids. According to 1931 census, 55% of Rangoon's population were Indian migrants Hindus. After independence from Britain, Burma Socialist Programme Party under Ne Win adopted xenophobic policies and expelled 300,000 Indian ethnic people, along with 100,000 Chinese, from Burma between 1963 and 1967.
The Indian policy of encouraging democratic protests in Burma increased persecution of Hindus, as well as led to Burmese retaliatory support of left-leaning rebel groups in northeastern states of India. Since the 1990s, the opening of Burma and its greater economic engagement has led to general improvement in the acceptance of Hindus and other minority religions in Myanmar. Aspects of Hinduism continue in Burma today in the majority Buddhist culture. For example, Thagyamin is worshipped. Burmese literature has been enriched by Hinduism, including the Burmese adaptation of the Ramayana, called Yama Zatdaw. Many Hindu gods are worshipped by many Burmese people, such as Saraswati, the goddess of knowledge, worshipped before examin
Shwe Hpyin Naungdaw
Shwe Hpyin Naungdaw called Shwe Hpyin Gyi or Min Gyi, is one of the 37 nats in the official pantheon of Burmese nats. He is the son of Popa Medaw, another nat. Worshippers of this nat avoid consumption of pork, as Shwe Hpyin Gyi's father, Byatta, is believed to have been an Indian Muslim
Anawrahta Minsaw was the founder of the Pagan Empire. Considered the father of the Burmese nation, Anawrahta turned a small principality in the dry zone of Upper Burma into the first Burmese Empire that formed the basis of modern-day Burma. Verifiable Burmese history begins with his accession to the Pagan throne in 1044. Anawrahta unified the entire Irrawaddy valley for the first time in history, placed peripheral regions such as the Shan States and Arakan under Pagan's suzerainty, he stopped the advance of Khmer Empire into Tenasserim coastline and into Upper Menam valley, making Pagan one of two main kingdoms in mainland Southeast Asia. A strict disciplinarian, Anawrahta implemented a series of key social and economic reforms that would have a lasting impact in Burmese history, his social and religious reforms developed into the modern-day Burmese culture. By building a series of weirs, he turned parched, arid regions around Pagan into the main rice granaries of Upper Burma, giving Upper Burma an enduring economic base from which to dominate the Irrawaddy valley and its periphery in the following centuries.
He bequeathed a strong administrative system that all Pagan kings followed until the dynasty's fall in 1287. The success and longevity of Pagan's dominance over the Irrawaddy valley laid the foundation for the ascent of Burmese language and culture, the spread of Burman ethnicity in Upper Burma. Anawrahta's legacy went far beyond the borders of modern Burma, his embrace of Theravada Buddhism and his success in stopping the advance of Khmer Empire, a Hindu state, provided the Buddhist school, in retreat elsewhere in South and Southeast Asia, a much needed reprieve and a safe shelter. He helped restart Theravada Buddhism in the Buddhist school's original home; the success of Pagan dynasty made Theravada Buddhism's growth in Lan Na, Lan Xang, Khmer Empire in the 13th and 14th centuries possible. Anawrahta is one of the most famous kings in Burmese history, his life stories retold in popular literature and theater. Prior to Anawrahta, of all the early Pagan kings, only Nyaung-u Sawrahan's reign can be verified independently by stone inscriptions.
Anawrahta is the first historical king in that the events during his reign can be verified by stone inscriptions. However, Anawrahta's youth, like much of early Pagan history, is still shrouded in legend, should be treated as such. Anawrahta was born Min Saw to King Kunhsaw Kyaunghpyu and Queen Myauk Pyinthe on 11 May 1044; the Burmese chronicles do not agree on the dates regarding his reign. The table below lists the dates given by the four main chronicles. Among the chronicles, scholarship accepts Zata's dates, which are considered to be the most accurate for the Pagan period. Scholarship's dates for Anawrahta's birth and reign dates are closest to Zata's dates. In 1021, when Min Saw was about six years old, his father was deposed by his step-brothers Kyiso and Sokkate, his father had been a usurper of the Pagan throne, who overthrew King Nyaung-u Sawrahan two decades earlier. Kunhsaw married three of Nyaung-u's chief queens, two of whom were pregnant at the time, subsequently gave birth to Kyiso and Sokkate.
Kunhsaw had raised Kyiso as his own sons. After the putsch, Kyiso became Sokkate became heir-apparent, they forced their step-father to a local monastery, where Kunhsaw would live as a monk for the remainder of his life. Min Saw grew up in the shadow of his two step-brothers, who viewed Min Saw as their youngest brother and allowed him to retain his princely status at the court. Min Saw and his mother attended Kunhsaw, lived nearby the monastery. In 1038, Kyiso died, was succeeded by Sokkate. Min Saw was loyal to the new king, he took wives, had at least two sons by the early 1040s. In 1044 however, Min Saw raised a rebellion at nearby Mount Popa, challenged Sokkate to single combat. According to the chronicles, the reason for his uprising was that Sokkate had just raised Min Saw's mother as queen. Sokkate is said to have addressed Min Saw as brother-son. Sokkate accepted the challenge to single combat on horseback. On 11 August 1044, Min Saw slew Sokkate near Pagan; the king and his horse both fell into the river nearby.
Min Saw first offered the throne to his father. The former king, who had long been a monk, refused. On 16 December 1044, Min Saw ascended the throne with the title of Anawrahta, a Burmanized form of Sanskrit name Aniruddha, his full royal style was Maha Yaza Thiri Aniruddha Dewa. Burmese history now begins to be less conjectural. In the beginning, Anawrahta's principality was a small area—barely 200 miles north to south and about 80 miles from east to west, comprising the present districts of Mandalay, Myingyan, Yamethin, Magwe and Katha east of the Irrawaddy, the riverine portions of Minbu and Pakkoku. To the north lay Nanzhao Kingdom, to the east still uninhibited Shan Hills, to the south and the west the Pyus, farther south still, the Mons. Anawrahta's first acts as king were to organize his kingdom, he graded every village according to the levy it could raise. He made great efforts to turn the arid parched lands of central Burma into a rice granary, he constructed the irrigation system, still used in Upper Burma today.
He repaired the Meiktila Lake, built four weirs and canals (K
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the supreme being, creator deity, principal object of faith. The conceptions of God, as described by theologians include the attributes of omniscience, omnipresence, as having an eternal and necessary existence. Depending on one's kind of theism, these attributes are used either in way of analogy, or in a literal sense as distinct properties. God is most held to be incorporeal. Incorporeality and corporeality of God are related to conceptions of transcendence and immanence of God, with positions of synthesis such as the "immanent transcendence". Psychoanalyst Carl Jung equated religious ideas of God with transcendental aspects of consciousness in his interpretation; some religions describe God without reference to gender, while others or their translations use sex-specific terminology. Judaism attributes only a grammatical gender to God, using terms such as "Him" or "Father" for convenience. God has been conceived as either impersonal. In theism, God is the creator and sustainer of the universe, while in deism, God is the creator, but not the sustainer, of the universe.
In pantheism, God is the universe itself. In atheism, there is an absence of belief in God. In agnosticism, the existence of God is deemed unknowable. God has been conceived as the source of all moral obligation, the "greatest conceivable existent". Many notable philosophers have developed arguments against the existence of God. Monotheists refer to their gods using names prescribed by their respective religions, with some of these names referring to certain cultural ideas about their god's identity and attributes. In the ancient Egyptian era of Atenism the earliest recorded monotheistic religion, this deity was called Aten, premised on being the one "true" Supreme Being and creator of the universe. In the Hebrew Bible and Judaism, Adonai, YHWH and other names are used as the names of God. Yahweh and Jehovah, possible vocalizations of YHWH, are used in Christianity. In the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, coexisting in three "persons", is called the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit. In Islam, the name Allah is used, while Muslims have a multitude of titular names for God.
In Hinduism, Brahman is considered a monistic concept of God. In Chinese religion, Shangdi is conceived as the progenitor of the universe, intrinsic to it and bringing order to it. Other religions have names for the concept, for instance, Baha in the Bahá'í Faith, Waheguru in Sikhism, Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa in Balinese Hinduism, Ahura Mazda in Zoroastrianism; the many different conceptions of God, competing claims as to God's characteristics and actions, have led to the development of ideas of omnitheism, pandeism, or a perennial philosophy, which postulates that there is one underlying theological truth, of which all religions express a partial understanding, as to which "the devout in the various great world religions are in fact worshipping that one God, but through different, overlapping concepts". The earliest written form of the Germanic word God comes from the 6th-century Christian Codex Argenteus; the English word itself is derived from the Proto-Germanic * ǥuđan. The reconstructed Proto-Indo-European form * ǵhu-tó-m was based on the root * ǵhau-, which meant either "to call" or "to invoke".
The Germanic words for God were neuter—applying to both genders—but during the process of the Christianization of the Germanic peoples from their indigenous Germanic paganism, the words became a masculine syntactic form. In the English language, capitalization is used for names by which a god is known, including'God'; the capitalized form of god is not used for multiple gods or when used to refer to the generic idea of a deity. The English word God and its counterparts in other languages are used for any and all conceptions and, in spite of significant differences between religions, the term remains an English translation common to all; the same holds for Hebrew El, but in Judaism, God is given a proper name, the tetragrammaton YHWH, in origin the name of an Edomite or Midianite deity, Yahweh. In many translations of the Bible, when the word LORD is in all capitals, it signifies that the word represents the tetragrammaton. Allāh is the Arabic term with no plural used by Muslims and Arabic speaking Christians and Jews meaning "The God", while "ʾilāh" is the term used for a deity or a god in general.
God may be given a proper name in monotheistic currents of Hinduism which emphasize the personal nature of God, with early references to his name as Krishna-Vasudeva in Bhagavata or Vishnu and Hari. Ahura Mazda is the name for God used in Zoroastrianism. "Mazda", or rather the Avestan stem-form Mazdā-, nominative Mazdå, reflects Proto-Iranian *Mazdāh. It is taken to be the proper name of the spirit, like its Sanskrit cognate medhā, means "intelligence" or "wisdom". Both the Avestan and Sanskrit words reflect Proto-Indo-Iranian *mazdhā-, from Proto-Indo-European mn̩sdʰeh1 meaning "placing one's mind", hence "wise". Waheguru is a term most used in Sikhism to refer to God, it means "Wonderful Teacher" in the Punjabi language. Vāhi means "wonderful" and guru is a term denoting "teacher". Waheguru is described by some as an experience of ecstasy, beyond all descriptions; the most common usage of the word "Waheguru" is in the greeting Sikhs use with each other: Baha, the "greates