SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Burmese kyat

The kyat is the currency of Myanmar. It is abbreviated as "K" or "Ks", placed before or after the numerical value, depending on author preference; the term kyat equal to 16.3 grams of silver. From 2001-2012, the official exchange rate varied between 6.70 kyats per US dollar. However, the street rate, which more took into account the standing of the national economy, has varied from 750 kyats to 1335 kyats per USD; the black market exchange rates decrease during the peak of the tourist season in Burma. On 2 April 2012, the Central Bank of Myanmar announced that the value of the kyat against the US dollar would float, setting an initial rate of K 818 per US dollar. On 20 March 2013, the Finance Ministry announced that it would abolish Foreign Exchange Certificates, which were mandatory for tourists to buy at least US$200 worth of until 2003, a measure used to stop visitors from exchanging on the black market; the kyat was a denomination of both silver and gold coinages in Burma until 1889. It was divided into each of 4 pya, with the mu and mat worth 2 and 4 pe, respectively.

Nominally, 16 silver kyats equal 1 gold kyat. The silver kyat was equivalent to the Indian rupee, which replaced the kyat after Burma was conquered by the British; when the Japanese occupied Burma in 1942, they introduced a currency based on the rupee. This was replaced by banknotes in all kyat denominations; this kyat was subdivided into 100 cents. The currency became worthless at the end of the war when the Burmese rupee was reintroduced in 1945; the present kyat was introduced on 1 July 1952. It replaced the rupee at par. Decimalisation took place, with the kyat subdivided into 100 pya. In 1852, the second last king of Burma, established the Royal Mint in Mandalay; the dies were made in Paris. Silver coins were minted in denominations of 1 pe, 1 mu, 1 mat, 5 mu and 1 kyat, with gold 1 pe and 1 mu; the obverses bore the Royal Peacock Seal. The reverse contained the mint date. In the 1860s and 1870s, lead coins were issued for ​1⁄8 and ​1⁄4 pya, with copper, brass and iron ​1⁄4 pe and copper 2 pya.

Further gold coins were issued in 1866 for 1 pe, ​2 1⁄2 mu and 1 kyat, with 5 mu issued in 1878. No coins were issued for this currency. In 1956, coins were introduced in 1 kyat; the new coins bore the same obverse figure of the Chinthe from the Second kyat coins and the same reverse design, with the value of the coin in Myanmar writing and numerals surrounded by Myanmar flower designs. In 1966, all coins were redesigned to feature Aung San on the obverse and were all changed in composition to aluminium. Furthermore, the coins were reduced in size. However, they retained the same shapes and overall appearance of the previous series of coins; these were circulated until being discontinued in 1983. In 1983, a new series of coins was issued in bronze or brass 5, 10, 25, 50 pyas and cupro-nickel 1 kyat. Although the 25 pyas were round, it was redesigned as hexagonal due to size and appearance confusions with the 10 and 50 pyas; these would be the last official series of coins to be issued under the name of "Burma."

1 pya coins were last minted in 1966, with the 5 and 25 pyas last minted in 1987 and the 10 and 50 pyas in 1991. In 1999, a new series of coins was issued in denominations of bronze 1 kyat, brass 5 and 10 kyats, cupro-nickel 50 and 100 kyats under the name "Central Bank of Myanmar." These are the first coins of Burma to depict Latin letters. These coins were intended for vendors and services as an alternative to large amounts of worn out, low denomination banknotes. High inflation has since pushed these coins out of circulation. In late 2008, the Myanmar government announced that new 100 kyat coins would be issued. According to newspaper articles, the new 50 kyat coin would be made of copper, with the usual Burmese lion on the obverse and the Lotus Fountain from Naypyidaw on the reverse; the 100 Kyat coin would be of cupro-nickel and depict the Burmese lion on the obverse and the value on the reverse. No banknotes was issued for this currency; the Burma State Bank issued notes for 1, 5, 10 and 100 kyats in 1944, followed by a further issue of 100 kyat notes in 1945.

In 1952, the Union Bank of Burma formed a Currency Board which took over control of the issuing of currency and a more important change to the currency was the introduction of the decimal system in which 1 kyat was decimalised into 100 pyas. On 12 February 1958, the Union Bank of Burma introduced the first kyat notes, in denominations of 1, 5, 10 and 100 kyats; these were similar in design to the last series of rupee notes, issued earlier. On, 21 August 1958, 20 and 50 kyats notes were introduced; the 50 and 100 kyat notes were demonetised on 15 May 1964. This was the first of several demonetisations, ostensibly carried out with the aim of fighting black marketeering; the Peoples Bank of Burma took over note production in 1965 with an issue of 1, 5, 10 and 20 kyats notes. In 1972, the Union of Burma Bank took over note issuance, with notes introduced between 1972 and 1979 for 1, 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 kyats; the notes were printed by the Security Printing Works in Wazi, Upper Burma under the technical direction of the German printing firm Giesecke & Devrient.

On 3 November 1985, the 50-, 100-kyats notes were demonetized without warning, though the public was allowed to ex

Tônia Carrero

Maria Antonieta Portocarrero Thedim, known professionally as Tônia Carrero, was a Brazilian actress. Carrero was born and in Rio de Brazil, she made her theater debut at the Brazilian Theater of Comedy in São Paulo, with the play Um Deus Dormiu Lá em Casa, opposite actor Paulo Autran. She formed with her husband Adolfo Celi, Autran, the Tonia-Celi-Autran Company, which in the 1950s and 1960s revolutionized the Brazilian theater scene by performing a wide repertoire from classical pieces by Shakespeare and Carlo Goldoni to avant-garde works such as Sartre. 1952 Tico-Tico no Fubá 1961 Alias Gardelito - as wife. 1962 Carnival of Crime 1970 A Próxima Atração 1971 O Cafona 1980 Água Viva - as Stella Simpson. 1987 Sassaricando 1989 Kananga do Japão 1995 Sangue do Meu Sangue 2004 Um Só Coração 2004 Senhora do Destino Tônia Carrero on IMDb

Stanley Crouch

Stanley Lawrence Crouch is an American poet and cultural critic, syndicated columnist and biographer best known for his jazz criticism and his 2000 novel Don't the Moon Look Lonesome? Stanley Lawrence Crouch was born in the son of James and Emma Bea Crouch, he was raised by his mother. In Ken Burns' 2005 television documentary Unforgivable Blackness, Crouch says that his father was a "criminal" and that he once met the boxer Jack Johnson; as a child he was a voracious reader, having read the complete works of Hemingway, Mark Twain, F. Scott Fitzgerald, many of the other classics of American literature, by the time he finished high school, his mother told him of the experiences of her youth centered on east Texas and the black culture of the southern midwest, including the burgeoning jazz culture centered in Kansas City. He became an enthusiast for jazz music in both the historical senses, he graduated from Thomas Jefferson High School in Los Angeles in 1963. After high school, he attended junior colleges and became active in the civil rights movement, working for the Student Nonviolent Co-ordinating Committee.

He was involved in artistic and educational projects centered on the African-Americana community of Los Angeles, soon gaining recognition for his poetry. In 1968 he became poet-in-residence at Pitzer College taught theatre and literature at Pomona College until 1975; the Watts riots were a pivotal event in his early development as a thinker on racial issues. A quote from the rioting, "Ain't no ambulances for no nigguhs tonight", was used as a title for a polemical speech that advocated black nationalist ideas, released as a recording in 1969 for a 1972 collection of his poems. Crouch was an aspiring jazz drummer. Together with David Murray, he formed the group Black Music Infinity. In 1975, he sought to further his endeavors with a move from California to New York City, where he shared a loft with Murray above an East Village club called the Tin Palace, he was a drummer with other musicians of the underground New York loft jazz scene. While working as a drummer, Crouch conducted the booking for an avant-garde jazz series at the club, as well as organizing occasional concert events at the Ladies' Fort.

By his own admission he was not a good drummer, saying "The problem was that I couldn't play. Since I was doing this avant-garde stuff, I didn't have to be all that good, but I was a real knucklehead."Crouch befriended Ralph Ellison and Albert Murray, who influenced his thinking in a direction less centered on race. He stated with regard to Murray's influence, "I saw how important it is to free yourself from ideology; when you look at things in terms of race or class, you miss what is going on." He made a final, public break with black nationalist ideology in 1979, in an exchange with Amiri Baraka in the Village Voice. He was emerging as a public critic of recent cultural and artistic trends that he saw as empty, phony, or corrupt, his targets included the fusion and avant-garde movements in jazz and works of letters that he saw as hiding their lack of merit behind racial posturing. As a writer for the Voice from 1980 to 1988, he was known for his blunt criticisms of his targets and tendency to excoriate their participants.

It was during this period that he became a friend and intellectual mentor to Wynton Marsalis, an advocate of the neotraditionalist movement that he saw as reviving the core values of jazz. In 1987 he became an artistic consultant for the Jazz at Lincoln Center program, joined by Marsalis, who became artistic director, in 1991. After his stint at the Voice, Crouch published Notes of a Hanging Judge: Essays and Reviews, 1979-1989, which gained his ideas prominence among a wide audience and was selected by The Encyclopædia Britannica Yearbook as the best book of essays published in 1990; that was followed by receipt of a Whiting Award in 1991, a MacArthur Foundation "genius" grant and the Jean Stein Award from the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 1993. Crouch has continued to be an active author producing works of fiction and nonfiction, articles for periodicals, newspaper columns, he is a columnist for a syndicated columnist. He is featured as a source in documentaries and a guest in televised discussions.

In 2004 Crouch was invited to a panel of judges for the PEN/Newman's Own Award, a $25,000 award designed to protect speech as it applies to the written word. In 2005, he was selected as one of the inaugural fellows by the Fletcher Foundation, which awards annual fellowships to people working on issues of race and civil rights; the fellowship program is directed by Jr. of Harvard University. He is the current President of the Louis Armstrong Educational Foundation and since 2009 a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Crouch lives in Brooklyn; as a political thinker Crouch was drawn to disillusioned with, the Black Power movement of the late 1960s. His critiques of his former co-thinkers, whom he refers to as a "lost generation", are collected in Notes of a Hanging Judge: Essays and Reviews, 1979-1989 and The All-American Skin Game, or, The Decoy of Race: The Long and the Short of It, 1990-1994, he has identified the embrace of racial essentialism among African-American leaders and intellectuals as a diversion from issues more central to the betterment of African-Americans and society as a whole.

In the 1990s, he upset many political thinkers when he declared himself a "radical pragmatist". He explained, "I affirm whatever I think has the best chance of working, of being both inspirational and unsentimental, of reasoning